Tibetan + Sanskrit words

Tibetan + Sanskrit mani mantra v2

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This page contains a partial list of some Tibetan, Sanskrit and Pali words found on this website (and also some Chinese, Japanese, Dzongkha and Hindi words). The list is ordered according to the English pronunciation of the Tibetan, Sanskrit and Pali words (English rendering of the pronunciation of Tibetan words follows the approach of the Tibetan & Himalayan Library). Tibetan, Sanskrit, and Chinese translations and Wylie, IAST and Pinyin transliterations (with diacritics) are provided as appropriate. Brief definitions are provided, together with links to external dictionary entries with more information, further definitions, and etymology.

Links in blue are to other topics on this page; links in olive are to external Tibetan, Sanskrit, Pali and Chinese dictionaries; links in dark blue are to other external references such as wikipedia; links in dark red are to other pages on this website. Where there are multiple entries/languages for a word, external links and definitions are only given for the main entry, which is indicated by "≫".


A

≫ Abhidharmakosha (Sanskrit: अभिधर्मकोश, abhidharmakosha; IAST: abhidharmakośa; Tibetan: མངོན་པ་མཛོད་, ngönpa dzö; Wylie: mngon pa mdzod. Also known as अभिधर्मकोशकारिका, abhidharmakoshakarika; IAST: abhidharmakośakārikā; Tibetan: ཆོས་མངོན་པའི་མཛོད་, chö ngönpé dzö; Wylie: chos mngon pa'i mdzod; Chinese: 倶舍論 / 倶舍论, Pinyin: Jùshè lùn) = The Treasury of Abhidharma, a complete and systematic account of the Abhidharma composed by the Indian pandita Vasubandhu in the 4th or 5th century CE. It is considered the peak of scholarship in the Fundamental Vehicle (Shravakayana / Theravada).
• see also: ShravakayanaTheravada
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ abhisheka (Sanskrit: अभिषेक, IAST: abhiṣeka, literally: "anointing, inaugurating or consecrating (by sprinkling water); bathing of the divinity to whom worship is offered"; Tibetan: དབང་, wang; Wylie: dbang; Chinese: 灌頂 / 灌顶, Pinyin: guàndǐng) = initiation or empowerment.
• other languages: wang (Tibetan)
• external links: (empowerment in Vajrayana): wikipedia; (empowerment): wikipedia  / rigpawiki; (four empowerments): rigpawiki

≫ abhyasa (Sanskrit: अभ्यास, IAST: abhyāsa; Tibetan: གོམས་, gom; Wylie: goms; Chinese: 修習 / 修习, Pinyin: xiūxí) = familiarize, become accustomed to, condition to; to be habituated, trained, made familiar with; adept, practiced, mastered, skilled, accustomed.
• other languages: gom (Tibetan)
• external links: (abhyasa): wikipedia; (meditation): rigpawiki

Amida (Japanese: 阿弥陀仏, Amida Butsu) = Japanese name for Amitabha Buddha - see Amitabha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ Amitabha (Sanskrit: अमिताभ, IAST: amitābha; Tibetan: འོད་དཔག་མེད་, öpakmé or öpamé; Wylie: 'od dpag med, literally: "boundless/infinite light"; Japanese: 阿弥陀仏, Amida Butsu; Chinese: 阿彌陀佛 / 阿弥陀佛, Pinyin: Ēmítuó fó) = the Buddha of Boundless Light (also known as Amida or Amitayus), belonging to the padma or lotus family (one of the five buddha families). Amitabha is the principal buddha in Pure Land Buddhism, a branch of East Asian Buddhism. In Vajrayana Buddhism, Amitabha is known for his longevity attribute, magnetising red fire element, the aggregate of discernment, pure perception and the deep awareness of emptiness of phenomena.
• other languages: Amida (Japanese)
• see also: Amitayus (alternate name for Amitabha), pañchakula (five buddha families), Sukhavati (pure land of Amitabha)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Himalayan Art

Amitayus (Sanskrit: अमितायुस्, IAST: amitāyus) = alternate name for Amitabha Buddha. (Amitabha means "Infinite Light", and Amitayus means "Infinite Life" so Amitabha is also called "The Buddha of Immeasurable Light and Life").
• see also: Amitabha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ anatta (Pāli: अनत्ता, IAST: anattā; Sanskrit: अनात्मन्, IAST: anātman; Tibetan: བདག་མེད་, dakmé; Wylie: bdag med; Japanese: 空, , literally "space", also 無我, muga, literally "selfless"; Chinese: 無我 / 无我, Pinyin: wúwǒ, literally: "without self") = no-self, non-self, without self, egoless, ownerless. Third of the 3 marks of existence.
• other languages: dakmé (Tibetan)
• see also: trilakshana (3 marks of existence): (1) anicca (impermanence), (2) dukkha (unsatisfactoriness) (3) anatta (nonself).
• Buddhist terms: 3 marks of existence: (1) impermanence, (2) unsatisfactoriness, (3) nonself
• glossary: 3 marks of existence

≫ Angushtha (Sanskrit: अण्गुष्ठ, IAST: Aṇguṣṭha; Tibetan: མཐེ་བོ་ཅན་, té bo chen; Wylie: mthe bo can) = the Buddha realm "Thumb-sized", which is presided over by the Buddha Sangyé Karmala Gawa (Jyotīrāma). The realm is described in "The Flower Bank World", Book 5 of the Avatamsaka Sutra (the Flower Ornament Sutra). Jamgön Kongtrül Lodrö Thayé also cites the Avatamsaka Sutra as a source for his description of the Buddha realms in Section II.A.2 in "Treasury of Knowledge, Book 1: Myriad Worlds".
• see also: Sangyé Karmala Gawa (The Buddha 'Delight in Stars')
• external links: (Avatamsaka Sutra): wikipedia; (Buddhist cosmology): wikipedia
• external references: Jamgön Kongtrül Lodrö Thayé, translated by Kalu Rinpoche Translation Group (2013) "Treasury of Knowledge, Book 1: Myriad Worlds", Snow Lion: Boston and London.

≫ anicca (Pāli: अनिच्चा, IAST: anicca; Sanskrit: अनित्य, IAST: anitya; Tibetan: མི་རྟག་པ་, mi takpa; Wylie: mi rtag pa; Japanese: 無常, mujō; Chinese: 無常 / 无常, Pinyin: wúcháng) = impermanent, impermanence. First of the 3 marks of existence.
• see also: trilakshana (3 marks of existence): (1) anicca (impermanence), (2) dukkha (unsatisfactoriness) (3) anatta (nonself).
• Buddhist terms: 3 marks of existence: (1) impermanence, (2) unsatisfactoriness, (3) nonself
• glossary: 3 marks of existence

anumana (Sanskrit: अनुमान, IAST: anumāna; also: अनुमानम्, IAST: anumānam) = inference, inferential cognition - see jépak (Tibetan ≫ main entry).

≫ arhat (Sanskrit: अर्हत्, IAST: arhat; Tibetan: དགྲ་བཅོམ་པ་, drachompa; Wylie: dgra bcom pa, literally "foe-destroyer"; Pāli: अरहन्त्, IAST: arahant; Burmese: ရဟန္တာ; Chinese: 阿羅漢 / 阿罗汉, Pinyin: āluóhàn, often shortened to Chinese: 羅漢 / 罗汉, Pinyin: luóhàn) = one who has gained insight into the true nature of existence and has achieved nirvana; name given to the ultimate result of the Shravakayana and Pratyekabuddhayana paths.
• see also: bodhisattva; buddha; pratyekabuddha.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

ariya (Pali: अरिय, IAST: ariya; also shortened to Pāli: अय्य, IAST: ayya) = noble being or sublime being - see arya (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ ariya atthangika magga (Pāli: अरिय अट्ठङ्गिक मग्ग, IAST: ariya + aṭṭhaṅgika + magga, Sanskrit: आर्याष्टाङ्गमार्ग, IAST: āryāṣṭāṅgamārga; Tibetan: འཕགས་པའི་ལམ་ཡན་ལག་བརྒྱད་པ་, pakpé lam yenlak gyépa; Wylie: 'phags pa'i lam yan lag brgyad pa, also: Tibetan: འཕགས་ལམ་གྱི་ཡན་ལག་བརྒྱད་, paklam gyi yenlak gyé; Wylie: 'phags lam gyi yan lag brgyad) = The Noble Eightfold Path, literally "8-fold path of the noble ones", which comprises eight practices:
(1) right view or understanding (Sanskrit: सम्यक्दृष्टि, IAST: samyak-dṛṣṭi; Pāli: sammā-diṭṭhi).
(2) right intention or resolve (Sanskrit: सम्यक्संकल्प, IAST: samyak-saṃkalpa; Pāli: sammā-saṅkappa).
(3) right speech (Sanskrit: सम्यग्वाच्s, IAST: samyag-vāc; Pāli: sammā-vācā)
(4) right action or conduct (Sanskrit: सम्यक्कर्मान्त, IAST: samyak-karmānta; Pāli: sammā-kammanta).
(5) right livelihood (Sanskrit: सम्यगाजीव, IAST: samyag-ājīva; Pāli: sammā-ājīva).
(6) right effort (Sanskrit: सम्यग्व्यायाम, IAST: samyag-vyāyāma; Pāli: sammā-vāyāma).
(7) right mindfulness (Sanskrit: सम्यक्स्मृति, IAST: samyak-smṛti; Pāli: sammā-sati).
(8) right concentration or samadhi (Sanskrit: सम्यक्समाधि, IAST: samyak-samādhi; Pāli: sammā-samādhi).
When related to the 3-fold training, right view and intention correspond to the training in wisdom (prajña); right speech, action and livelihood to the training in moral discipline (or virtue) (shila); and right effort, mindfulness and concentration to the training in contemplation or meditation (samadhi).
• see also: cattari ariyasaccani (The Four Noble Truths: the Noble Eightfold Path corresponds to the fourth noble truth)
• Buddhist terms: 4 noble truths, 8-fold noble path
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

ariya sacca (Pāli: अरिय सच्च, IAST: ariya + sacca) = [Four] Noble Truths, literally "truths of the noble ones", i.e. it is not that the truths are noble, rather that they are truths of the noble ones (aryas).
• see also: arya (noble or sublime being), cattari ariyasaccani (Four Noble Truths ≫ main entry)

≫ arya (Sanskrit: आर्य, IAST: ārya, literally "honourable, noble, high"; Pāli: अरिय, IAST: ariya; also shortened to Pāli: अय्य, IAST: ayya; Tibetan: འཕགས་པ་, pakpa; Wylie: 'phags pa; Burmese: အယ်; Chinese: 勝人 / 胜人, Pinyin: shèngrén) = noble being or sublime being, i.e. no longer an ordinary samsaric being. Refers to a being that has attained the path of seeing, whether as a shravaka, pratyekabuddha or bodhisattva.
• other languages: ariya (Pāli), ayya (Pāli)
• see also: cattari ariyasaccani (Four Noble Truths, i.e. four truths of the aryas)
• Buddhist terms: 4 noble truths
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

≫ asana (Sanskrit: आसन, IAST: āsana; Tibetan: འདུག་སྟངས་, duk tang, Wylie: 'dug stangs) = physical posture; general term for a sitting meditation pose, later extended in hatha yoga and modern yoga to include any type of pose or position.
• other languages: duktang (Tibetan)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ ashrama (Sanskrit: आश्रम, ashrama; IAST: āśrama) = the four age-based life stages discussed in Hindu philosophy: (1) brahmachārya (ब्रह्मचारिन्, student), (2) grihastha (गृहस्थ, householder), (3) vānaprastha (वानप्रस्थ, retired), (4) sannyāsa (संन्यास, renunciant).
• see also: sannyasa (renunciant)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ ashtavijñanakaya (Sanskrit: अष्ट विज्ञानकायाः, IAST: aṣṭa + vijñāna + kāyāḥ; Tibetan: རྣམ་ཤེས་ཚོགས་བརྒྱད་, namshé tsok gyé; Wylie: rnam shes tshogs brgyad, literally "eight collections or gatherings of consciousness") = the eight consciousnesses, a classification developed in the tradition of the Yogācāra school of Mahayana Buddhism.
• see also: kushiki (nine consciousnesses)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

Atiyoga (Sanskrit: अतियोग, IAST: atiyoga = ati, literally: "beyond", "surpassing"+ yoga, literally: "joining", "uniting", "union"; Tibetan:  ཤིན་ཏུ་རྣལ་འབྱོར་, shintu naljor or shintu nenjor; Wylie: shin tu rnal 'byor; literally "yoga of the innermost essence") = Dzogchen; the highest yana within the classification of nine yanas of the Nyingma school. "Ati" indicates the topmost, summit or zenith. It has the sense of scaling a mountain, reaching the peak and having a view over everything.
• other names: Dzogchen (Tibetan main entry), Mahasandhi
• external links: rigpawiki

≫ Avalokiteshvara (Sanskrit: अवलोकितेश्वर, IAST: Avalokiteśvara "lord who gazes down (at the world)", also known as Padmapāṇi "lolder of the lotus" or Lokeśvara "lord of the world"; Tibetan: སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་, Chenrezig or Chenrézik; Wylie: spyan ras gzigs; Japanese: 観音, Kannon, also 観世音, Kanzeon; Chinese: 觀音, Pinyin: Guānyīn, also 觀世音, Pinyin: Guānshìyīn "one who observes the sounds of the world" or "observer of all existence") = a bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all the buddhas, usually depicted as white in color and holding a lotus, and who is portrayed in many different forms and in different cultures as either male or female. In Tibet, he is known as Chenrezig and is said to emanate as the Dalai Lama, the Karmapa and other high lamas, whereas in Chinese Buddhism, Avalokiteshvara has evolved into the female bodhisattva Guanyin. There are practices for many different forms of Avalokiteshvara, including 2-armed, 4-armed and 1000-armed forms. In Chinese and East Asian tantric Buddhism, practices for the 18-armed form of Avalokiteshvara called Cundī (Chinese: 準提, Pinyin: Zhǔntí) are very popular. The original Sanskrit form of the name was Avalokitasvara, "who looks down upon sound" (i.e. the cries of sentient beings who need help), which was supplanted by the form containing the ending -īśvara "lord" (the name Avalokiteśvara does not occur in Sanskrit before the 7th century). As a result, some later interpretations of Avalokiteshvara, especially in Vajrayana Buddhism, portray him with the lordly, regal and price-like or king-like aspects and attributes of Ishvara (ईश्वर, IAST: Īśvara).
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki / Himalayan Art

avarana (Sanskrit: आवरण, IAST: āvaraṇa) = defilement, obscuration - see drib (Tibetan main entry).

avarana-dvaya (Sanskrit: आवरणद्वय, IAST: āvaraṇa-dvaya) = two obscurations - see dribpa nyi (Tibetan main entry).

≫ avidya (Sanskrit: अविद्या, IAST: avidyā; Pali: अविज्जा, IAST: avijjā; Tibetan: མ་རིག་པ་, ma rigpa; Wylie: ma rig pa; Chinese: 無明 / 无明, Pinyin: wúmíng) = ignorance, nescience, confusion, delusion, folly; the fundamental misunderstanding of reality that underlies all of the suffering of unenlightened people; the first of the 12 links of dependent origination; misconceptions about the nature of reality, in particular not understanding or acceptance the 3 marks of existence; third of the 6 destructive emotions.
• easily confused: moha (bewilderment/confusion) is different from avidya (ignorance)
• see also: dvadasha pratityasamutpada (12 links of dependent origination); klesha (destructive emotions); mulaklesha (6 destructive emotions): (1) raga (desire), (2) pratigha (anger), (3) avidya (ignorance), (4) mana (pride), (5) vicikitsa (doubt), (6) drishti (view); trilakshana (3 marks of existence)
• Buddhist terms: 6 destructive emotions: (1) desire or attachment, (2) anger, (3) ignorance, (4) pride or conceit, (5) doubt, (6) wrong view.

avijja (Pali: अविज्जा, IAST: avijjā) = ignorance, confusion, delusion - see avidya (Sanskrit main entry).

ayya (Pāli: अय्य, IAST: ayya) = noble being or sublime being; used as honorific to refer to ordained Buddhist monks and nuns (bhikkhus and bhikkunis) in the Theravada tradition - see arya (Sanskrit main entry).
• see also: bhikshu (Buddhist monk), bhikshuni (Buddhist nun), Theravada (the school of the elders)

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B

≫ Bhadrakalpa (Sanskrit: भद्रकल्प; IAST: bhadra + kalpa ; Tibetan: བསྐལ་བཟང་; Wylie: bskal bzang) = the Fortunate Aeon, our current era according to Buddhist cosmogony.
• external links: (Bhadrakalpa): rigpawiki / rywiki; (Bhadrakalpika Sutra, which includes the names of the 1002 Buddhas of this Fortunate Aeon): wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ bhajan (Sanskrit: भजन, IAST: bhajana) = reverence, worship, adoration; refers to devotional songs with religious or spiritual themes, in any of the languages of the Indian subcontinent. The term "bhajan" is also used to refer to a group event, with one or more lead singers, accompanied with music, and sometimes dancing.

≫ bhang (Hindi: भांग) = an edible preparation of cannabis originating from the Indian subcontinent, which has been used in food and drink since 1000 BCE in ancient India. Bhang is traditionally distributed during the spring festival of Holi, and is mainly used in bhang shops, which sell the cannabis-infused Indian drinks bhang lassi and bhang thandai.
• see also: lassi (yoghurt-based drink)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ bhavana (Sanskrit: भावन, IAST: bhāvana; Tibetan: སྒོམ་, gom: Wylie: sgom) = development, training, cultivation, practice; contemplation, meditation.
• other languages: gom (Tibetan)
• see also: ta gom chöpa (view, meditation & action) [note: here "meditation" is bhavana]
• external links: (bhavana): wikipedia; (meditation): rigpawiki

bhikkhu (Pāli: भिक्खु, IAST: bhikkhu) = fully ordained male Buddhist monastic - see bhikshu (Sanskrit main entry).

bhikkhuni (Pāli: भिक्खुनी, IAST: bhikkhunī) = fully ordained female Buddhist monastic - see bhikshuni (Sanskrit main entry).

≫ bhikshu (Sanskrit: भिक्षु, IAST: bhikṣu; Pāli: भिक्खु, IAST: bhikkhu; Tibetan: དགེ་སློང་, gelong; Wylie: dge slong; Chinese: 比丘 / 比丘, Pinyin: bǐqiū) = fully ordained adult male Buddhist monastic ("monk"), one who has renounced the secular world. Originally meant "one who begs for food". Contrast with male novice monks who are not of age (shramanera) and male lay practitioners (upasaka).
• other languages: bhikkhu (Pāli)
• see also: bhikshuni (female monastic or nun); shramanera (male novice monk); shramanerika (female novice nun); upasaka (male lay practitioner); upasika (female lay practitioner)
• see also: Theravada (the school of the elders)

≫ bhikshuni (Sanskrit: भिक्षुणी, IAST: bhikṣuṇī; Pāli: भिक्खुनी, IAST: bhikkhunī; Tibetan: དགེ་སློང་མ་, gelongma; Wylie: dge slong ma; Chinese: 比丘尼 / 比丘尼, Pinyin: bǐqiūní) = fully ordained adult female Buddhist monastic ("nun"), one who has renounced the secular world. Contrast with female novice nuns who are not of age (shramanerika) and female lay practitioners (upasika).
• other languages: bhikkhuni (Pāli)
• see also: bhikshu (male monastic or monk); shramanera (male novice monk); shramanerika (female novice nun); upasaka (male lay practitioner); upasika (female lay practitioner)
• see also: Theravada (the school of the elders)

≫ bodhi (Pāli & Sanskrit: बोधि, IAST bodhi; Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་, jangchup; Wylie: byang chub; Burmese: ေဗာဓိ) = enlightenment, perfect knowledge or wisdom (by which one becomes a buddha), awakening.
• note (on meaning): DJKR emphasises that the semantic range of word "enlightenment" does not at all do justice to the meaning of buddha/sangyé or bodhi/jangchup - see notes for buddha.
• other languages: jangchup (Tibetan)
• see also: buddha (fully enlightened person)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ Bodhicharyavatara (Sanskrit: बोधिचर्यावतार, bodhi + caryāvatāra; IAST: Bodhicaryāvatāra, also बोधिसत्त्वचर्यावतार, bodhisattva + caryāvatāra; Bodhisattvacharyavatara; IAST: Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra; Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའི་སྤྱོད་པ་ལ་འཇུག་པ་, changchub sempé chöpa la jukpa; Wylie: byang chub sems dpa'i spyod pa la 'jug pa, short form: སྤྱོད་འཇུག་, chönjuk; Wylie: spyod 'jug) = "The Way of the Bodhisattva" (alternative translations: "A Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life", "Engaging in Bodhisattva Conduct" or "Introduction to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life), a classic guide to the Mahayana path written in Sanskrit verse by the 8th Century Indian master Shantideva at Nalanda University. It is included among the so-called "thirteen great texts", which form the core of the curriculum in most shedras.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ bodhichitta (Sanskrit: बोधिचित्त, IAST: bodhicitta, from बोधि + चित्त, IAST bodhi + citta; Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་, jangchup kyi sem; Wylie: byang chub kyi sems) = the mind of enlightenment, awakened state of mind, enlightened attitude, altruistic aspiration to enlightenment, the compassionate wish to attain enlightenment for the benefit of all beings and also to bring them to that state.
• note (on meaning): DJKR emphasises that the semantic range of the English word "compassion" does not at all do justice to the meaning of nyingjé/karuna/bodhichitta - see notes for nyingjé.
• other languages: jangchup kyi sem (Tibetan)
• see also: 4 brahmaviharas (the 4 immeasurables in aspiration bodhichitta)
• Buddhist terms: compassion
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

bodhicitta (Sanskrit) = redirects to bodhichitta (Sanskrit)

≫ bodhisattva (Sanskrit: बोधिसत्त्व, IAST: bodhisattva; Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའ་, jangchup sempa; Wylie: byang chub sems dpa'; Chinese: 菩薩 / 菩萨, Pinyin: púsà) = being on the path of enlightenment, "one whose essence is perfect knowledge"; someone who has developed/aroused bodhichitta; a practitioner of the Mahayana path, in particular the cultivation of the 6 paramitas (transcendent perfections).
• other languages: jangchup sempa (Tibetan)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

Bodhisattvacharyavatara (Sanskrit) = redirects to Bodhicharyavatara (Sanskrit)

≫ Bon (Tibetan: བོན་, bon; Wylie: bon; Lhasa dialect: [pʰø̃̀]; also transliterated into English as Bön or Pön) = a Tibetan religion that arose in the eleventh century and established its scriptures mainly from termas and visions by tertöns such as Loden Nyingpo. Bon termas contain myths of Bon existing as a pre-Buddhist religion before the introduction of Buddhism in Tibet, but modern scholarship has demonstrated that this is unlikely, although there were pre-existing indigenous shamanistic practices. The early "black Bon" relied on magic and shamanistic rituals, and shared similarities with Chinese folk religions and Mongolian shamanism.
• see also: Dzogchen (Great Perfection); tertön (treasure-revealer)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

Bön (Tibetan) = redirects to Bon (Tibetan)

≫ brahmavihara (Pāli & Sanskrit: ब्रह्मविहार, IAST: brahmavihāra) = sublime attitude (lit. "abode of brahma"); a series of four Buddhist virtues and the meditation practices to cultivate them, which comprise "aspiration bodhichitta". Also known as the immeasurable or boundless thoughts (Sanskrit: अप्रमाण, IAST: apramāṇa; Pāli: appamaññā), collectively comprising the "four immeasurables" (Sanskrit: चतुर्अप्रमाण, IAST: caturapramāṇa = catur + apramāṇa, also Sanskrit: चत्वारिअप्रमानाणि, IAST: catvāri-apramānāṇi; Pāli: चतस्सो अप्पमञ्ञायो, IAST: catasso appamaññāyo; Tibetan: ཚད་མེད་བཞི་, tsémé shyi; Wylie: tshad med bzhi; Chinese: 四無量心 / 四无量心, Pinyin: sì wúliàng xīn). The 4 immeasurables are:
(1) metta (Pāli: मेत्ता; Chinese: 慈 / 慈, Pinyin: , literally "kindness") = loving-kindness.
(2) karuna (Pāli: करुणा; Chinese: 悲 / 悲, Pinyin: bēi, literally "pity, sympathy, compassion, mercy") = compassion (note: karuna is also translated into Chinese as: 慈悲 / 慈悲, Pinyin: cíbēi; the single logographs of 慈 and 悲 are sometimes understood as being synonymous, but they are also sometimes separated into the meanings of 慈 = "kindness" i.e. metta/maitrī and 悲 = "pity, sympathy, compassion, mercy" i.e. karuṇā).
(3) mudita (Pāli: मुदिता; Chinese: 喜 / 喜, Pinyin: , literally "delight") = sympathetic joy, appreciative joy.
(4) upekkha (Pāli: उपेक्खाा; Chinese: 捨 / 舍, Pinyin: shě, literally "to abandon") = equanimity.
• see also: 4 brahmaviharas (4 sublime attitudes; 4 immeasurables): (1) metta (loving-kindness), (2) karuna (compassion), (3) mudita (sympathetic joy), (4) upekkha (equanimity)
• Buddhist terms: 4 immeasurables: (1) loving-kindness, (2) compassion [here "compassion" is karuna], (3) sympathetic joy, (4) equanimity.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ buddhi (Sanskrit: बुद्धि, IAST: buddhi; Tibetan: བློ་, lo; Wylie: blo) = reason, intellect, intelligence, mind, discernment, judgement, the power of forming and retaining conceptions and general notions.
• external links: wikipedia

≫ Buddha (Pāli: बुद्ध, IAST; buddha; Sanskrit: बुद्ध, IAST: buddha; Tibetan: སངས་རྒྱས་, sangyé; Wylie: sangs rgyas) = (1) Siddhartha Gautama, the historical Buddha who lived in ancient India in the 5th to 4th century BCE (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE); (2) a buddha, a fully enlightened person.
• note (on meaning): DJKR emphasizes that the semantic range of the English word "enlightenment" does not at all do justice to the meaning of buddha/sangyé or bodhi/jangchup.
• dictionary definition of "enlightenment" = (1) the action of enlightening or the state of being enlightened; the action or state of attaining or having attained spiritual knowledge or insight, in particular (in Buddhism) that awareness which frees a person from the cycle of rebirth; (2) a European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition. It was heavily influenced by 17th-century philosophers such as Descartes, Locke, and Newton, and its prominent exponents include Kant, Goethe, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Adam Smith (Google Dictionary).
• other languages: sangyé (Tibetan)
• see also: bodhi (enlightenment); pañchakula (5 buddha families); Shakyamuni (the Buddha); Siddhartha (the Buddha); sugata ("gone blissfully", syn. the Buddha); tathagata ("thus come / thus gone", syn. the Buddha)
• Buddhist terms: 5 buddha familiesBuddha
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Himalayan Art

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C

≫ cattari ariyasaccani (Pāli: चत्तारि अरियसच्चानि, IAST: cattāri ariyasaccāni; Sanskrit: चत्वारि आर्यसत्यानि, IAST: catvāri ārya+satyāni; Tibetan: འཕགས་པའི་བདེན་པ་བཞི་, pakpé denpa shyi; Wylie: 'phags pa'i bden pa bzhi) = the Four Noble Truths, literally "four truths of the noble beings", i.e. it is not that the truths are noble, rather that they are truths of the Noble Ones (aryas). They form part of the Dharmachakrapravartana Sutra, the Buddha's first teaching, which was given at Deer Park in Sarnath. The 4 Noble Truths are:
(1) dukkha = suffering
(2) samudaya = the origin of suffering
(3) nirodha = the cessation of suffering
(4) magga = the path which, if followed, brings the cessation of suffering.
• see also: ariya atthangika magga (the 8-fold noble path, which corresponds to the fourth noble truth); ariya sacca ([four] noble truths); cattari ariyasaccani (4 noble truths): (1) dukkha (suffering), (2) samudaya (origin of suffering), (3) nirodha (cessation of suffering), (4) magga (path); Dharmachakrapravartana Sutra (the first teaching given by Shakyamuni Buddha); Mrigadava (Deer Park)
• Buddhist terms: 3-fold training; 4 noble truths8-fold noble path; Buddha; Deer Park
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ catusamvejaniyathana (Pali: चतुसंवेजनीयठान, IAST: catusaṃvejanīyaṭhāna "the four inspiring places" = चतु catu "four" + संवेजनीय saṃvejanīya "to be remembered with reverence" + ठान ṭhāna "place") = the 4 principal Buddhist pilgrimage sites in India described by the Buddha in the Theravada Mahaparinibbana Sutta; literally "the four inspiring places":
(1) Lumbini (Nepal): birthplace of the Buddha;
(2) Bodh Gaya (Bihar, India): where Prince Siddhartha attained enlightenment (under the bodhi tree at the Mahabodhi Temple);
(3) Sarnath (also known as Isipathana, Uttar Pradesh, India): where Buddha gave his first teaching at Deer Park;
(4) Kushinagara (now Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India): where Buddha died and attained parinirvana.
• see also: Mrigadava (Deer Park)
• external links: (Mahāparinibbāṇa Sutta, DN 16): (English): Access to Insight / (Pāli-English): Audtip (Audio Tales in Pāli) / wikipedia; (Buddhist pilgrimage sites): wikipedia

≫ chado (Japanese: 茶道, chadō, "the way of tea") = the Japanese tea ceremony, the preparation and presentation of matcha, powdered green tea.
• see also (the three classical Japanese arts of refinement): kadō (flower arrangement), kōdō (incense appreciation) and chadō (tea and the tea ceremony)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ chakravartin (Sanskrit: चक्रवर्तिन्, IAST: cakravartin, "a ruler the wheels of whose chariot roll everywhere without obstruction"; Pāli: चक्कवत्ति, IAST: cakkavatti; Tibetan: ཁོར་ལོས་སྒྱུར་བའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་, khorlö gyurwé gyelpo; Wylie: 'khor los sgyur ba'i rgyal po, "monarch who controls by means of a wheel") = universal ruler; emperor; sovereign of the world, especially in the sense of an imperial ruler of the entire Indian sub-continent (as in the case of the Maurya Empire).
• external links: wikipedia / Encyclopedia of Buddhism

≫ cham (Tibetan: འཆམ་, Wylie: 'cham) = sacred dance, ritual dance, masked dance.

changchup (Tibetan) = redirects to jangchup (Tibetan)

≫ chégom (Tibetan: དཔྱད་སྒོམ་, ché gom; Wylie: dpyad sgom) = analytical meditation, meditation through analysis, meditation involving mental analysis and investigation, analytical investigation.

≫ chen (Tibetan: ཅན་, chen; Wylie: can) = having, endowed with, imbued with, possessing.
• see also: semchen (sentient being, literally "having mind" or "endowed with mind")

≫ chéta (Tibetan: ཆད་ལྟ་, ché ta; Wylie: chad lta; Sanskrit: उच्छेददृष्टि, IAST: uccheda-dṛṣṭi; Sanskrit & Pāli: उच्छेदवाद, IAST: ucchedavāda) = nihilism, annihilationism (lit. "the view of discontinuance"). The extreme view of nothingness: no rebirth or karmic effects, and the nonexistence of a mind after death.
• see also: tanyi (2 extremes) = (1) takta (eternalism), (2) chéta (nihilism); tawa (view)
• Buddhist terms: eternalism, nihilism, view
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

chitta (Pāli & Sanskrit: चित्त, IAST: citta) = mind; ordinary dualistic mind - see sem (Tibetan main entry).

chittata (Sanskrit: चित्तता, IAST: cittatā) = nature of mind - see semnyi (Tibetan main entry).

chö (Tibetan: ཆོས་, chö; Wylie: chos) = (a) reality, true nature, character; (b) phenomenon, property, mark, peculiar condition or essential quality, peculiarity; (c) practice, way, usage, customary observance, prescribed conduct, duty, law, doctrine; (d) Dharma, the Buddhist path, the spiritual path, spirituality - see dharma (Sanskrit main entry).

≫ choga (Tibetan: ཆོ་ག་, choga; Wylie: cho ga) = ritual, method, sadhana practice, ceremony.

≫ chökyi domzhi (Tibetan: ཆོས་ཀྱི་སྡོམ་བཞི་, chö kyi dom zhi, Wylie: chos kyi sdom bzhi; also shortened to Tibetan: སྡོམ་བཞི་, domzhi, Wylie: sdom bzhi; the word dom (སྡོམ་) means "bind, fasten, tie", "add up, add together, bring together, collect", "summary, synopsis"; Sanskrit: चतुर्लक्षण, caturlakshana; IAST: caturlakṣaṇa = catur + lakṣaṇa) = the four seals; the four Dharma emblems; the four main principles marking a doctrine as Buddhist. The four seals are:
1) impermanence: (Tibetan: འདུ་བྱས་ཐམས་ཅད་མི་རྟག་པ་, dujé tamché mi takpa; Wylie: 'du byas thams cad mi rtag pa) = All compounded/conditioned things are impermanent.
2) unsatisfactoriness: (Tibetan: ཟག་བཅས་ཐམས་ཅད་སྡུག་བསྔལ་, zakché tamché dukngel; Wylie: zag bcas thams cad sdug bsngal) = all contaminated/defiling things (defiled with ego-clinging) are suffering (dukkha).
3) nonself: (Tibetan: ཆོས་ཐམས་ཅད་སྟོང་ཞིང་བདག་མེད་པའོ་, chö tamché tongzhing dakmé pao; Wylie: chos thams cad stong zhing bdag med pa'o) = all phenomena are devoid of a self-entity / all phenomena are empty and devoid of self / all phenomena are without inherent existence.
4) peace: (Tibetan: མྱ་ངན་ལས་འདས་པ་ནི་ཞི་བ་, nya ngenlé dépa ni zhiwa; Wylie: mya ngan las 'das pa ni zhi ba) = nirvana is peace / nirvana is beyond description.
• see also: trilakshana (3 marks of existence)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki

≫ chöpa [homophone of two different Tibetan words]:
(1) (Tibetan: ཆོས་པ་, chöpa; Wylie: chos pa) = Dharma practitioner, Buddhist, religious practitioner.
(2) (Tibetan: སྤྱོད་པ་, chöpa; Wylie: spyod pa) = action, behavior, conduct.
• see also: ta gom chöpa (view, meditation & action); tawa gompa chöpa drébu (view, meditation, action & result) [note: here "meditation" is bhavana = development, training, cultivation, practice.]

chörten (Tibetan: མཆོད་རྟེན་, chörten; Wylie: mchod rten) = stupa (Sanskrit main entry).

≫ chösham (Tibetan: མཆོད་བཤམ་, chösham; Wylie: mchod bsham) = altar, shrine, shrine room.

citta (Sanskrit) = redirects to chitta (Sanskrit)

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D

dakmé (Tibetan: བདག་མེད་, dakmé; Wylie: bdag med) = no-self, non-self, without self - see anatta (Pāli ≫ main entry).

≫ dampa sum (Tibetan: དམ་པ་གསུམ་, dampa sum; Wylie: dam pa gsum) = the three supreme methods (also known as the three noble principles or the three excellencies) that make the difference between practice being merely a way of bringing temporary relaxation, peace, and bliss and practice becoming a powerful cause for the enlightenment of oneself and others. They are:
(1) "good in the beginning" (i.e. starting one's practice by arousing bodhichitta = སྦྱོར་བ་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་, jorwa semkyé; Wylie: sbyor ba sems bskyed)
(2) "good in the middle" (i.e. avoiding getting caught in conceptualization and maintaining the view of emptiness during practice = དངོས་གཞི་དམིགས་མེད་, ngözhi mikmé; Wylie: dngos gzhi dmigs med)
(3) "good in the end" (i.e. dedicating the merit at the end of practice = རྗེས་བསྔོ་བ་, jé ngowa; Wylie: rjes bsngo ba).
• see also (practice): applying the three supreme methods (work as practice)
• external links: rigpawiki

≫ dana (Sanskrit: दान, IAST: dāna; Tibetan: སྦྱིན་པ་, jinpa; Wylie: sbyin pa; Chinese: 布施 / 布施, Pinyin: bùshī) = generosity, the first of the 6 paramitas; defined as an attitude of giving.
• see also: paramita (transcendent perfection); satparamita (6 paramitas): (1) dana (generosity), (2) shila (discipline), (3) kshanti (patience), (4) virya (diligence), (5) dhyana (meditative concentration), (6) prajña (wisdom).
• Buddhist terms: 6 paramitas: (1) generosity, (2) discipline, (3) patience, (4) diligence, (5) meditative concentration, (6) wisdom.
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

≫ dang (Tibetan: གདངས་, dang, Wylie: gdangs) = radiance, lustre, self-radiance, light, clarity; tone, tune, melody.

≫ dathün (Tibetan: ཟླ་ཐུན་, datün, Wylie: zla + thun) = month-long meditation retreat, popularised by Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche for the Shambhala sangha.
• see also: thün (session)

≫ denpa (Tibetan: བདེན་པ་, denpa; Wylie: bden pa; Sanskrit: सत्य, satya) = true, truth, authentic, valid, genuine.

≫ denpa nyi (Tibetan: བདེན་པ་གཉིས་, den pa nyi; Wylie: bden pa gnyis; Sanskrit: द्वसत्य, dvasatva; IAST: dva + satya) = the two aspects of all phenomena: the way things exist inherently (ultimate truth or absolute truth) and the way they appear (relative truth).
• see also: denpa nyi (2 truths) = (1) döndam denpa (absolute or ultimate truth), (2) kündzop denpa (relative truth)
• Buddhist terms: 2 truths = (1) ultimate truth, (2) relative truth
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

≫ denpa tong (Tibetan: བདེན་པ་མཐོང་བ་, denpa tongwa; Wylie: bden pa mthong ba) = realizing the truth, seeing the truth, direct perception of the truth.

dewa (Tibetan: བདེ་བ་, dewa; Wylie: bde ba) = pleasure, bliss, happiness - see sukha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).
• see also: dewé nyam (experience of bliss)

≫ dewé nyam (Tibetan: བདེ་བའི་ཉམས་, dewé nyam; Wylie: bde ba'i nyams) = experience of bliss (e.g. as a meditation experience), experience of pleasurable sensation.
• see also (three experiences): dewé nyam (bliss), selwé nyam (clarity), mi tokpé nyam (nonconceptuality)
• external links: (three experiences of bliss, clarity and nonconceptuality): rigpawiki

dézhin (Tibetan: དེ་བཞིན་, dézhin; Wylie: de bzhin; Sanskrit: तथा, IAST: tathā) = that itself, like that, thus; DJKR: "whatever it is", "as it is", "what is" - see tatha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).
• see also: dézhin shekpa (tathagata)

dézhin shekpa (Tibetan: དེ་བཞིན་གཤེགས་པ་, dézhin shekpa; Wylie: de bzhin gshegs pa) = tathagata (Sanskrit main entry).

≫ dharani (Sanskrit: धारणी, IAST: dhāraṇī; Tibetan: གཟུངས་, zung; Wylie: gzungs) = a Buddhist chant, incantation, or recitation believed to be protective and with powers to generate merit, usually a Sanskrit or Pali mantra; a particular type of mantra, usually quite long; a mystical verse or charm.
• see also: mantra
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Lotsawa House

≫ dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म, IAST: dharma also dharmaḥ; Pāli: धम्म, IAST: dhamma; Tibetan: ཆོས་, chö; Wylie: chos) = (a) Dharma, the Buddhist path, the spiritual path, spirituality; (b) reality, true nature, character; (c) phenomenon, property, mark, peculiar condition or essential quality, peculiarity; (d) practice, way, usage, customary observance, prescribed conduct, duty, law, doctrine.
• other languages: chö (Tibetan)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ Dharmachakrapravartana Sutra (Sanskrit: धर्मचक्रप्रवर्तनसूत्र, IAST: dharmacakrapravartana-sūtra; Pali: धम्मचक्कप्पवत्तनसुत्त, IAST: dhammacakkappavattana-sutta; Burmese: ဓမ္မစက္ကပဝတ္တနသုတ်) = "The Setting in Motion the Wheel of the Dharma Sutra", the first teaching given by Shakyamuni Buddha at Deer Park in Sarnath. The main topic of the sutra is the 4 noble truths, and the sutra also refers to the middle way, impermanence, and dependent origination.
• see also: cattari ariyasaccani (4 noble truths); Mrigadava (Deer Park); sutra (includes partial list of sutras on this website)
• external links: wikipedia 

≫ dharmakaya (Sanskrit: धर्मकाय, IAST: dharmakāya; Tibetan: ཆོས་སྐུ་, chö ku; Wylie: chos sku; Chinese: 法身 / 法身, Pinyin: fǎshēn) = the "truth body", "reality body" or absolute body: one of the three bodies (trikaya) of a buddha in Mahayana Buddhism. The dharmakaya constitutes the unmanifested, "inconceivable" (acintya) aspect of a buddha out of which buddhas arise and to which they return after their dissolution.
• see also: kaya (body, dimension), trikaya (three bodies of a buddha), nirmanakaya ("body of manifestations"), rupakaya ("form body"), sambhogakaya ("body of enjoyment")
• external links: (dharmakaya): wikipedia  / rigpawiki / rywiki; (trikaya): wikipedia

≫ Dharmapala (emperor) (Sanskrit: धर्म्मपाल, IAST: dha-rmma-pā-la) = the second ruler of the Pala Empire in the Indian Subcontinent (ruled 8th century, c.783-820 CE), which corresponds to the present-day Bengal and Bihar regions. He was the son and successor of Gopala, the founder of the Pala Dynasty, and he greatly expanded the boundaries and influence of the Pala empire. Dharmapala was a great patron of Buddhism. He revived Nalanda university and founded Vikramashila university.
• see also: Vikramashila (Buddhist university)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ dharmata (Sanskrit: धर्मत, IAST: dharmata; Tibetan: ཆོས་ཉིད་, chö nyi; Wylie: chos nyid) = the intrinsic nature of phenomena and mind, real condition of existence, very nature of things, ultimate nature of phenomena, suchness, reality itself.

≫ dhatu (Sanskrit: धातु, IAST: dhātu; Tibetan: ཁམས་, kham; Wylie: khams) = element, factor, primitive matter, constituent element; realm.
• other languages: kham (Tibetan)

≫ dhyana (Sanskrit: ध्यान, IAST: dhyāna; Pāli: झान, IAST: jhāna; Japanese: 禅, zen; Tibetan: བསམ་གཏན་, samten; Wylie: bsam gtan; Burmese: ဈာန; Chinese: 禪定 / 禅定, Pinyin: chándìng) = meditative concentration, meditation, concentration, mental focus, attention, reflection, non-distraction, mind-training (according to early Buddhist texts, its aim is to withdraw the mind from automatic responses to sense-impressions, thus leading to upekkhā-sati-parisuddhi, a "state of perfect equanimity and awareness"); the fifth of the 6 paramitas.
(other languages): jhana (Pāli), samten (Tibetan), zen (Japanese)
• see also: paramita (transcendent perfection); satparamita (6 paramitas): (1) dana (generosity), (2) shila (discipline), (3) kshanti (patience), (4) virya (diligence), (5) dhyana (meditative concentration), (6) prajña (wisdom).
• Buddhist terms: 6 paramitas: (1) generosity, (2) discipline, (3) patience, (4) diligence, (5) meditative concentration, (6) wisdom.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ dikpa ratsa (Tibetan: སྡིག་པ་ར་ཙ་, dikpa ratsa; Wylie: sdig pa ra tsa) = scorpion.

≫ Dipankara (Pāli & Sanskrit: दीपंकर, IAST: Dīpaṃkara, "lamp bearer"; Tibetan: མར་མེ་མཛད་, Marmedzé; Wylie: mar me mdzad; Chinese: 燃燈佛, Pinyin: Rándēng Fó) = Dipankara Buddha, one of the buddhas of the past, the 25th predecessor of Shakyamuni, who was born on an island with a light show and is considered protector of mariners. He is said to have lived on Earth one hundred thousand aeons ago.
• external links: wikipedia / Himalayan Art

döchak (Tibetan: འདོད་ཆགས་, döchak; Wylie: 'dod chags) = desire, attachment, passion, lust - see also: raga (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ döndam denpa (Tibetan: དོན་དམ་བདེན་པ་; Wylie: don dam bden pa; Sanskrit: परमार्थसत्य, IAST: paramārtha + satya; also shortened to Sanskrit: परमार्थ, IAST: paramārtha; literally "highest or whole truth") = absolute truth, ultimate truth.
• see also: denpa nyi (2 truths) = (1) döndam denpa (absolute or ultimate truth), (2) kündzop denpa (relative truth)
• Buddhist terms: 2 truths = (1) ultimate truth, (2) relative truth
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki

dosa (Pāli: दोस, IAST, dosa) = aversion, hatred - see dvesha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ drébu (Tibetan: འབྲས་བུ་, dré bu; Wylie: 'bras bu) = result, effect, fruit, fruition, accomplishment.
• see also: tawa gompa chöpa drébu (view, meditation, action & result)

drenpa (Tibetan: དྲན་པ་, drenpa; Wylie: dran pa) = mindfulness, memory, recollection, presence of mind, remembrance, calling to mind - see sati (Pāli ≫ main entry).

≫ dribpa nyi (Tibetan: སྒྲིབ་པ་གཉིས་, dribpa nyi; Wylie: sgrib pa gnyis; Sanskrit: आवरणद्वय, IAST: āvaraṇa-dvaya; Chinese: 二障 / 二障, Pinyin: èrzhàng) = the two obscurations: emotional obscurations and cognitive obscurations - see drib.
• see also: (2 obscurations): (1) nyöndrip (emotional obscurations), (2) shédrip (cognitive obscurations)
• external links: rigpawiki / Digital Dictionary of Buddhism

≫ drib (Tibetan: གྲིབ་, drib; Wylie: grib; Sanskrit: आवरण, IAST: āvaraṇa) = defilement, obscuration, stain, contamination.
• other languages: avarana (Sanskrit)
• see also: dribpa nyi (2 obscurations)
• glossary: 2 obscurations = emotional obscurations (nyöndrip) & cognitive obscurations (shédrip)

drip (Tibetan) - redirects to drib.

≫ drishti (Sanskrit: दृष्टि, IAST: dṛṣṭi; Pāli: दिट्ठि, IAST: diṭṭhi; Tibetan: ལྟ་བ་, tawa; Wylie: lta ba) = view, orientation, perspective, belief (the Sanskrit and Tibetan words both mean to look or see as well as to hold a particular belief, much like the English word "view"); sixth of the 6 destructive emotions (mulaklesha); unless qualified as "samyak drishti" (i.e. "right view"), the Sanskrit "drishti" mostly refers to wrong views and only in a few instances to right view. The Tibetan word "tawa" has a more neutral valence; (wikipedia: "In Buddhist thought, a view is not a simple, abstract collection of propositions, but a charged interpretation of experience which intensely shapes and affects thought, sensation, and action. Having the proper mental attitude toward views is therefore considered an integral part of the Buddhist path, as sometimes correct views need to be put into practice and incorrect views abandoned, and sometimes all views are seen as obstacles to enlightenment").
• other languages: tawa (Tibetan)
• see also (view): chéta (nihilism), takta (eternalism)
• see also (emotional obscurations): klesha (afflictive/destructive/disturbing/negative emotions); mulaklesha (6 destructive emotions): (1) raga (desire), (2) pratigha (anger), (3) avidya (ignorance), (4) mana (pride), (5) vicikitsa (doubt), (6) drishti (view); nyöndrip (emotional obscurations)
• Buddhist terms: 6 destructive emotions: (1) desire or attachment, (2) anger, (3) ignorance, (4) pride or conceit, (5) doubt, (6) wrong vieweternalism, nihilism, view

druptap (Tibetan: སྒྲུབ་ཐབས་, druptap, Wylie: sgrub thabs) = sadhana, means of accomplishment - see sadhana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

duk ngel (Tibetan: སྡུག་བསྔལ་, duk ngel; Wylie: sdug bsngal) = suffering, pain, unsatisfactoriness - see dukkha (Pāli main entry).

≫ dukkha (Pāli: दुक्ख, IAST: dukkha; Sanskrit: दुःख, IAST: duḥkha; Tibetan: སྡུག་བསྔལ་, duk ngel; Wylie: sdug bsngal; Japanese: 苦, ku) = suffering, unsatisfactoriness, dissatisfaction, pain, frustration. First of the 4 noble truths, and second of the 3 marks of existence.
• note (on meaning): DJKR emphasizes that the semantic range of the English word "suffering" does not at all do justice to the meaning of dukkha.
• dictionary definition ("suffering") = "the state of undergoing pain, distress, or hardship" (Google Dictionary).
• other languages: duk ngel (Tibetan)
• see also: cattari ariyasaccani (4 noble truths): (1) dukkha (suffering), (2) samudaya (origin of suffering), (3) nirodha (cessation of suffering), (4) magga (path); mi tsimpa (not satisfied, not contented); trilakshana (3 marks of existence): (1) anicca (impermanence), (2) dukkha (unsatisfactoriness) (3) anatta (nonself).
• Buddhist terms: 3 marks of existence: (1) impermanence, (2) unsatisfactoriness, (3) nonself; 4 noble truthssuffering
• glossary: 3 marks of existence

duktang (Tibetan: འདུག་སྟངས་, duk tang, Wylie: 'dug stangs) = posture, way of sitting; way of doing something; DJKR: "way of being" - see asana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ duwé ngöpo zhi (Tibetan: བསྡུ་བའི་དངོས་པོ་བཞི་; Wylie: bsdu ba'i dngos po bzhi, from བསྡུ་བ་, duwa, Wylie: bsdu ba, "gather, magnetize, collect, amass"; Sanskrit: चतुर्संग्रहवस्तु, IAST: catursaṃgrahavastu, also saṃgrahavastu "element of popularity", from Sanskrit: संग्रह, IAST: saṃgraha "bringing together, assembling people") = 4 means of attraction (also: 4 ways of gathering beings, 4 means of attracting/gathering disciples, 4 means of magnetizing, 4 bases of sympathy), derived from an older list of 7 elements of popularity; as defined in section 19 of Nagaruna's Dharma-saṃgraha, an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit; also cited by Patrul Rinpoche in The Words of My Perfect Teacher. They are:
(1) dana (Sanskrit: दान, IAST: dāna; Tibetan: བདོག་པ་སྦྱིན་པ་, dokpa jinpa; Wylie: bdog pa sbyin pa) = generosity, giving; DJKR: "generosity".
(2) priyavacana (Sanskrit: प्रियवचन, IAST: priyavacana; Tibetan: སྙན་པར་སྨྲ་བ་, nyenpar mawa; Wylie: snyan par smra ba) = kind words, pleasant speech, affectionate speech; DJKR: "pleasant speech".
(3) arthacharya (Sanskrit: अर्थचर्या, IAST: arthacaryā "promoting another's affairs", from artha "affairs, work, business" + caryā "way, practice, going about, wandering"; Tibetan: དོན་མཐུན་པ་, dön tünpa; Wylie: don mthun pa = don "work, action, benefit, purpose" + mthun pa "to be in agreement, appropriate, suitable") = accomplishing benefit, helpfulness, usefulness; meaningful conduct; giving appropriate teachings; teaching each individual according to their needs; DJKR: "leading others according to the law, the way, the path".
(4) samanarthata (Sanskrit: समानार्थता, IAST: samānārthatā, "equivalence"; Tibetan: དོན་སྤྱོད་པ་, dön chöpa; Wylie: don spyod pa = don "work, action, benefit, purpose" + spyod pa "action, conduct, way of living")  = maintaining consistency between words and deeds, consistency in behavior; agreement in purpose; accordant meaning; DJKR: "leading oneself according to the law, the way, the path".
• external links: rigpawikiwisdom library

≫ düzhi (Tibetan: བདུད་བཞི་, düzhi or dü shyi; Wylie: bdud bzhi; Sanskrit: चत्वारि मार, IAST: catvāri + māra) = the four maras, the four types of obstructive, 'demonic' forces (sometimes also translated as 'demons') which create obstacles to practitioners on the spiritual path. The four maras are:
(1) Klesha-mara (Sanskrit: क्लेशमार, IAST: Kleśa-māra; Tibetan: ཉོན་མོངས་ཀྱི་བདུད་ ; Wylie: nyon mongs kyi bdud) = Mara of emotions; Mara as the embodiment of all unskillful emotions, such as greed, hate and delusion; symbolizes our addiction to habitual patterns of negative emotion.
(2) Mrityu-mara (Sanskrit: मृत्युमार, IAST: Mṛtyu-māra; Tibetan: འཆི་བདག་གི་བདུད་; Wylie: 'chi bdag gi bdud) = Mara of the Lord of Death; symbolizes both death itself, and also our fear of change, impermanence, and death.
(3) Skandha-mara (Sanskrit: स्कन्धमार, IAST: Skandha-māra; Tibetan: ཕུང་པོའི་བདུད་; Wylie: phung po'i bdud) = Mara of the aggregates; Mara as metaphor for the entirety of conditioned existence; symbolizes our clinging to forms, perceptions, and mental states as ‘real’.
(4) Devaputra-mara (Sanskrit: देवपुत्रमार, IAST: Devaputra-māra; Tibetan: ལྷའི་བུའི་བདུད་; Wylie: lha'i bu'i bdud) = Mara of the Son of God; the deva of the sensuous realm, who tried to prevent Gautama Buddha from attaining liberation from the cycle of rebirth on the night of the Buddha’s enlightenment; symbolizes our craving for pleasure, convenience, and ‘peace’.
• see also: mara
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ dvadasha pratityasamutpada (Sanskrit: द्वादशप्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद, IAST: dvādaśa-pratītyasamutpāda = द्वादश, dvādaśa + प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद, pratītyasamutpāda; Pāli: पटिच्चसमुप्पाद, IAST: paṭiccasamuppāda; also Sanskrit: द्वादशनिदानानि, IAST: dvādaśanidānāni = द्वादश, dvādaśa + निदान, nidāna, "cause"; Pali: dvādasanidānāni = द्वादस, dvādasa + निदान, nidāna; other Sanskrit forms include: dvādaśa-astanga pratītyasamutpāda and dvādaśāṅga-pratītyasamutpāda; Tibetan: རྟེན་འབྲེལ་ཡན་ལག་བཅུ་གཉིས་, tendrel yenlak chunyi, Wylie: rten 'brel yan lag bcu gnyis; Chinese: 十二因緣 / 十二因缘, Pinyin: shíèr yīnyuán) = the 12 nidanas; the 12 links of dependent origination or dependent arising. The 12 links are:
(1) avidya (Sanskrit: अविद्या, IAST: avidyā; Tibetan: མ་རིག་པ་, ma rigpa; Wylie: ma rig pa; Chinese: 無明) = ignorance, nescience, unenlightenment).
(2) samskara (Sanskrit: संस्कार, IAST: saṃskāra; Tibetan: འདུ་བྱེད་, dujé; Wylie: 'du byed; Chinese: 行) = formation, action-intentions; action, activity, conception, karmic predispositions.
(3) vijñana (Sanskrit: विज्ञान, IAST: vijñāna; Tibetan: རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པ་, nampar shépa; Wylie: rnam par shes pa; Chinese: 識) = consciousness.
(4) namarupa (Sanskrit: नामरूप, IAST: nāmarūpa; Tibetan: མིང་དང་གཟུགས་, ming dang zuk; Wylie: ming dang gzugs; Chinese: 名色) = name and form; the five skandhas.
(5) shadayatana (Sanskrit: षडायतन, IAST: ṣaḍāyatana; Tibetan: སྐྱེ་མཆེད་དྲུག་, kyéché druk; Wylie: skye mched drug; Chinese: 六處) = the six sense-fields; the six ayatanas of the sense-faculties; the six-fold sphere of sense contact.
(6) sparsha (Sanskrit: स्पर्श, IAST: sparśa; Tibetan: རེག་པ་, rekpa; Wylie: reg pa; Chinese: 觸) = contact; the coming together of objects, sense faculty and consciousness.
(7) vedana (Sanskrit: वेदना, IAST: vedanā; Tibetan: ཚོར་བ་, tsorwa; Wylie: tshor ba; Chinese: 受) = sensation, feeling: pleasurable, painful and neutral.
(8) trishna (Sanskrit: तृष्णा, IAST: tṛṣṇā; Tibetan: སྲེད་པ་, sépa; Wylie: sred pa; Chinese: 愛) = craving, thirst, desire.
(9) upadana (Sanskrit: उपादान, IAST: upādāna; Tibetan: ལེན་པ་, lenpa; Wylie: len pa; Chinese: 取) = grasping, appropriation.
(10) bhava (Sanskrit: भव, IAST: bhava; Tibetan: སྲིད་པ་, sipa; Wylie: srid pa; Chinese: 有) = becoming, being, existing.
(11) jati (Sanskrit: जाति, IAST: jāti; Tibetan: སྐྱེ་བ་, kyewa; Wylie: skye ba; Chinese: 生) = birth; rebirth.
(12) jaramarana (Sanskrit: जरामरण, IAST: jarāmaraṇa = जरा jarā + मरण maraṇa; Tibetan: རྒ་ཤི་, ga shi; Wylie: rga shi; Chinese: 老死) = old age and death (impermanence).
• see also: pratityasamutpada (dependent origination)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ dvesha (Sanskrit: द्वेष, IAST: dveṣa; Pāli: दोस, IAST, dosa; Tibetan: ཞེ་སྡང་, zhédang; Wylie: zhe sdang) = aversion, dislike, enmity, hatred, hostility, ill-will; one of the 3 poisons (in the Theravada teachings).
• other languages: dosa (Pāli)
• see also: trivisha (3 poisons): (1) moha (ignorance or delusion), (2) raga (greed or attachment), (3) dvesha (hatred or aversion)
• external links: wikipedia/ rigpawiki

≫ Dzogchen (Tibetan: རྫོགས་ཆེན, dzog chen; Wylie: rdzogs chen, literally "great perfection" or "great completeness"; also longer form: Tibetan: རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་, dzogpa chenpo; Wylie: rdzogs pa chen po; Sanskrit: अतियोग , IAST: atiyoga) = a tradition of teachings in Tibetan Buddhism aimed at discovering and continuing in the natural primordial state of being (the nature of mind). It is a central teaching of the Yundrung Bon tradition as well as in the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism. In these traditions, Dzogchen is the highest and most definitive path of the nine vehicles to liberation.
• other names: Atiyoga, Mahasandhi
• see also: Bon; mahasiddha (great accomplished one); NyingmaPadmasambhava; semnyi (nature of mind)
• external links: (Dzogchen): wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki; (Dzogchen terminology): rigpawiki / Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia

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E

≫ Ekayana (Sanskrit: एकयान, IAST: eka-yāna; Tibetan: ཐེག་པ་གཅིག་པ་; tekpa chikpa; Wylie: theg pa gcig pa; Chinese: 一乘, Pinyin: yīshèng) = the single vehicle or "one vehicle"; the doctrinal position that states that there are in fact not three vehicles (Shravakayana, Pratyekabuddhayana and Bodhisattvayana) but only one teaching, and the other vehicles are the skillful means to attract people to the one Buddha Vehicle. The one vehicle doctrine is a key theme in seminal Mahayana scriptures as the Prajñaparamita Sutra, the Flower Ornament Sutra, and the Shrimaladevi Simhanada Sutra, but is most forcefully articulated in the Lotus Sutra which states in its Chapter on Skillful Means that "there is only the Dharma of the one vehicle, not two, and not three". When Buddhism came to China, Chinese Buddhist teachers faced the problem of sorting through the vast diversity of Buddhist texts to find the core of Buddhist teaching. They solved this problem by taking up one or more of the Ekayana Sutras as central to the understanding of the diversity of Buddhism, and the Ekayana doctrine remains central to the Chinese acculturation and acceptance of Buddhism.
• see also: Hinayana (the Lesser Vehicle); Mahayana (the Great Vehicle); Shravakayana (the Vehicle of the Shravakas); Theravada (the School of the Elders); Vajrayana (the Diamond Vehicle); yana (vehicle or method)
• external links: wikipedia / Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia

≫ ema datshi (Dzongkha: ཨེ་མ་དར་ཚིལ་, éma dartsil; Wylie (reconstructed): e ma dar tshil) = the Bhutanese national dish made of chilli peppers and cheese.
• external links: wikipedia

≫ evam (Sanskrit: एवम्, IAST: evam) = thus, in this way, in such a manner, such.

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G

≫ gakdra (Tibetan: དགག་སྒྲ་; Wylie: dgag sgra) = negation word (e.g. "is not", "does not exist" etc.), negating particle.

≫ garbha (Sanskrit: गर्भ, IAST: garbha; Tibetan: སྙིང་པོ་, nyingpo; Wylie: snying po) = the inside, middle, interior of anything; seed, egg, embryo, womb (indicating potential); pith, heart; essence, quintessence.

gata (Sanskrit: गत, IAST: gata) = gone, departed, arrived at, being in, situated in - see shekpa (Tibetan ≫ main entry).

≫ GATE GATE PARAGATE PARASAMGATE BODHI SVAHA (Sanskrit: गते गते पारगते पारसंगते बोधि स्वाहा, IAST: gate gate pāragate pārasaṃgate bodhi svāhā; Tibetan: ག༌ཏེ༌ག༌ཏེ༌པཱ༌ར༌ག༌ཏེ༌པཱ༌ར༌སཾ༌ག༌ཏེ༌བོ༌དྷི༌སྭཱ༌ཧཱ།) = Sanskrit mantra at the conclusion of the Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayasūtra (“Heart Sutra”), which means "Gone, gone, gone beyond, gone completely beyond, awakened existence".
• see also: Prajñaparamitahridayasutra (Heart Sutra)
• external links: wikipedia / Jay Garfield translation and commentary

Gautama (Sanskrit: गौतम, IAST: gautama; Pāli: गोतम, IAST: Gotama; Burmese: ေဂါတမ) = the Buddha - see Siddhartha Gautama.
• see also: Siddhartha Gautama (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)
• Buddhist terms: Buddha

≫ gewa (Tibetan: དགེ་བ་, gewa; Wylie: dge ba; Sanskrit (1): कुशल, IAST: kuśala = right, good, proper; Sanskrit (2): कल्याण, IAST: kalyāṇa = lucky, fortunate) = virtuous, virtue, wholesome, good, positive.
• see also: mi gewa (non-virtuous)

≫ gho (Dzongkha: བགོ་, go; Wylie: bgo) = the Bhutanese traditional national dress for men, a knee-length robe tied at the waist by a cloth belt known as the kera (Dzongkha: སྐེད་རགས་).
• see also: kira (the Bhutanese traditional national dress for women)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ gom [homophone of two different Tibetan words]:
(1) (Tibetan: གོམས་, gom; Wylie: goms; Sanskrit: अभ्यास, IAST: abhyāsa) = familiarization (through repetition), becoming accustomed to, conditioning.
(2) (Tibetan: སྒོམ་, gom: Wylie: sgom; also Tibetan: སྒོམ་པ་, gom pa; Wylie: sgom pa; Sanskrit: भावन, IAST: bhāvana) = development, training, practice, cultivation; meditation, contemplation.
• other languages: abhyasa (Sanskrit for གོམས་), bhavana (Sanskrit for སྒོམ་)
• see also: ta gom chöpa (view, meditation and action); tawa gompa chöpa drébu (view, meditation, action & result)
• Buddhist terms: meditation
• external links: (abhyasa): wikipedia; (bhavana): wikipedia; (meditation): wikipedia / rigpawiki

gompa (Tibetan: སྒོམ་པ་, gom pa; Wylie: sgom pa) = see gom (Tibetan)

≫ gompé trang (Tibetan: སྒོམ་པའི་འཕྲང་, gom pé trang; Wylie: sgom pa'i 'phrang) = the ravine of meditation; DJKR: the abyss of meditation.
• see also: gom (meditation, habituation, practice), trang (narrow dangerous path)

Gotama (Pāli: गोतम, IAST: Gotama) = the Buddha - see Siddhartha Gautama (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).
• other languages: Gautama (Sanskrit)
• Buddhist terms: Buddha

Guru Rinpoche (Tibetan: གུ་རུ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་, guru rinpoché; Wylie: gu+ru rin po che; literally "precious master") - see Padmasambhava.
• other names: Padmakara; Padmasambhava (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

gyü (Tibetan: རྒྱུད་, gyü; Wylie: rgyud) = tantra (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

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H

≫ havan (Sanskrit: हवन, IAST: havana) = fire offering; ritual rooted in the Vedic tradition, in which offerings of food etc. are burned in order to create merit or bring good luck on a special occasion.

≫ hijra (Hindustani: (Nastaliq) ﮩيجرَا, (Devanagari) हिजड़ा, hijra; Bengali: হিজড়া, hijra; hīj'ṛā) = eunuchs, intersex people, and transgender people, officially recognized as third gender in countries in the Indian subcontinent. The hijra community in India prefer to call themselves Kinnar or Kinner, referring to the mythological beings that excel at song and dance.
• external links: wikipedia / Hindustani dictionary

≫ Hinayana (Sanskrit: हीनयान, IAST: hīnayāna, Tibetan: (1) ཐེག་ཆུང་, tekchung; Wylie: theg chung, literally "small vehicle"; also: (2) ཐེག་དམན་, tekmen; Wylie: theg dman, literally "inferior vehicle") = the "simpler/lesser vehicle" (also "small/deficient vehicle"), a pejorative term used in some Mahayana texts (and also in the past widely used by Western scholars) to refer to the earliest system of Buddhist doctrine (in contrast to the later Mahayana as the "great vehicle"). In 1950 the World Fellowship of Buddhists declared that the term "Hinayana" should not be used when referring to any form of Buddhism existing today, and modern Buddhist scholarship uses the term "Nikaya Buddhism" to refer to early Buddhist schools. Some contemporary Buddhist teachers (including DJKR) prefer to use the term "Shravakayana"; DJKR: "Hinayana is a Mahayana chauvinist term, so we don’t want to use this term”.
• see also: Ekayana (the Single Vehicle); Mahayana (the Great Vehicle); Shravakayana (the Vehicle of the Shravakas); Theravada (the School of the Elders); Vajrayana (the Diamond Vehicle); yana (vehicle or method)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ hundun (Chinese: 混沌; pinyin: hùndùn, literally "muddled confusion") = both the "primordial and central chaos" in Chinese cosmogony and a "legendary faceless being" in Chinese mythology.
• external links: wikipedia

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≫ ikebana (Japanese: 生け花, ikebana, "arranging flowers" or "making flowers alive") = the Japanese art of flower arrangement, one of the three classical Japanese arts of refinement. Also known as kadō (Japanese: 華道, kadō, "the way of flowers").
• see also (the three classical Japanese arts of refinement): kadō (flower arrangement), kōdō (incense appreciation) and chadō (tea and the tea ceremony)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ indriyapratyaksha (Sanskrit: इन्द्रियप्रत्यक्ष, IAST: indriyapratyakṣa = indriya + pratyakṣa; Tibetan: དབང་པོའི་མངོན་སུམ་, wangpö ngönsum; Wylie: dbang po'i mngon sum) = sense perception, sensory direct perception, direct perception by the sense organs; first of the 4 kinds of direct perception.
see also: ngönsum zhi (4 kinds of direct perception)

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J

jangchup (Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་, jangchup; Wylie: byang chub) = awakening, enlightenment, 'purified and perfected' - see bodhi (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

jangchup kyi sem (Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་, jangchup kyi sem; Wylie: byang chub kyi sems) = bodhichitta (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

jangchup sempa (Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའ་, jangchup sempa; Wylie: byang chub sems dpa') = bodhisattva (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ jangdom (Tibetan: བྱང་སྡོམ་, jang dom; Wylie: byang sdom) = bodhisattva vow, bodhisattva precepts.
• external links: rigpawiki

jangsem (Tibetan: བྱང་སེམས་, jangsem; Wylie: byang sems) = bodhichitta, short form of jangchup kyi sem (Tibetan) - see bodhichitta (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ Jatakamala (Sanskrit: IAST: Jātakamālā = जातक, jātaka + माला, mālā; Tibetan: སྐྱེས་རབས་, kyérab; Wylie: skyes rabs, "genealogy, series of births of an individual, history of previous lives, stories of a succession of lives") = The Jātaka tales (Jatakamala, also sometimes referred to as Jatakamala Sutra), a voluminous body of literature native to India concerning the previous births of Gautama Buddha in both human and animal form. The Theravāda Jātakas comprise 547 poems, arranged roughly by an increasing number of verses. In Theravada Buddhism, the Jātakas are a textual division of the Pāli Canon, included in the Khuddaka Nikaya of the Sutta Pitaka. The tales are dated between 300 BCE and 400 CE.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Himalayan Art

≫ jépak (Tibetan: རྗེས་དཔག་, jépak; Wylie: rjes dpag; Sanskrit: अनुमान, IAST: anumāna; also: अनुमानम्, IAST: anumānam) = inference, inferential cognition.
• other languages: anumana (Sanskrit)

≫ Jetavana (Sanskrit: जेतवन, IAST: jetavana; literally "Jeta's wood") = Jeta's Grove, one of the most famous Buddhist viharas (monasteries) in India. It was the second vihara donated to Gautama Buddha after the Venuvana in Rajgir. The monastery was given to him by his chief male lay disciple, Anathapindika. Jetavana was the place where the Buddha gave the majority of his teachings and discourses, having stayed there for 19 out of 45 vassas (rainy season retreats), more than in any other monastery. Jetavana is located just outside the old city of Savatthi (Shravasti) (part of the present-day Shravasti district in Uttar Pradesh).
• see also: Mrigadava (Deer Park, a vihara); vihara (monastery)
• external links: (Jetavana): wikipedia  / wisdom library; (Shravasti): wikipedia

jhana (Pāli: झान, IAST: jhāna) = meditative concentration - see dhyana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).
• easily confused: jhana (Pāli: meditative concentration) is the same as dhyana (Sanskrit: meditative concentration) and different from jñana (Sanskrit: wisdom)
• Buddhist terms: meditation

≫ jikten chögyé (Tibetan: འཇིག་རྟེན་ཆོས་བརྒྱད་, jik ten chö gyé; Wylie: 'jig rten chos brgyad) = the 8 worldly concerns (also: 8 samsaric dharmas or 8 worldly dharmas), the 8 underlying motivations or attachments that drive ordinary worldly samsaric actions. They are listed in verse 29 of Nagarjuna's "Letter to a Friend" in the following order1Tibetan:
འཇིག་རྟེན་མཁྱེན་པ་རྙེད་དང་མ་རྙེད་དང་།
བདེ་དང་མི་བདེ་སྙན་དང་མི་སྙན་དང་།
བསྟོད་སྨད་ཅེས་བགྱི་འཇིག་རྟེན་ཆོས་བརྒྱད་པོ།
བདག་གི་ཡིད་ཡུལ་མིན་པར་མགོ་སྙོམས་མཛོད།

Wylie (with 8 worldly concerns numbered):
'jig rten mkhyen pa (1) rnyed dang (2) ma rnyed dang
(3) bde dang (4) mi bde (5) snyan dang (6) mi snyan dang
(7) bstod (8) smad ces bgyi 'jig rten chos brgyad po
bdag gi yid yul min par mgo snyoms mdzod

Translation by Padmakara Translation Group:
You who know the world, take gain and loss,
Or bliss and pain, or kind words and abuse,
Or praise and blame—these eight mundane concerns—
Make them the same, and don’t disturb your mind.
:
(1) nyépa (Tibetan: རྙེད་པ་, nyé pa; Wylie: rnyed pa) = gain.
(2) ma nyépa (Tibetan: མ་རྙེད་པ་, ma nyé pa; Wylie: ma rnyed pa) = loss.
(3) dewa (Tibetan: བདེ་བ་, de wa; Wylie: bde ba) = pleasure, bliss.
(4) mi dewa (Tibetan: མི་བདེ་བ་, mi de wa; Wylie: mi bde ba) = pain, unhappiness.
(5) nyenpa (Tibetan: སྙན་པ་, nyen pa; Wylie: snyan pa) = kind words, pleasant speech; renown, glory, fame.
(6) mi nyenpa (Tibetan: མི་སྙན་པ་, mi nyen pa; Wylie: mi snyan pa) = unkind words, unpleasant or discordant speech, abuse, insult, offense, disgrace.
(7) töpa (Tibetan: བསྟོད་པ་, tö pa; Wylie: bstod pa) = praise, eulogy, exaltation.
(8) mépa (Tibetan: སྨད་པ་, mé pa; Wylie: smad pa) = blame, slander, contempt, disrespect.
These should be read as four pairs where for each pair, we are motivated by hope or attachment to the first and fear or aversion to the second, e.g. hope for gain and fear of loss etc.
• Buddhist terms: 8 worldly concerns
• external links: rigpawiki / rywiki

≫ jiva (Sanskrit: जीव, IAST: jīva, "living, existing, alive") = A term originating in the Hindu scriptures such as the Bhagavad Gita and Upanishads to describe a living being or entity imbued with life force. The word originates from the Sanskrit verb-root jīv (जीव्) which means "to live, remain alive, vivify". The jiva as a metaphysical entity has been described as unborn, eternal and indestructible (Bhagavad Gita) and one-hundredth of one-hundredth of the tip of a hair in dimension (the Upanishads).
• external links: wikipedia

≫ jñana (Sanskrit (1): ज्ञान, IAST: jñāna also (2): ज्ञानम्, IAST: jñānam; Tibetan: ཡེ་ཤེས་, yéshé; Wylie: ye shes) = wisdom, primordial wisdom, pristine cognition, knowing, becoming acquainted with, gnosis, wakefulness, basic cognisance independent of intellectual constructs.
(other languages): yeshe (Tibetan)
• note (multiple translations): prajña (precise discernment, transcendent knowledge) and jñana (primordial wisdom) are both translated into English as "wisdom"
• easily confused: jhana (Pāli: meditative concentration) is the same as dhyana (Sanskrit: meditative concentration) and different from jñana (Sanskrit: wisdom)
• Buddhist terms: wisdom

≫ jokpa (Tibetan: འཇོག་པ་, jok pa; Wylie: 'jog pa) = rest, place, settle; classify, posit, set forth; DJKR: "leave it", "let it be".

≫ jukpa semkyé (Tibetan: འཇུག་པའི་བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་, juk pé jang chup kyi sem; Wylie: 'jug pa'i byang chub kyi sems; also shortened to Tibetan: འཇུག་པ་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་, juk pa sem kyé; Wylie: 'jug pa sems bskyed) = bodhichitta in action or bodhisattva of application; comprised chiefly of the practice of the 6 paramitas.
• see also: bodhichitta, mönpa semkyé (bodhichitta of aspiration), satparamita (6 paramitas)
• external links: (bodhichitta): wikipedia; (bodhichitta in action or bodhichitta of application): rigpawiki / RYwiki

≫ jutti (Punjabi: ਜੁੱਤੀ) = a type of footwear common in North India and neighboring regions, traditionally made of leather and with extensive embroidery in real gold and silver thread, as inspired by Indian royalty over 400 years ago.
• external links: wikipedia

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kado (Japanese: 華道, kadō, "the way of flowers") = the Japanese art of flower arrangement - see ikebana (Japanese ≫ main entry)
• see also (the three classical Japanese arts of refinement): kadō (flower arrangement), kōdō (incense appreciation) and chadō (tea and the tea ceremony)

≫ karma (Sanskrit: कर्मन्, IAST: karman; Tibetan: ལས་, lé; Wylie: las) = action, law of cause and effect, duty, religious rite.
• other languages:  (Tibetan)

≫ karmé (Tibetan: དཀར་མེ་, karmé; Wylie: dkar me) = lamp, offering lamp, sacred fire.

≫ karuna (Pāli & Sanskrit: करुणा, karuṇā; Tibetan: སྙིང་རྗེ་, nyingjé; Wylie: snying rje; Chinese: 慈悲 / 慈悲, Pinyin: cíbēi; also 悲, Pinyin: bēi; note that the single logographs of 慈 and 悲 are sometimes understood as being synonymous, but they are also sometimes separated into the meanings of 慈 = "kindness" i.e. maitrī and 悲 = "pity, sympathy, compassion, mercy" i.e. karuṇā) = compassion, the wish to free all beings from suffering and the causes of suffering.
• note (on meaning): DJKR emphasizes that the semantic range of the English word "compassion" does not at all do justice to the meaning of nyingjé/karuna/bodhichitta. In particular, because it has a dualistic and hierarchical connotation of "one who needs help" (in a "lower" situation) and "one who helps" (from a "higher" situation); DJKR: "The word compassion involves a lot of hierarchy. It’s very limiting and limited".
• dictionary definition of "compassion" = "sympathetic pity and concern for the sufferings or misfortunes of others" (Google dictionary).
• other languages: nyingjé (Tibetan)
• see also: 4 brahmaviharas (4 sublime attitudes; 4 immeasurables): (1) metta (loving-kindness), (2) karuna (compassion), (3) mudita (sympathetic joy), (4) upekkha (equanimity); bodhichitta (the compassionate wish to attain enlightenment for the benefit of all beings and also to bring them to that state)
• Buddhist terms: 4 immeasurablescompassion
• glossary: 3 types of compassion
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ Kashyapa (Sanskrit: काश्यप, IAST: kāśyapa; Pali: कस्सप, IAST: kassapa; Tibetan: འོད་སྲུང་, ösung; Wylie: 'od srung) = Buddha Kashyapa, the supreme nirmanakaya buddha immediately preceding Buddha Shakyamuni in this Fortunate Aeon; also used as short form of Mahakashyapa, one of the Buddha's principal disciples.
• see also: Mahakashyapa (one of the Buddha's principal disciples)
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki / Himalayan Art

≫ kaya (Sanskrit: काय, IAST: kāya also kāyaḥ; Tibetan: སྐུ་, ku; Wylie: sku) = "body" in the sense of a body or embodiment of numerous qualities; dimension; field; basis.
• see also: dharmakaya ("truth body" of a buddha), rupakaya ("form body" of a buddha)
• external links: (trikaya): wikipedia; (kaya): rigpawiki

kham (Tibetan: ཁམས་, kham; Wylie: khams) = realm, element, disposition, type, nature, component of experience - see dhatu (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ khom (Tibetan: ཁོམས་, khom; Wylie: khoms) = familiarise, condition to, familiarisation.

khorwa (Tibetan: འཁོར་བ་, khorwa; Wylie: 'khor ba) = samsara, cyclic existence - see samsara (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).
• easily confused: khorwa (samsara) & korwa (circumambulation)

≫ kira (Dzongkha: དཀྱི་ར་, kyira; Wylie: dkyi ra) = the Bhutanese traditional national dress for women, an ankle-length dress consisting of a rectangular piece of woven fabric.
• see also: gho (the Bhutanese traditional national dress for men)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ klesha (Sanskrit: क्लेश, IAST: kleśa; Tibetan (1): ཉོན་མོང་, nyönmong; Wylie: nyon mong; Tibetan (2): ཉོན་མོངས་, Wylie: nyon mongs) = afflictive emotions, destructive emotions, disturbing emotions, negative emotions; defilements, afflictions, mental afflictions, factors which disturb the mind. Building on the foundational categorization of the 3 poisons (ignorance/delusion, greed/attachment, and hatred/aversion) presented in the Pali Canon, Vasubandhu presents a list of the mulaklesha, the 6 root disturbing emotions in the Abhidharmakosha:
(1) raga (राग) = desire, attachment.
(2) pratigha (प्रतिघ) = anger.
(3) avidya (अविद्या) = unawareness, ignorance.
(4) mana (मान) = arrogance, pride, conceit.
(5) vicikitsa (विचिकित्सा) = indecisive wavering, doubt.
(6) drishti (दृष्टि) = view; deluded outlooks, wrong views.
• note (on meaning): the word "klesha" includes a sense of mental obscuration or defilement that is not fully captured by the English word "emotion".
• dictionary definition of "emotion" = "a natural instinctive state of mind deriving from one's circumstances, mood, or relationships with others" and "instinctive or intuitive feeling as distinguished from reasoning or knowledge" (Google Dictionary).
• other languages: nyönmong (Tibetan)
• see also (DJKR teaching): the six root kleshas in The Way of the Tathagata, Day 1, Pune (December 27, 2019)
• see also: Abhidharmakosha (Treasury of the Abhidharma); mulaklesha (the 6 root disturbing emotions); nyöndrip (emotional obscurations); trivisha (the 3 poisons)
• Buddhist terms: 6 destructive emotions
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / study buddhism (Berzin)

≫ koan (Japanese: 公案, kōan; Chinese: 公案; pinyin: gōng'àn) = a story, dialogue, question, or statement which is used in Zen practice (Chinese: Chán) to provoke the "great doubt" (Japanese: 大疑, taigi) and to practice or test a student's progress in Zen.
• see also: taigi (great doubt)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ kodo (Japanese: 香道, kōdō, "the way of fragrance") = the art of appreciating Japanese incense.
• see also (the three classical Japanese arts of refinement): kadō (flower arrangement), kōdō (incense appreciation) and chadō (tea and the tea ceremony)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ kor (Tibetan: བསྐོར་, kor; Wylie: bskor) = surrounded by, encircle, revolve, circumambulate (around a holy object e.g. stupa).
• see also: korwa (circumambulation, to be turned around)

kora (Tibetan) = redirects to korwa (Tibetan)

≫ korwa (Tibetan: བསྐོར་བ་, korwa; Wylie: bskor ba) = to be turned around, circumambulation, encircle, surround.
• easily confused: khorwa (samsara) & korwa (circumambulation)
• see also: kor (circumambulate, surrounded by)

≫ Krishna (Sanskrit: कृष्ण, IAST: kṛṣṇa) (Vishnu in his eighth incarnation), the most celebrated hero of Indian mythology and the most popular of all the Hindu deities; wicked, evil; black, dark, dark-blue; the black antelope; a crow; the (Indian) cuckoo; the dark half of a lunar month (from full to new moon); the Kali age.

≫ kshanti (Sanskrit: क्षान्ति, IAST: kṣānti; Pali: खन्ति, IAST: khanti: Tib. བཟོད་པ་, zöpa; Wylie: bzod pa; Chinese: 忍辱 / 忍辱, Pinyin: rěnrù) = patience, forbearance, restraint, endurance, indulgence; defined as the ability not to be perturbed by anything. The third of the 6 paramitas.
• see also: paramita (transcendent perfection); satparamita (6 paramitas): (1) dana (generosity), (2) shila (discipline), (3) kshanti (patience), (4) virya (diligence), (5) dhyana (meditative concentration), (6) prajña (wisdom).
• Buddhist terms: 6 paramitas: (1) generosity, (2) discipline, (3) patience, (4) diligence, (5) meditative concentration, (6) wisdom.
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

ku (Tibetan: སྐུ་, ku; Wylie: sku) = "body" in the sense of a body or embodiment of numerous qualities; dimension; field; basis - see kaya (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ kudang yeshe (Tibetan: སྐུ་དང་ཡེ་ཤེས་; Wylie: sku dang ye shes) = the (four) kayas and (five) wisdoms; the kayas and timeless awareness.

≫ Kukkuripa (Tibetan: ཀུ་ཀུ་རི་པ་; Wylie: ku ku ri pa) = an Indian mahasiddha said to have lived in the 9th/10th centuries in Kapilavastu at the Nepal-India border, who is often depicted together with a dog. During his travels as a wandering yogi, he found a starving dog in a bush. Moved by compassion, he fed the dog and took care of her. The two stayed together and eventually found a cave where Kukkuripa could meditate. When he went out for food, the dog would stay and guard the cave. He is counted as one of the 84 mahasiddhas.
• see also: mahasiddha
• external links: wikipedia / Himalayan Art

≫ kündzop denpa (Tibetan: ཀུན་རྫོབ་བདེན་པ་; Wylie: kun rdzob bden pa; literally "all-concealing truth"; Sanskrit: समावृतसत्य, IAST: samāvṛta + satya; also shortened to Sanskrit: समावृत, IAST: samāvṛta; literally "veiled, hidden, concealed") = relative truth; conventional truth. [Note: many online sources have the Sanskrit as "saṁvṛiti-satya", which does not appear in the Sanskrit dictionary).
• see also: denpa nyi (2 truths) = (1) döndam denpa (absolute or ultimate truth), (2) kündzop denpa (relative truth)
• Buddhist terms: 2 truths = (1) ultimate truth, (2) relative truth
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki

≫ Küntuzik (Tibetan: མགོན་པོ་ཀུན་ཏུ་གཟིགས་, gön po kün tu zik; Wylie: mgon po "lord, protector, guardian" + kun tu gzigs "he who sees everything and everywhere"; Sanskrit (reconstructed from the Tibetan): नाथ समन्तदर्षिन्, IAST: Nātha Samantadarṣin, many sources have Sanskrit: समन्तदर्शिन्, IAST: Samantadarśin) = Gönpo Küntuzik (also shortened to Küntuzik), the Buddha 'All-Gazing' or 'All-Seeing Guide'; the name that bodhisattva Mañjushri will take when he is finally fully enlightened as a Buddha in the Vimala universe of the southern direction; See "Glossary of Names" in "Treasury of Knowledge, Book 1: Myriad Worlds"; DJKR: 'The Buddha That Gazes At Everything'.
• external links: (Buddhist cosmology): wikipedia; (the legend of Mañjushri from the Mahāprajñāpāramitāshāstra): Wisdom Library; (Samantadarśin): Wisdom Library
• external references: Jamgön Kongtrül Lodrö Thayé, translated by Kalu Rinpoche Translation Group (2013) "Treasury of Knowledge, Book 1: Myriad Worlds", Snow Lion: Boston and London.

≫ Kurukulla (Sanskrit: कुरुकुल्ला, IAST: Kurukullā; Tibetan: ཀུ་རུ་ཀུ་ལླཱ་, Wylie: ku ru ku l+lA, also Tibetan: རིག་བྱེད་མ་, rikjéma; Wylie: rig byed ma) = a female deity usually depicted in red with four arms, holding a bow and arrow made of flowers in one pair of hands and a hook and noose of flowers in the other pair. She dances in a Dakini-pose and crushes the asura Rahu (the one who devours the sun). She is particularly associated with activities of magnetizing and enchantment. Also spelled Kurukullé.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Himalayan Art

Kurukullé - see Kurukulla.

≫ kushiki (Japanese: 九識, ku "nine" + shiki "vijñāna") = the nine consciousnesses, a concept from Nichiren Buddhism. The ninth and final consciousness is known as Buddhanature or Namu-myoho-renge-kyo, and it cannot be tarnished by any of the previous eight levels. Nichiren Daishonin, founder of Nichiren Buddhism, theorised that one can transform one's karma in this lifetime by achieving the final level of consciousness, and he recommended the practice of chanting the mantra Namu-myoho-renge-kyo in order to do so.
• see also: ashtavijñanakaya (eight consciousnesses); Namu Myoho Renge Kyo
• external links: wikipediaChinese Buddhist Encyclopedia

≫ kusulu (Tibetan: ཀུ་སུ་ལུ་; Wylie: ku su lu) = beggar, bum; natural, uncontrived; type of yogin who does what comes naturally; shaman; one who gives up all work and frequents mountain retreats; DJKR: renunciant, wanderer, yogi; "usually found in the bar or prostitutes' house".

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≫ Lalitasana (Sanskrit: ललितासन, IAST: Lalitāsana = ललित, lalita, "sport, play, dalliance" + आसन, IAST: āsana, "physical posture, pose"; Tibetan: རོལ་སྟབས་, röl tap, Wylie: rol stabs, literally "posture of play, merriment, frolicking" from རོལ་པ་, rölpa; Wylie: rol pa, "display, play, partake of, enjoy, revel") = "the royal position" or "the posture of royal ease"; a relaxed pose typical in royal portraits and those of religious figures whose regal attributes are being emphasized. The figure sits on a throne with one leg tucked inwards on the seat and the other - usually the proper right leg - hanging down ("pendent") to touch the ground or rest on a support (often a stylized lotus throne). The pose is very common for bodhisattva images and deities such as Tara, but rare for the Buddha himself, except as the "future Buddha" Maitreya.
• see also: asana (physical posture, pose)
• external links: wikipedia (includes images of Lalitasana as depicted in Buddhist art)

≫ Lalitavistara Sutra (Sanskrit: ललितविस्तरसूत्र, IAST: Lalitavistarasūtra = ललित, lalita, "sport, play, dalliance" + विस्तर, vistara, "extensive, long (as a story)"; Tibetan: རྒྱ་ཆེར་རོལ་པ་, gyacher rolpa; Wylie: rgya cher rol pa; literally "The Extensive Sport" or "The Play in Full") = a sutra that tells the life story of the Buddha from a Mahayana perspective, from the time of his descent from Tushita, through his attainment of enlightenment until his first sermon in the Deer Park near Varanasi. The name Lalitavistara is often translated "The Play in Full" or "Extensive Play," referring to the Mahayana view that the Buddha’s last incarnation was a "display" or "performance" given for the benefit of sentient beings.
• see also: Buddha; sutra (includes partial list of sutras on this website)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki; (translation): 84000.co

≫ lassi (Punjabi: ਲੱਸੀ, Hindi: लस्सी) = a popular traditional dahi (curd / yogurt)-based drink that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Lassi is a blend of yoghurt, water, spices and sometimes fruit. Namkeen (salty) lassi is similar to doogh (Persian: دوغ‎, romanized: dūgh), a cold savory yogurt-based beverage mixed with salt that is widely popular in the Middle East. Sweet and mango lassis are like milkshakes, while bhang lassi is infused with cannabis in the form of bhang.
• see also: bhang (edible preparation of cannabis)
• external links: wikipedia

(Tibetan: ལས་, lé; Wylie: las) = karma, action, law of cause and effect - see karma (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ len (Tibetan: ལེན་, Wylie: len) = receive, accept, absorb, take hold, grasp, study.
• see also: panglen (accepting and rejecting)

≫ lhak (Tibetan: ལྷག་, lhak; Wylie: lhag) = special, supreme, beyond; DJKR: "something extra", "the real deal", "the true colour".
• other languages: vi- (Sanskrit, Pāli)
• see also: lhaktong (vipassana)

lhaktong (Tibetan: ལྷག་མཐོང་, lhaktong; Wylie: lhag mthong) = vipassana.
• other languages: vipassana (Pāli ≫ main entry)
• see also: lhak (special)

≫ lila (Sanskrit: लीला, IAST: līlā) = play, sport, diversion, amusement, pastime; within nondual schools of Hindu philosophy, lila is a way of describing how the cosmos and all reality is a manifestation of the "divine play" of the absolute (Brahman).
• external links: wikipedia

≫ lobha (Pāli: लोभ, IAST: lobha) = greed.
• easily confused: raga (desire) is different from lobha (greed). Although several sources treat lobha and raga as synonymous, the word for "attachment" as one the 3 poisons in the original Pāli texts is lobha.
• see also: trivisha (3 poisons): (1) moha (ignorance or delusion), (2) raga (greed or attachment), (3) dvesha (hatred or aversion)
• external links: (3 poisons): wikipedia

Lotus Sutra - see Pundarika Sutra

≫ lung (Tibetan: ལུང་, lung; Wylie: rlung) = scriptural transmission, reading transmission, scriptural authority.

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M

ma rigpa (Tibetan: མ་རིག་པ་, ma rigpa; Wylie: ma rig pa) = ignorance; misconceptions about the nature of reality (in particular, not understanding or accepting the 3 marks of existence) - see avidya (Sanskrit  main entry).

≫ madhyamaka (Sanskrit: माध्यमक, IAST: mādhyamaka; Tibetan: དབུ་མ་པ་, umapa; Wylie: dbu ma pa) = madhyamaka, the middle way free from all extremes (including the extreme views of eternalism and nihilism). May be used to refer to: (1) the Madhyamaka school, a tradition of Buddhist philosophy founded by the Indian philosopher Nagarjuna; (2) the ultimate nature of mind and nature of phenomena; and (3) the realisation of the ultimate nature of mind and nature of phenomena (e.g. in meditative equipoise).
• see also: Nagarjuna (Indian Buddhist philosopher)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ magga (Pāli: मग्ग, IAST: magga; Sanskrit: मार्ग, IAST: mārga; Tibetan: Tibetan: ལམ་, lam; Wylie: lam) = path; the fourth of the 4 noble truths.
• see also: cattari ariyasaccani (4 noble truths): (1) dukkha (suffering), (2) samudaya (origin of suffering), (3) nirodha (cessation of suffering), (4) magga (path).
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

≫ maha (Sanskrit: महा, IAST: mahā) = great.

≫ mahakaruna (Sanskrit: महाकरुण, IAST: mahākaruṇa) = great compassion.
• see also: karuna (compassion)

≫ Mahakashyapa (Sanskrit: महाकाश्यप; IAST: mahākāśyapa; Pāli: महाकस्सप, IAST: mahākassapa; Tibetan: འོད་སྲུང་ཆེན་པོ་, ösung chenpo; Wylie: 'od srung chen po; Chinese: 摩訶迦葉 / 摩诃迦叶, Pinyin: Móhē jiāyè) = one of the Buddha's principal disciples, regarded as the foremost in ascetic practice.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Himalayan Art

Mahasandhi (Sanskrit: महासन्धि , IAST: mahā, "great" + sandhi, "meeting, gathering, joint", i.e. "great gathering") = Dzogchen; (rigpawiki gives the meaning as "the gathering of all or the quintessence", however, it has the Sanskrit as saṅdhi सङ्धि, rather than sandhi सन्धि. RYwiki does not include diacritics in its entry for "mahasandhi").
• other names: Atiyoga, Dzogchen (Tibetan main entry)
• see also: mahasiddha (great accomplished one); Padmasambhava, Nyingma
• external links: (Mahasandhi): rywiki; (Dzogchen): rigpawiki

≫ mahasiddha (Sanskrit: महासिद्ध, IAST: mahāsiddha; Tibetan: གྲུབ་ཐོབ་ཆེན་པོ, druptop chenpo; Wylie: grub thob chen po; also (short form): གྲུབ་ཆེན་, drupchen; Wylie: grub chen) = great accomplished one; highly realised practitioner; someone who embodies and cultivates the "siddhi of perfection"; a yogi who has attained the supreme siddhi or accomplishment (i.e. enlightenment). The Mahasiddhas are the founders of Vajrayana traditions and lineages such as Dzogchen and Mahamudra, and most lived between 750 CE and 1150 CE. By convention, there are eighty-four Mahasiddhas in both Hindu and Tibetan Buddhist traditions, with some overlap between the two lists.
• see also: Dzogchensiddhi (accomplishment, attainment)
• see also (partial list of mahasiddhas on this website): Kukkuripa, Naropa, Tilopa
• external links (list of the 84 mahasiddhas): wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki / Himalayan Art

≫ Mahayana (Sanskrit: महायान, IAST: mahāyāna; Tibetan: ཐེག་པ་ཆེན་པོ་, tekpa chenpo; Wylie: theg pa chen po) = the great or universal vehicle; one of the two main existing branches of Buddhism (the other being Theravada) and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice. The Mahayana is also called the Bodhisattvayana, referring to the path followed by the bodhisattva seeking complete enlightenment for the benefit of all sentient beings.
• see also: Ekayana (the Single Vehicle); Hinayana (the Lesser Vehicle); Shravakayana (the Vehicle of the Shravakas); Theravada (the School of the Elders); Vajrayana (the Diamond Vehicle); yana (vehicle or method)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

maitri (Sanskrit: मैत्री, IAST: maitrī) - see metta (Pāli  main entry).

≫ mala (Sanskrit: माला; IAST: mālā; literally "garland"; also Sanskrit: जपमाला, IAST japamālā; Tibetan: འཕྲེང་བ་, trengwa; Wylie: 'phreng ba) = a string of prayer beads commonly used while reciting a mantra (the spiritual practice known in Sanskrit as japa, literally "muttering, whispering"). Malas are similar to other forms of prayer beads used in various world religions and sometimes referred to in English as a "rosary". The main body of a mala is usually 108 beads, often with a 109th bead of a distinctive size or color.
• see also (external): wikipedia

≫ mana (Sanskrit: मान, IAST: māna; Tibetan: ང་རྒྱལ་, nga gyel; Wylie: nga rgyal) = pride, arrogance, self-conceit; fourth of the 6 destructive emotions (mulaklesha).
• see also: klesha (afflictive/destructive/disturbing/negative emotions); mulaklesha (6 destructive emotions): (1) raga (desire), (2) pratigha (anger), (3) avidya (ignorance), (4) mana (pride), (5) vicikitsa (doubt), (6) drishti (view); nyöndrip (emotional obscurations)

≫ manas (Sanskrit & Pāli: मनस्, IAST: manas; also: मनसा, IAST: manasā; Tibetan: ཡིད་, yi; Wylie: yid) = mind (in its widest sense as applied to all the mental powers); ideational consciousness, the intellect, mental functioning, thought, subjective mind, conceptual mind.
• see also: mantra
• external links: wikipedia

≫ manasapratyaksha (Sanskrit: मानसप्रत्यक्ष, IAST: manasāpratyakṣa = manasāpratyakṣa; Tibetan: ཡིད་ཀྱི་མངོན་སུམ་, yikyi ngönsum, Wylie: yid kyi mngon sum) = mental perception, direct mental perception, immediate referential awareness; second of the 4 kinds of direct perception.
• see also: manas (mind), ngönsum zhi (4 kinds of direct perception)

≫ mandala (Sanskrit: मण्डल, IAST: maṇḍala, literally "circular, round"; Tibetan: དཀྱིལ་འཁོར་, kyilkhor; Wylie: dkyil 'khor, literally "centre and circumference") = a geometric configuration of symbols, used as a map to symbolize the sacred environment and dwelling place of a buddha, bodhisattva or deity, which is visualized by the practitioner in tantric practice; may be represented physically in two dimensions on cloth or paper, or made of heaps of colored sand, or in three dimensions traditionally made of wood.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ mantra (Sanskrit: मन्त्र, IAST: mantra; etymology "that which protects the mind", from manas, मनस् "mind" + trai, त्रै "to protect"; Tibetan: སྔགས་, ngak; Wylie: sngags; Japanese: 真言, shingon; Chinese: 真言 / 真言, Pinyin: zhēnyán, meaning "true word") = a sacred utterance, numinous sound, syllable, word or group of words often in Sanskrit or Pali believed by practitioners to have psychological or spiritual powers. Some mantras have a syntactic structure and literal meaning, while others do not. Mantras exist in various Buddhist traditions, particularly the Vajrayana or tantric tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, which is also known as Mantrayana. In the Japanese Shingon tradition, which is one of the few surviving Vajrayana lineages in East Asia, the word "shingon" means mantra.
• see also: dharani (a particular kind of mantra, usually quite long); Vajrayana (the Diamond Vehicle)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ Mara (Sanskrit: मार, IAST: māra; Tibetan: བདུད་, dü; Wylie: bdud) = killing, destroying; malevolent forces, demonic influences, obstructions, negative influences; the Destroyer who tempts men to indulge their passions; the demonic celestial king who attempted to prevent Prince Siddhartha from attaining enlightenment by threatening and tempting him when he was meditating under the bodhi tree.
• see also: düzhi (the four maras)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Himalayan Art

≫ maya (Sanskrit: मय, IAST: maya; Tibetan: སྒྱུ་འཕྲུལ་, gyuntrül; Wylie: sgyu 'phrul) = illusion, magical display, magic, artifice.

≫ metta (Pāli: मेत्ता, IAST: mettā; Sanskrit: मैत्री, IAST: maitrī; Tibetan: བྱམས་པ་, jampa; Wylie: byams pa; Chinese: 慈悲 / 慈悲, Pinyin: cíbēi; also 慈, Pinyin: ; note that the single logographs of 慈 and 悲 are sometimes understood as being synonymous, but they are also sometimes separated into the meanings of 慈 = "kindness" i.e. maitrī and 悲 = "pity, sympathy, compassion, mercy" i.e. karuṇā) = loving-kindness.
• see also: 4 brahmaviharas (4 sublime attitudes; 4 immeasurables): (1) metta (loving-kindness), (2) karuna (compassion), (3) mudita (sympathetic joy), (4) upekkha (equanimity)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ mi gewa (Tibetan: མི་དགེ་བ་, mi gewa; Wylie: mi dge ba) = non-virtuous, unwholesome, bad, dharmas ripening with unpleasant fruition.
• see also: gewa (virtuous)

mi takpa (Tibetan: མི་རྟག་པ་, mi takpa; Wylie: mi rtag pa) = impermanent, impermanence - see anicca (Pāli ≫ main entry).

≫ mi tokpa (Tibetan: མི་རྟོག་པ་, mi tokpa; Wylie: mi rtog pa; Sanskrit: अविकल्प, IAST: avikalpa, literally "not distinguished or particularized") = nonconceptuality, nonthought, nondiscrimination; one of the three meditation experiences (bliss, clarity, nonconceptuality).
• see also: tokmé (nonconceptuality), mi tokpé nyam (nonconceptuality as a meditation experience)

≫  mi tokpé nyam (Tibetan: མི་རྟོག་པའི་ཉམས་, mi tokpé nyam; Wylie: mi rtog pa'i nyams) = the experience of nonconceptuality or nonthought (e.g. as a meditation experience).
• see also (three experiences): dewé nyam (bliss), selwé nyam (clarity), mi tokpé nyam (nonconceptuality)
• external links: (three experiences of bliss, clarity & nonconceptuality): rigpawiki

≫ mi tsimpa (Tibetan: མི་ཚིམ་པ་, mi tsimpa; Wylie: mi + tshim pa) = not satisfied, not contented; DJKR: "not enough, not complete, there's no sense of enough or contentment".
• see also: dukkha (suffering, unsatisfactoriness), tsimpa (satisfied, content)

≫ moha (Pāli: मोह, IAST: moha; Sanskrit: मोह, IAST: moha); Tibetan: གཏི་མུག་, timuk; Wylie: gti mug) = bewilderment, confusion, delusion.
• easily confused: moha (bewilderment/confusion) is different from avidya (ignorance)
• see also: trivisha (3 poisons): (1) moha (ignorance or delusion), (2) raga (greed or attachment), (3) dvesha (hatred or aversion)

≫ moksha (Sanskrit: मोक्ष, IAST: mokṣa) = liberation, emancipation, release from.
• see also: nirvana (beyond suffering, state beyond sorrow)

≫ momo (Tibetan: མོག་མོག་, mok mok; Wylie: mog mog) = stuffed dumplings (Tibetan pasties), steamed bread.

≫ mönpa semkyé (Tibetan: སྨོན་པའི་བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་, mön pé jang chup kyi sem; Wylie: smon pa'i byang chub kyi sems; also shortened to Tibetan: སྨོན་པ་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་, mön pa sem kyé; Wylie: smon pa sems bskyed) = bodhichitta of aspiration (or aspiration bodhichitta), bodhichitta in aspiration; comprised chiefly of the practice of the 4 immeasurables.
• see also: 4 brahmaviharas (4 immeasurables); bodhichittajukpa semkyé (bodhichitta in action)
• external links: (bodhichitta): wikipedia; (bodhichitta of aspiration): rigpawiki / rywiki

≫ Mrigadava (Sanskrit: मृगदाव, mrigadava, IAST: mṛgadāva = mṛga + dāva, literally "deer park"; Chinese: 仙人鹿野苑 / 仙人鹿野苑, Xiānrén lùyěyuàn, literally "deer park of the sages", commonly written as 鹿野園 / 鹿野园, Pinyin: Lùyěyuán, literally "deer park") = The "Deer Park" in Sarnath (about 10km northeast of present-day Varanasi). Mrigadava was the location of the vihara (monastery) named Rishipatana where Shakyamuni Buddha gave his first teaching, the Dharmachakrapravartana Sutra (on the Four Noble Truths), to the five monks that were his former companions. It is one of the four great pilgrimage places determined by the Buddha.
• see also: Buddhacattari ariyasaccani (4 noble truths); catusamvejaniyathana (4 great Buddhist pilgrimage places in India); Dharmachakrapravartana Sutra (the first teaching given by Shakyamuni Buddha); Jetavana (Jeta's Grove, a vihara); vihara (monastery)
• Buddhist terms: 4 noble truths; Buddha; Deer Park
• external links: (Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta): wikipedia; (Mrigadava) wisdom library; (Rishipatana): wisdom library; (Sarnath): wikipedia

≫ mudita (Pāli & Sanskrit: मुदिता, IAST: muditā; Tibetan: དགའ་བ་, gawa; Wylie: dga' ba) = sympathetic joy.
• see also: 4 brahmaviharas (4 sublime attitudes; 4 immeasurables): (1) metta (loving-kindness), (2) karuna (compassion), (3) mudita (sympathetic joy), (4) upekkha (equanimity)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ mudra (Sanskrit: मुद्रा, IAST: mudrā; Tibetan: ཕྱག་རྒྱ་, chakgya; Wylie: phyag rgya; Chinese: 印契 / 印契, Pinyin: yìnqì; also: 印相 / 印相; Pinyin: yìnxiàng) = (1) gesture; hand gesture; symbolic gesture, pose or ornament; while some mudras involve the entire body, most are performed with the hands and fingers; usually seen in sculptural and painted representations of buddhas and bodhisattvas, that symbolically indicate their various activities; (2) seal or mark; any instrument used for sealing or stamping; seal-ring or signet-ring.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki

mulaklesha (Sanskrit: मूलक्लेश, IAST: mūla "root" + kleśa; Tibetan: རྩ་ཉོན་དྲུག་, tsa nyön druk; Wylie: rtsa nyon drug) = the (six) root (or primary) afflictive/destructive/disturbing emotions, presented by Vasubandhu in the Abhidharmakosha.
• see also: klesha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry, includes list of the 6 root kleshas in the Abhidharmakosha)
• Buddhist terms: 6 destructive emotions

≫ Mulamadhyamakakarika (Sanskrit: मूलमाध्यमककारिका = mūlamadhyamakakārikā, IAST: mūla + mādhyamaka + kārikā; also known as: Sanskrit: प्रज्ञा-नाम-मूलमाध्यमककारिका = prajñā-nāma-mūlamadhyamakakārikā, IAST: prajñanāmamūla + mādhyamaka + kārikā; Tibetan: དབུ་མ་རྩ་བ་ཤེས་རབ་, uma tsawa shérap; Wylie: dbu ma rtsa ba shes rab) = The Root Verses on the Middle Way, the most famous and important treatise on madhyamaka philosophy, written by Nagarjuna in approximately the 2nd or 3rd century CE.
• see also: madhyamaka (middle way), Nagarjuna (Indian Buddhist philosopher)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ münpé kalpa (Tibetan: མུན་པའི་བསྐལ་པ་; Wylie: mun pa'i bskal pa) = dark aeon or dark kalpa, a kalpa in which a Buddha does not appear.
• external links: (kalpa): wikipediaWisdom Library

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N

≫ Nagananda (Sanskrit: नागानन्द; IAST: nāgānanda; Tibetan: ཀླུ་ཀུན་ཏུ་དགའ་བའི་ཟློས་གར་, lu kün tu gawé dö gar; Wylie: klu kun tu dga' ba'i zlos gar) = "Joy of the serpents" (DJKR: "The play that makes the nagas happy"), a Sanskrit play attributed to King Harshavardhana (c. 590-647 CE), translated into Tibetan by Shongton Dorje Gyaltsen, available online as TBRC work W21861.
• external links: wikipedia

≫ Nagarjuna (Sanskrit: नागार्जुन, IAST: nāgārjuna; Tibetan: ཀླུ་གྲུབ་, ludrup; Wylie: klu grub) (c. 150-250 CE), Indian Buddhist philosopher, founder of the Madhyamaka school of Mahayana Buddhism.
• see also: madhyamaka (middle way), Mulamadhyamakakarika (The Root Verses on the Middle Way by Nagarjuna)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Himalayan Art

≫ nakdzi (Tibetan: གནག་རྫི་, nakdzi; Wylie: gnag rdzi; Dzongkha: ཝ་དི་པ་, wadipa) = cowherd.

naljor (Tibetan: རྣལ་འབྱོར་, naljor / nenjor; Wylie: rnal 'byor) = yoga (Sanskrit ≫ main entry); DJKR: "the wealth of being natural".

naljor ngönsum (Tibetan: རྣལ་འབྱོར་མངོན་སུམ་, naljor ngönsum / nenjor ngönsum; Wylie: rnal 'byor mngon sum; Sanskrit: योगिप्रत्यक्ष, yogipratyaksha; IAST: yogipratyakṣa) = yogic direct perception - see yogipratyaksha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).
• see also: ngönsum zhi (4 kinds of direct perception)

≫ Namu Myoho Renge Kyo (Japanese: 南無妙法蓮華經 alternate spelling 南無妙法蓮華経, Namu Myōhō Renge Kyō) = "Glory to the Dharma of the Lotus Sutra", a mantra chanted within Nichiren Buddhism. (Myōhō Renge Kyō is the Japanese name of the Lotus Sutra).
• see also: kushiki (the nine consciousnesses in Nichiren Buddhism); Pundarika Sutra (The Lotus Sutra)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ nangtsül (Tibetan: སྣང་ཚུལ་; Wylie: snang tshul) = how things appear; the way it seems; mode of appearing; apparent condition.
• see also: (contrasted with): nétsül (how things are in reality)

≫ Naropa (Prakrit: Nāropā; Sanskrit: नारोपदा, IAST: Nāropadā or Sanskrit: अभयकिर्ति, IAST: Abhayakirti; Tibetan: ནཱ་རོ་པ་, Wylie: nA ro pa) (956-1040), an important master in the Kagyü tradition. Naropa was born to a Brahmin family in Bengal, and from an early age he wanted to follow a path of study and meditation. Following his parents' wishes, he agreed to an arranged marriage with a young Brahmin girl, but after eight years they agreed to dissolve their marriage and both became ordained. At the age of 28, Naropa entered the famous Buddhist University at Nalanda where he studied both Sutra and Tantra, and he became a great scholar and debater. But one day a dakini appeared to him and he realized that he need to leave to monastery to find his teacher to attain full realization. He became a student of the mahasiddha Tilopa and subsequently a teacher of Marpa the translator, who became one of his lineage-holders and brought his teachings to Tibet, thus becoming the founder of the Kagyü lineages in Tibet. Naropa is counted as one of the 84 mahasiddhas.
• see also: mahasiddha; Tilopa (one of the 84 mahasiddhas)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki / Himalayan Art

≫ Nataraja (Sanskrit: नटराज, IAST: Naṭarāja = naṭa + rāja; Tamil: நடராஜர்; literally "Lord of the Dance") = Depiction of the Hindu god Shiva as the divine dancer. Every Shiva temple has a shrine dedicated to Shiva in the form of Naṭarāja performing the Ānanda Tāṇḍava, the “Dance of Bliss”, a vigorous dance that is the source of the cycle of creation, preservation and dissolution.
• external links: (Nataraja): wikipedia / wisdom library; (Tandava): wikipedia

nenjor ngönsum (Tibetan) = redirects to naljor ngönsum (Tibetan)

≫ nétsül (Tibetan: གནས་ཚུལ་; Wylie: gnas tshul) = how things are (in reality); the way it is; abiding mode (of reality).
• see also: (contrasted with): nangtsül (how things appear)

≫ ngéjung (Tibetan: ངེས་འབྱུང་, ngéjung; Wylie: nges ’byung) = renunciation, renunciation mind.

≫ ngöndro (Tibetan: སྔོན་འགྲོ་, ngön dro; Wylie: sngon 'gro; Sanskrit: पूर्वक, IAST: pūrvaka) = the preliminary, preparatory or foundational practices or disciplines (sādhanā) common to all four schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

ngönsum (Tibetan: མངོན་སུམ་, ngön sum; Wylie: mngon sum) = direct perception, direct cognition - see pratyaksha.
• other languages: pratyaksha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)
• see also: ngönsum zhi (4 kinds of direct perception)

≫ ngönsum zhi (Tibetan: མངོན་སུམ་བཞི་, ngön sum zhi; Wylie: mngon sum bzhi) = the 4 kinds of direction perception or direct cognition:
(1) indriyapratyaksha (sense perception).
(2) manasapratyaksha (mental perception).
(3) svasamvedana (self-cognition).
(4) yogipratyaksha (yogic direct perception).
• see also: pratyaksha (perception, cognition)

≫ nirmana (Sanskrit (1): निर्माण, IAST: nirmāṇa; Sanskrit (2) निर्माणम्, IAST: nirmāṇam) = forming, making, creating, creation, created thing or form, transformation.

≫ nirmanakaya (Sanskrit: निर्माणकाय, IAST: nirmāṇakāya; Tibetan: སྤྲུལ་སྐུ་, trülku; Wylie: sprul sku; Chinese: 化身 / 化身, Pinyin: huàshēn, literally "transformation body") = the body of transformations; the physical manifestation of a buddha in time and space; one of the three bodies (trikaya) of a buddha in Mahayana Buddhism; one of the two aspects of the form body (rupakaya) along with the sambhogakaya.
• see also: dharmakaya ("truth body"); kaya (body, dimension); nirmana (creation, created thing or form, transformation);  rupakaya ("form body"); sambhogakaya ("body of enjoyment"); trikaya (three bodies of a buddha); tulku (emanation body)
• external links: (nirmanakaya): wikipedia  / rigpawiki / rywiki; (trikaya): wikipedia

≫ nirodha (Pāli & Sanskrit: निरोध, IAST: nirodha, Sanskrit, Pāli; Tibetan: འགོག་པ་, gokpa; Wylie: ‘gog pa; Burmese: နိေရာဓ) = cessation, suppression, annihilation, extinction; the third of the 4 noble truths.
• see also: cattari ariyasaccani (4 noble truths): (1) dukkha (suffering), (2) samudaya (origin of suffering), (3) nirodha (cessation of suffering), (4) magga (path).
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ nirvana (Sanskrit: निर्वाण, IAST: nirvāṇa; Tibetan: མྱང་འདས་, nyandé; Wylie: myang 'das) = beyond suffering, state beyond sorrow; blown or put out, extinguished (as a lamp or fire); liberated from existence; calmed, quieted; complete extinction of or liberation from individual or worldly existence.
• other languages: nyandé (Tibetan)
• see also: moksha (liberation, release), samsara (cyclic existence)

≫ nyamlen (Tibetan: ཉམས་ལེན་, nyamlen; Wylie: nyams len) = Dharma practice, spiritual practice, to put into practice (as opposed to theory), application.

≫ nyamsum (Tibetan: ཉམས་གསུམ་, nyam sum; Wylie: nyams gsum) = the three meditation experiences (or "moods") of bliss, clarity and nonthought (or nonconceptuality).
• external links: rigpawiki / rywiki

≫ nyamzhak (Tibetan: མཉམ་བཞག་, nyam zhak; Wylie: mnyam bzhag; Sanskrit: समाहित, IAST: samāhita) = meditative equipoise; evenly resting; the state of even contemplation.
• see also: zhak (put, place, "leave it alone")

nyandé (Tibetan: མྱང་འདས་, nyandé; Wylie: myang 'das) = nirvana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

nyéjung (Tibetan) = redirects to ngéjung (Tibetan)

≫ nyéring chakdang (Tibetan: ཉེ་རིང་ཆགས་སྡང་; Wylie: nye ring chags sdang) = with partiality and prejudice to those close and distant; DJKR: "not yet free from distinctions and references, such as closeness or distance".

≫ nyidzin (Tibetan: གཉིས་འཛིན་, nyidzin; Wylie: gnyis 'dzin) = dualism, dualistic perception; dualistic grasping, dualistic fixation; subject-object dualism; the ordinary perception of unenlightened beings; the apprehension of phenomena in terms of subject (consciousness) and object (mental images and the outer world), and the belief in their true existence.
• see also: yin-yang (dualism in Taoism)
• external links: (dualism in Indian philosophy): wikipedia

nyingjé (Tibetan: སྙིང་རྗེ་, nyingjé; Wylie: snying rje) = compassion, the wish to free all beings from suffering and the causes of suffering - see karuna (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).
• note (on meaning): DJKR emphasizes that the semantic range of the English word "compassion" does not at all do justice to the meaning of nyingjé/karuna/bodhichitta.
• dictionary definition of "compassion" = "sympathetic pity and concern for the sufferings or misfortunes of others" (Google dictionary).

≫ Nyingma (Tibetan: རྙིང་མ་, Wylie: rnying ma; literally "ancient") = the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism (the other three are the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug). Also often referred to as Ngangyur (Tibetan: སྔ་འགྱུར་རྙིང་མ་, ngagyur nyingma; Wylie: snga 'gyur rnying ma, literally "school of the ancient translations" or "old school") because it is founded on the first translations of Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit into Old Tibetan in the 8th century, for which the Tibetan alphabet and grammar were created. The Nyingma particularly believes in terma (hidden treasure teachings) and places an emphasis on Dzogchen.
• see also: DzogchenPadmasambhava
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ nyöndrip (Tibetan: ཉོན་སྒྲིབ་, nyöndrip; Wylie: nyon sgrib; Sanskrit: क्लेशावरण, IAST: kleśāvaraṇa from क्लेश + आवरण, IAST: kleśa + āvaraṇa; Chinese: 煩惱障 / 烦恼障, Pinyin: fánnǎo zhàng) = emotional obscurations, afflictive obstructions, obstructions to liberation.
• see also: drib (obscuration); dribpa nyi (2 obscurations): (1) nyöndrip (emotional obscurations), (2) shédrip (cognitive obscurations); nyönmong (negative emotion)
• glossary: 2 obscurations = emotional obscurations (nyöndrip) & cognitive obscurations (shédrip)

nyönmong (Tibetan (1): ཉོན་མོང་, nyönmong; Wylie: nyon mong; Tibetan (2): ཉོན་མོངས་, Wylie: nyon mongs) = kleshas, afflictive emotions - see klesha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ nyönpa (Tibetan: སྨྱོན་པ་; Wylie: smyon pa; Sanskrit: अवधूत, IAST: avadhūta, "one who has shaken off (worldly obligations and concerns)") = madman, crazy yogi. A nyönpa is a free spirit who follows the rule of spontaneity and intuition, without following conventional societal rules for outward behavior. Instead, they are known for behaviors such as wandering homeless, consuming substances considered impure, drinking alcohol and eating meat, singing and dancing, and engaging in sexual relations. However, they dedicate their lives to renunciation and the path of enlightenment, and they inwardly follow traditional formal disciplines and practices of the spiritual path.
• see also: Thangtong Gyalpo
• external links: (Nyönpa): wikipedia; (Crazy Yogins During the Early Renaissance Period): THLIB

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O

≫ OM (Sanskrit: ॐ, IAST: Oṃ) = sacred sound and spiritual symbol in Indian religions. In Hinduism, it signifies the essence of the ultimate reality, consciousness or Atman; in Buddhism, it is the seed syllable for the body of all the buddhas.
• external links: wikipedia

≫ OM MANI PADME HUM (Sanskrit: ॐ मणिपद्मे हूँ, IAST: Oṃ Maṇi Padme Hūṃ; Tibetan: ཨོཾ་མ་ཎི་པ་དྨེ་ཧཱུ།, om mani pémé hung; Wylie: oM ma Ni pa d+me hU~M) = The six-syllable mantra of Avalokiteshvara (also known as the "Mani mantra").
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ oryoki (Japanese: 応量器, ōryōki; also called はったら, hattara, transliteration of Sanskrit: पात्र, IAST: pātra) = a set of nested bowls ("vessel that contains just enough") and other eating utensils for the personal use of Buddhist monks; the formal style of serving and eating meals practiced in Zen temples.
• external links: wikipedia

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P

≫ paan (Hindi: पान, pān, lit. "betel vine"; from Sanskrit: पर्ण, IAST: parṇa, meaning “leaf”) = a stimulating, psychoactive preparation of betel leaf combined with areca nut and/or cured tobacco that is widely consumed in Southeast Asia, East Asia and the Indian subcontinent.

Padmakara (Sanskrit: पद्माकर, IAST: padmākara = padma + kara; Tibetan: པདྨཱ་ཀ་ར་, Wylie: pad+mA ka ra) - see Padmasambhava (Sanskrit main entry).
• other names: Guru Rinpoche; Padmasambhava (Sanskrit main entry)

≫ Padmasambhava (Sanskrit: पद्मसम्भव, IAST: padmasambhava = padma + sambhava; literally "lotus-born", "born from a lotus"; Tibetan: པདྨ་འབྱུང་གནས་, Pemajungné; Wylie: pad+ma 'byung gnas) = Guru Rinpoche, the "Precious Master", the founder of Tibetan Buddhism in the 8th or 9th century (also known as Padmakara). According to tradition, Padmasambhava was incarnated as an eight-year-old child appearing in a lotus blossom floating in Lake Dhanakosha, in the kingdom of Oddiyana (located variously by scholars as being in the Swat Valley of modern-day Pakistan or the present-day state of Odisha in India). He helped to construct the first Buddhist monastery in Tibet at Samye, at the behest of King Trisong Detsen (who ruled c. 755–797/804 CE). While Buddha Shakyamuni exemplifies the buddha principle, the most important element in the sutrayana path, Padmasambhava personifies the guru principle, the heart of Vajrayana Buddhism, and he is therefore known as the ‘second Buddha’ (Tibetan: སངས་རྒྱས་གཉིས་པ་, sangyé nyipa; Wylie: sangs rgyas gnyis pa). The Nyingma school considers Padmasambhava to be a founder of the Nyingma lineage and tradition.
• other names: Guru Rinpoche; Padmakara
• see also: DzogchenNyingma; tertön
• external links: (Padmasambhava): wikipediarigpawiki / Himalayan Art; (25 disciples of Guru Rinpoche): rigpawiki / Himalayan Art

≫ pañchakula (Sanskrit: पञ्चकुल, IAST pañca- ("five") + kula ("race, family, tribe, caste"); Tibetan: རིགས་ལྔ་, rik nga'; Wylie: rigs lnga) = the five buddha families: buddha (centre/blue), vajra (east/white), ratna (or jewel) (south/yellow), padma (or lotus) (west/red), karma (or action) (north/green).
• Buddhist terms: 5 buddha families
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

panchashila (Sanskrit) = redirects to pañchashila (Sanskrit).

≫ pañchashila (Sanskrit: पञ्चशील, pañcaśīla; Pāli: pañcasīla; Tibetan: དགེ་བསྙེན་གྱི་སྡོམ་པ་, gé nyen gyi dom pa; Wylie: dge bsnyen gyi sdom pa) = the five precepts or five vows, the most important system of morality for Buddhist laypeople. To follow the five precepts is to vow to abstain from: killing, theft, sexual misconduct, falsehood and intoxication.
• see also: bhikshu (male monastic); bhikshuni (female monastic); upasaka (male lay practitioner); upasika (female lay practitioner)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ pandita (Sanskrit: पण्डित, IAST: paṇḍita; Tibetan: མཁས་པ་, khepa; Wylie: mkhas pa) = learned master (lit. "learned one"), scholar; professor in Buddhist philosophy.
• external links: wikipedia

≫ panglen (Tibetan: སྤང་བླང་, panglen / panglang; Wylie: spang len / spang blang) = accept and reject, accepting and rejecting, adopt or abandon.
• see also: len (receive, accept, absorb, take hold, grasp, study)

≫ paramita (Pāli & Sanskrit: पारमिता, IAST: pāramitā = पार, pāra, "the further bank or shore or boundary, the opposite side, the end or limit, the utmost reach or fullest extent" + √मी, root word , "going, moving"; Tibetan: ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ་, parol tu chinpa; Wylie: pha rol tu phyin pa; also Pāli: पारमी, IAST: pāramī; Burmese: ပါရမီ; Chinese: 波羅蜜 / 波罗蜜, Pinyin: bōluómì) = perfection, transcendent perfection, transcendental perfection, transcendental virtue. Noble character qualities and virtues generally associated with enlightened beings and cultivated on the Buddhist path. Literally means "reaching the other shore" or "gone to the other shore". Particularly, it means transcending concepts of subject, object and action. The bodhisattva path comprises the cultivation of six paramitas:
(1) dana (Sanskrit: दान, IAST: dāna; Tibetan: སྦྱིན་པ་, jinpa; Wylie: sbyin pa) = generosity.
(2) shila (Sanskrit: शील, IAST: śīla, Pāli: सील, IAST: sīla; Tibetan: ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་, tsultrim; Wylie: tshul khrims, "acting appropriately") = discipline.
(3) kshanti (Sanskrit: क्षान्ति, IAST: kṣānti; Pali: खन्ति, IAST: khanti: Tib. བཟོད་པ་, zöpa; Wylie: bzod pa) = patience.
(4) virya (Sanskrit: वीर्य, IAST: vīrya; Pali: विरिय, IAST: viriya; Tibetan: བརྩོན་འགྲུས་, tsöndrü; Wylie: brtson 'grus) = diligence.
(5) dhyana (Sanskrit: ध्यान, IAST: dhyāna; Pāli: झान, IAST: jhāna; Japanese: 禅, zen; Tibetan: བསམ་གཏན་, samten; Wylie: bsam gtan) = meditative concentration.
(6) prajña (Sanskrit: प्रज्ञ, IAST: prajña; Tibetan: ཤེས་རབ་, shérab / shérap; Wylie: shes rab) = wisdom, precise discernment, discriminating awareness.
• see also: satparamita (6 paramitas); trishiksha (3-fold training) = discipline (shila), meditation (samadhi) & wisdom (prajña)
• Buddhist terms: 6 paramitas
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ Parnashavari ((Hindi: पार्णशबरी, Parṇaśavarī; Chinese: 葉衣菩薩, Pinyin: Yèyī púsà; Tibetan: ལོ་མ་གྱོན་མ་, Loma Gyönma; Wylie: lo ma gyon ma, "leaf-clad goddess") = a Hindu deity adopted as the Buddhist deity of diseases, who offers protection against outbreaks of epidemics.
• external links: wikipedia / Himalayan Art

≫ passana (Pāli: पस्सना, IAST: passanā; Sanskrit: पश्यन, IAST: paśyana, from Sanskrit: पश्य, IAST: paśya, "seeing, beholding, rightly understanding", from root word √पश्, IAST: paś, "binding, fastening" as in बन्धन, bandhana; Tibetan: མཐོང་, tong; Wylie: mthong) = seeing.
• other languages: tong (Tibetan)
• see also: vipassana (special seeing, special insight)

Pön (Tibetan) = redirects to Bon (Tibetan).

≫ prajña (Sanskrit: प्रज्ञ, IAST: prajña; Tibetan: ཤེས་རབ་, shérab / shérap; Wylie: shes rab; Chinese: 智慧 / 智慧, Pinyin: zhìhuì) = precise discernment; wisdom; knowing correctly, clearly and fully, discriminating awareness; intelligence, knowledge; transcendent knowledge, sublime knowing; the sixth of the 6 paramitas and the third aspect of the 3-fold training.
• other languages: sherab (Tibetan)
• note (multiple translations): prajña (precise discernment, transcendent knowledge) and jñana (primordial wisdom) are both translated into English as "wisdom"
• see also: paramita (transcendent perfection); satparamita (6 paramitas): (1) dana (generosity), (2) shila (discipline), (3) kshanti (patience), (4) virya (diligence), (5) dhyana (meditative concentration), (6) prajña (wisdom); trishiksha (3-fold training) = discipline (shila), meditation (samadhi) & wisdom (prajña)
• Buddhist terms: 6 paramitas: (1) generosity, (2) discipline, (3) patience, (4) diligence, (5) meditative concentration, (6) wisdom.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ Prajñaparamitahridayasutra (Sanskrit: प्रज्ञापारमिताहृदयसूत्र, IAST: Prajñāpāramitāhṛdaya-sūtra = प्रज्ञापारमिता, prajñāpāramitā, "perfection in/of wisdom" + हृदय, hṛdaya, "heart"; Tibetan: ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱི་ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པའི་སྙིང་པོ་, shérap kyi paröltu chinpé nyingpo; Wylie: shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i snying po; Chinese: 般若心經, Pinyin: Bōrě xīnjīng, also shortened to 心經, Pinyin: Xīnjīng) = The Heart Sutra, said to be the most frequently used and recited text in the entire Mahayana tradition. It is a condensed exposé of the Mahayana teaching of the Two Truths doctrine, presented as a dialogue between Avalokiteshvara and Shariputra. It includes the famous statement "Form is emptiness, emptiness is form".
• DJKR teaching on Heart Sutra (June 5, 2020)
• see also: GATE GATE PARAGATE PARASAMGATE BODHI SVAHA (mantra from Heart Sutra); sutra (includes partial list of sutras on this website)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ pramana (Sanskrit: प्रमाण, IAST: pramāṇa; Tibetan: ཚད་མ་, tsema; Wylie: tshad ma) = valid cognition (lit. proof, means of knowledge); it refers to epistemology in Indian philosophies including Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism.
• external links: (pramana): wikipedia / rigpawiki; (Buddhist logic): wikipedia

≫ pratigha (Sanskrit: प्रतिघ, IAST: pratigha; Pāli: दोस, IAST: dosa; Tibetan: ཁོང་ཁྲོ་, khongtro; Wylie: khong khro) = anger, aggression, wrath, enmity, malice; second of the 6 destructive emotions (mulaklesha).
• see also: klesha (afflictive/destructive/disturbing/negative emotions); mulaklesha (6 destructive emotions): (1) raga (desire), (2) pratigha (anger), (3) avidya (ignorance), (4) mana (pride), (5) vicikitsa (doubt), (6) drishti (view); nyöndrip (emotional obscurations)

≫ pratityasamutpada (Sanskrit: प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद, IAST: pratītyasamutpāda; Pāli: पटिच्चसमुप्पाद, IAST: paṭiccasamuppāda; Tibetan: རྟེན་ཅིང་འབྲེལ་བར་འབྱུང་བ་, ten ching drelwar jungwa, Wylie: rten cing 'brel bar 'byung ba; also shortened to: Tibetan: རྟེན་འབྲེལ་དུ་འབྱུང་བ་, tendrel du jungwa; Wylie: rten 'brel du 'byung ba) = dependent origination, dependent arising; chain of causation.
• see also: dvadasha pratityasamutpada (12 links of dependent origination); samudaya (origin)
• Buddhist terms: dependent origination, origin
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ pratyaksha (Sanskrit: प्रत्यक्ष, pratyaksha; IAST: pratyakṣa; Tibetan: མངོན་སུམ་, ngönsum; Wylie: mngon sum) = direct perception, direct cognition.
(other languages): ngönsum (Tibetan)
• see also (4 kinds of direct perception): (1) indriyapratyaksha (sense perception), (2) manasapratyaksha (mental perception), (3) svasamvedana (self-cognition), (4) yogipratyaksha (yogic direct perception)

≫ pratyekabuddha (Sanskrit: प्रत्येकबुद्ध, IAST: pratyekabuddha; Pali: पच्चेकबुद्ध, IAST: paccekabuddha; Tibetan: རང་སངས་རྒྱས་, rang sangyé; Wylie: rang sangs rgyas; Chinese: 辟支佛 / 辟支佛, Pinying: bìzhī fó or Google has pìzhī fú; also: 緣覺 / 缘觉, Pinyin: yuánjué, literally "enlightened by contemplation on dependent arising") = solitary buddha, "solitary realizer", a buddha who lives in seclusion and obtains emancipation for himself only (as opposed to those buddhas who liberate others also).
• see also: arhatbodhisattva; buddha
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ Pratyekabuddhayana (Sanskrit: प्रत्येकबुद्धयान, IAST: pratyekabuddhayāna = प्रत्येकबुद्ध pratyekabuddha + यान yāna ; Pāli: पच्चेकबुद्धयान, IAST: paccekabuddhayāna; Chinese: 緣覺乘 / 缘觉乘; pinyin: Yuánjué Chéng) = the path or vehicle of the pratyekabuddhas or "solitary" realizers.
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

≫ puja (Pāli & Sanskrit: पूजा, IAST: pūjā) = devotional practice; ritual prayer and practice; religious observance; worship, honour, respect, reverence, veneration, homage to the buddhas and bodhisattvas (in Buddhism) or adoration of the gods (in Hinduism).
• see also: pujari (priest who performs temple rituals and devotional practices such as puja)
• external links: (puja in Buddhism): wikipedia / (puja in Hinduism): wikipedia

≫ pujari (Sanskrit: पूजारी, IAST: pūjārī) = priest who performs temple rituals and devotional practices such as puja. (Although both Buddhism and Hinduism have puja, the word pujari is more strongly associated with Hindu temple priests).
• see also: puja (ritual prayer and practice)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ Pundarika Sutra (Sanskrit: सद्धर्मपुण्डरीक सूत्र, IAST: Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra; Chinese: 妙法蓮華經, pinyin: Miàofǎ Liánhuá jīng, shortened to 法華經, Fǎhuá jīng; Japanese: 妙法蓮華経, Myōhō Renge Kyō; Korean: 법화경, Myobeomnyeonhwagyeong) = The Lotus Sutra, one of the most popular and influential Mahayana sutras, and the basis on which the Tiantai, Tendai, Cheontae, and Nichiren schools of Buddhism were established.
• DJKR teaching: Lotus Sutra, New Delhi (March 18, 2018)
• see also: Ekayana (single vehicle); Namu Myoho Renge Kyo (mantra chanted in Nichiren Buddhism); sutra (includes partial list of sutras on this website)
• external links: wikipedia / New World Encyclopedia

≫ punya (Sanskrit: पुण्य, punya, IAST: puṇya; Pāli: पुञ्ञ, IAST: puñña; Tibetan: བསོད་ནམས་, sönam; Wylie: bsod nams) = merit, virtue, meritorious, meritorious karma.
• other languages: sönam (Tibetan)
• external links: (merit in Buddhism): wikipedia; (punya in Hinduism): wikipedia; (merit): rigpawiki

≫ purushartha (Sanskrit: पुरुषार्थ, IAST: puruṣārtha) = (one of) the four objects or aims of existence according to Hindu philosophy: (1) kāma (काम, the gratification of desire, pleasure, love, psychological values); (2) artha (अर्थ, acquiring wealth, prosperity, material values); (3) dharma (धर्म, discharging one's duty, righteousness, moral values); (4) moksha (मोक्ष, liberation, spiritual values).
• external links: wikipedia

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R

≫ raga (Pāli: राग, IAST: rāga; Sanskrit: राग, IAST: rāga, "lust, attachment, excitement, passion"; also sometimes used synonymously with: Pāli: लोभ, IAST: lobha "greed, covetousness"; Tibetan: འདོད་ཆགས་, döchak; Wylie: 'dod chags) = desire, attachment, passion, lust; a character affliction or poison referring to any form of greed, sensuality, lust, or attachment to a sensory object; first of the 6 destructive emotions (mulaklesha); second of the 3 poisons (trivisha).
• (easily confused): raga (desire) is different from lobha (greed). Although several sources treat lobha and raga as synonymous, the word for "attachment" as one the 3 poisons in the original Pāli texts is lobha.
• see also: klesha (afflictive/destructive/disturbing/negative emotions); mulaklesha (6 destructive emotions): (1) raga (desire), (2) pratigha (anger), (3) avidya (ignorance), (4) mana (pride), (5) vicikitsa (doubt), (6) drishti (view); nyöndrip (emotional obscurations); trivisha (3 poisons): (1) moha (ignorance or delusion), (2) raga (greed or attachment), (3) dvesha (hatred or aversion)
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

rangrik (Tibetan: རང་རིག་, rang rik; Wylie: rang rig) = self-cognition, self-cognizance, self-awareness, reflexive awareness, self-perception - see svasamvedana (Sanskrit main entry).
• see also (4 kinds of direct perception): (1) indriyapratyaksha (sense perception), (2) manasapratyaksha (mental perception), (3) svasamvedana (self-cognition), (4) yogipratyaksha (yogic direct perception)
• external links: rigpawiki

≫ Richö (Tibetan: རི་ཆོས་, ri chö; Wylie: ri chos, "Mountain Dharma"; full name: རི་ཆོས་བསླབ་བྱ་ཉམས་ལེན་དམར་ཁྲིད་གོ་བདེར་བརྗོད་པ་གྲུབ་པའི་བཅུད་ལེན།; Wylie: ri chos bslab bya nyams len dmar khrid go bder brjod pa grub pa'i bcud len, "Extracting the Quintessence of Accomplishment: Oral Instructions for the Practice of Mountain Retreat, Expounded Simply and Directly in Their Essential Nakedness") = Mountain Dharma, a famous text written by H.H. Dudjom Rinpoche with advice on how to do retreat and become an authentic Dharma practitioner.
• external links: rigpawiki; (translations): Light of Berotsana (2014) / Vajrayana Foundation (1979)

≫ Rinpoche (Tibetan: རིན་པོ་ཆེ་, rinpoché; Wylie: rin po che) = "precious one", honorific title for incarnate lama or distinguished Dharma practitioner.

≫ rupakaya (Sanskrit: रूपकाय, rūpakāya = रूप rūpa (form) + काय kāya (body, dimension); Tibetan: གཟུགས་སྐུ་, zuk ku; Wylie: gzugs sku) = the "form body" or physical manifestation of a buddha; in the Mahayana, the rupakaya includes the two "form kayas" of nirmanakaya and sambhogakaya.
• see also: dharmakaya ("truth body"); kaya (body, dimension); nirmanakaya ("body of manifestations"); sambhogakaya ("body of enjoyment"); trikaya (three bodies of a buddha)
• external links: (trikaya): wikipedia; (rupakaya): rigpawiki / rywiki

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S

≫ sadhana (Sanskrit: साधना, IAST: sādhanā; Tibetan: སྒྲུབ་ཐབས་, druptap; Wylie: sgrub thabs) = means of accomplishment; Tantric liturgy and procedure for practice usually emphasizing the development stage.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ Saga Dawa (Tibetan: ས་ག་ཟླ་བ་, Saga Dawa; Wylie: sa ga zla ba, literally "full moon in the fourth month" from saga = "fourth month" and dawa = "moon"; also: ས་ག་ཟླ་བ་དུས་ཆེན་, Saga Dawa Düchen; Wylie: sa ga zla ba dus chen; Pāli: IAST: Vesākha; Sanskrit: वैशाख, IAST: Vaiśākha) = Vesak, also known as Buddha Jayanti, Buddha Purnima and Buddha Day. One of the four major Buddhist holidays, which is celebrated by Tibetan Buddhists on the full moon (15th day) of the fourth Tibetan lunar month. It celebrates Buddha Shakyamuni’s birth in Lumbini, enlightenment at Bodhgaya and parinirvana at Kushinagara. The holiday is celebrated on different days in different Buddhist countries according to local traditions (see wikipedia).
• other languages: Vesak (Pāli, from Vesākha)
• external links: (Buddha's birthday): wikipedia; (Saga Dawa): rigpawiki; (Vesak): wikipedia.

samatha (Pāli: समथ, IAST: samatha) = shamatha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ samadhi (Sanskrit: समाधि, IAST: samādhi; Tibetan: ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་, tingédzin; Wylie: ting nge 'dzin) = meditative absorption, stabilization, trance; the fourth and last stage of dhyāna (meditative concentration). Can refer both to the practice and the state of meditation; first aspect of the 3-fold training
• see also: dhyana (meditative concentration)
• see also (3-fold training or trishiksha) = discipline (shila), meditation (samadhi) & wisdom (prajña)
• external links: (meditation): wikipedia / rigpawiki; (samadhi): wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ sambhogakaya (Sanskrit: सम्भोगकाय, IAST: sambhogakāya; Tibetan: ལོངས་སྐུ་, longku; Wylie: longs sku; Chinese: 報身 / 报身, Pinyin: bàoshēn, literally "reward body") = "body of enjoyment", one of the three bodies (trikaya) of a buddha in Mahayana Buddhism; one of the two aspects of form (rupakaya) along with nirmanakaya.
• see also: dharmakaya ("truth body"); kaya (body, dimension); nirmanakaya ("body of manifestations"); rupakaya ("form body"); trikaya (three bodies of a buddha)
• external links: (sambhogakaya): wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki; (trikaya): wikipedia

samma-ditthi (Pāli: सम्मादिट्ठि, IAST: sammā-diṭṭhi) = right view - see samyak-drishti (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ samsara (Sanskrit: संसार, IAST: saṃsāra; Tibetan: འཁོར་བ་, khorwa; Wylie: 'khor ba) = cyclic existence, birth-and-death, worldly life, transmigration.
• other languages: khorwa (Tibetan)
• see also: nirvana (beyond suffering, liberation from worldly existence)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ samskara (Sanskrit: संस्कार, IAST: saṃskāra; Pāli: सङ्खार, IAST: saṅkhāra; Tibetan: འདུ་བྱེད་, dujé, Wylie: 'du byed) = mental formation, compounding, conditioned existence, formation, impulses; a mental creation (such as that of the external world, that is taken as real although actually non-existent), the second link in the 12-fold chain of causation or the fourth of the 5 skandhas).
• other languages: sankhara (Pāli)
• see also: skandha (aggregate)
• external links: (saṅkhāra in Buddhist philosophy): wikipedia; (saṃskāra in Indian philosophy): wikipedia

samten (Tibetan: བསམ་གཏན་, samten; Wylie: bsam gtan) = meditative concentration, mental focus - see dhyana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ samudaya (Pāli: समुदय, IAST: samudaya; Sanskrit: समुत्पाद, IAST: samutpāda; Tibetan: ཀུན་འབྱུང་, kunjung; Wylie: kun 'byung; Burmese: သမုဒယ) = origin, production, cause, rise; source of all, all-pervasive origin; the second of the 4 noble truths.
• see also: cattari ariyasaccani (4 noble truths): (1) dukkha (suffering), (2) samudaya (origin of suffering), (3) nirodha (cessation of suffering), (4) magga (path); pratityasamutpada (dependent origination)
• Buddhist terms: dependent origination, origin
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ samyak-drishti (Sanskrit: सम्यक्‌ दृष्टि or सम्यक्दृष्टि, IAST: samyak-dṛṣṭi; Pāli: सम्मादिट्ठि, IAST: sammā-diṭṭhi) = right view; the first practice of the 8-fold noble path.
• other languages: samma-ditthi (Pāli)
• Buddhist terms: right view; view; wrong view

sangyé (Tibetan: སངས་རྒྱས་, sangyé; Wylie: sangs rgyas) = buddha, buddhahood, fully enlightened - see Buddha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).
• note (on meaning): DJKR emphasizes that the semantic range of the English word "enlightenment" does not at all do justice to the meaning of buddha/sangyé or bodhi/jangchup - see notes for buddha.
• Buddhist terms: Buddha
• see also: bodhi (enlightenment)

≫ Sangyé Karmala Gawa (Tibetan: སངས་རྒྱས་སྐར་མ་ལ་དགའ་བ་, sangyé kar ma la gawa; Wylie: sangs rgyas skar ma la dga' ba; Sanskrit: ज्योतीराम, IAST: Jyotīrāma) = Buddha 'Delight in Stars'. The Buddha that presides over the Buddha realm Angushtha, which is described in "The Flower Bank World", Book 5 of the Avatamsaka Sutra (the Flower Ornament Sutra). Jamgön Kongtrül Lodrö Thayé also cites the Avatamsaka Sutra as a source for his description of the Buddha realms in Section II.A.2 in his "Treasury of Knowledge, Book 1: Myriad Worlds". See "Glossary of Names" in "Treasury of Knowledge, Book 1: Myriad Worlds"; DJKR: 'The Buddha Who Likes The Stars'.
• see also: Angushtha (The Buddha realm 'Thumb-sized')
• external links: (Avatamsaka Sutra): wikipedia; (Buddhist cosmology): wikipedia
• external references: Jamgön Kongtrül Lodrö Thayé, translated by Kalu Rinpoche Translation Group (2013) "Treasury of Knowledge, Book 1: Myriad Worlds", Snow Lion: Boston and London.

sankhara (Pāli: सङ्खार, IAST: saṅkhāra) = samskara, mental formation - see samskara (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ sannyasa (Sanskrit: संन्यास, IAST: saṃnyāsa also saṃnyāsaḥ) = renunciant, ascetic; putting or throwing down, laying aside, resignation, abandonment; renunciation, the fourth and final life stage within the Hindu philosophy of four age-based life stages (ashramas), marked by renunciation of material desires and prejudices and disinterest and detachment from material life. An individual in sannyasa is known as sannyasi (male) or sannyasini (female).
• see also: ashrama (4 life stages)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ Saraha (Sanskrit: सरह, IAST: saraha; alternative spellings: Sarahapa (Sanskrit: सरहपा, Odia: ସରହପା), Sarahapāda (Sanskrit: सरहपाद); Tibetan: མདའ་བསྣུན་, danün; Wylie: mda' bsnun) = Saraha (c. 8th century CE), one of the 84 mahasiddhas; in Tibetan his name is translated as "archer" (he who has shot the arrow of nonduality into the heart of duality); in iconography he is depicted holding an arrow. He is considered one of the founders of Vajrayana, and particularly the Mahamudra tradition.
• see also: mahasiddha (great accomplished one)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Himalayan Art

Sarahapa (Sanskrit: सरहपा) = alternative spelling of Saraha, one of the 84 mahasiddhas - see Saraha.

≫ sati (Pāli: सति, IAST: sati; Sanskrit: स्मृति, smriti, IAST: smṛti; Tibetan: དྲན་པ་, drenpa, Wylie: dran pa; Burmese: သတိ) = mindfulness, recollection, calling to mind, bearing in mind, remembrance, presence of mind, memory, awareness.
• other languages: drenpa (Tibetan), smriti (Sanskrit)
• see also: shamatha (calm abiding), vipassana (insight)
• external links: (sati): wikipedia; (smriti): wikipedia; (mindfulness): wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ satori (Japanese: 悟り, satori; literally "comprehension, understanding, awakening") = in the Zen Buddhist tradition, satori refers to the experience of kenshō (見性), "seeing the true nature (of reality)" or "seeing into one's true nature" (from 見, ken "seeing" + 性, shō "nature/essence"). Satori and kenshō are often used interchangeably, and both are commonly translated as enlightenment and related terms including bodhi, prajña and Buddhahood. However in the Zen tradition, the word "enlightenment" has different connotations from its use in the Indo-Tibetan Buddhist tradition. According to some authors, kenshō is a brief glimpse, while satori is considered to be a deeper spiritual experience. But even satori is considered a "first step" or embarkation toward Buddhahood, rather than complete enlightenment and attaining Buddhahood.
• see also: Buddha; sangyé (buddha, buddhahood)
• external links: (kensho): wikipedia; (satori): wikipedia

≫ satparamita (Sanskrit: षट्पारमिता, IAST: ṣaṭ + pāramitā; Tibetan: ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ་དྲུག་, parol tu chinpa druk; Wylie: pha rol tu phyin pa drug; also shortened to: Tibetan: ཕར་ཕྱིན་དྲུག་, par chin druk; Wylie: phar phyin drug; Chinese: 六波羅蜜 / 六波罗蜜, Pinyin: liù bōluómì) = the 6 paramitas or 6 "transcendent perfections" that comprise the bodhisattva path - see paramita (transcendent perfection ≫ main entry, includes list of the 6 paramitas)
• Buddhist terms: 6 paramitas

sattva (Sanskrit: सत्त्व, IAST: sattva) = being, existence, entity, reality; sentient being - see semchen (Tibetan main entry)

≫ selwa (Tibetan: གསལ་བ་, selwa; Wylie: gsal ba) = luminosity, radiance, clarity, vividness, cognizance.
• see also: selwé nyam (experience of clarity)

≫ selwé nyam (Tibetan: གསལ་བའི་ཉམས་, selwé nyam; Wylie: gsal ba'i nyams) = experience of clarity (e.g. as a meditation experience)
• see also (three experiences): dewé nyam (bliss), selwé nyam (clarity), mi tokpé nyam (nonconceptuality)
• external links: (three experiences of bliss, clarity and nonconceptuality): rigpawiki

≫ sem (Tibetan: སེམས་, sem; Wylie: sems; Sanskrit: चित्त, IAST: citta) = mind, 'cognitive act', thoughts, mentation, cognition, grasping mind; ordinary dualistic mind; the ordinary mind that comprises our ordinary perceptions, thoughts and emotions.
• other languages: chitta (Sanskrit)
• see also: semnyi (nature of mind)
• external links: rigpawiki

≫ semchen (Tibetan: སེམས་ཅན་, sem chen; sems can, literally "having mind" or "endowed with mind"; Sanskrit: सत्त्व, IAST: sattva) = sentient being; a being with consciousness, sentience, or in some contexts life itself; it principally refers to beings in contrast with buddhahood. That is, sentient beings are characteristically not enlightened, and are thus confined to dukkha (suffering, unsatisfactoriness) and the cyclic existence of death and rebirth in samsara.
• see also: dukkha (unsatisfactoriness, suffering); samsara; sem (mind)
• external links: (sattva): wikipedia; (sentient being): wikipedia

semngo (Tibeta: སེམས་ངོ་, semngo; Wylie: sems ngo; also Tibetan: སེམས་ཀྱི་ངོ་བོ་, semkyi ngowo; Wylie: sems kyi ngo bo) = nature of mind - see semnyi.
(other names): semnyi (nature of mind)

≫ semnyi (Tibetan: སེམས་ཉིད་, semnyi; Wylie: sems nyid; Sanskrit: चित्तता, IAST: cittatā) = nature of mind; mind-essence; defined in the tantras as the inseparable unity of awareness and emptiness (or clarity and emptiness), it is the basis for all the ordinary perceptions, thoughts and emotions of the ordinary dualistic mind (སེམས་, sem).
• other names: semngo (mind essence)
• other languages: chittata (Sanskrit)
• see also: Dzogchensem (mind, ordinary dualistic mind)
• external links: rigpawiki

≫ sernya (Tibetan: གསེར་ཉ་, sernya; Wylie: gser nya; Sanskrit: gaurmatsya from गौर + मत्स्य, IAST: gaura + matsya) = The Auspicious Golden Fishes, one of the 8 Auspicious Symbols. A pair of golden fish that symbolise fearlessness, freedom and liberation, as well as happiness, fertility and abundance.
• see also: Tashi Tagyé (8 Auspicious Symbols)

≫ Shakyamuni (Sanskrit: शाक्यमुनि; IAST: śākyamuni; Tibetan: སངས་རྒྱས་ཤ་ཀྱ་ཐུབ་པ་, sang gyé sha kya tup pa; Wylie: sangs rgyas sha kya thub pa) = The Buddha; born as Siddhartha Gautama, he is also commonly known as Shakyamuni ("sage of the Shakya clan") and as the Tathagata ("thus-come-one" or "thus-gone-one").
• see also: bodhi (enlightenment); Buddha;  pañchakula (5 buddha families); Siddhartha (the Buddha); sugata ("gone blissfully", syn. the Buddha); tathagata ("thus come / thus gone", syn. the Buddha)
• external links: wikipedia / rywiki / Himalayan Art

≫ shamatha (Sanskrit: शमथ, IAST: śamatha; Pāli: समथ, IAST: samatha; Tibetan: ཞི་གནས་, zhiné; Wylie: zhi gnas; Burmese: သမထ; Chinese: 止, Pinyin: zhǐ, literally "to stop", also transliterated as: 奢摩他 / 奢摩他, Pinyin: shēmótā) = calm abiding, stabilizing meditation, meditative equipoise, tranquility of the mind.
• other languages: samatha (Pāli), zhiné (Tibetan)
• see also: sati (mindfulness, recollection), vipassana (insight)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / study buddhism (Berzin)

≫ shastra (Sanskrit: शास्त्र, IAST: śāstra; Tibetan: བསྟན་བཅོས་, tenchö; Wylie: bstan bcos) = a treatise or commentary on the words of the Buddha.
• see also: sutra (discourse, words of the Buddha)
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

≫ shedra (Tibetan: བཤད་གྲྭ, Wylie: bshad grwa) = literally "place of teaching", refers specifically to the educational program in Tibetan Buddhist monasteries and nunneries. Many of the Tibetan shedras base their program on a set number of texts. In the Nyingma school, this has often meant the ‘thirteen great texts’ of India, together with their Tibetan commentaries. Together with the minor subjects such as grammar and history, the program may take twelve or thirteen years to complete
• see also: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ shédrip (Tibetan: ཤེས་སྒྲིབ་, shédrip; Wylie: shes sgrib; Sanskrit: ज्ञेयावरण, IAST: jñeyāvaraṇa from ज्ञेय + आवरण, IAST: jñeya + āvaraṇa; Chinese: 所知障 / 所知障, Pinyin: suǒzhī zhàng; earlier rendered in in both Yogacāra and Tathāgatagarbha texts as 智障 / 智障, zhìzhàng) = cognitive obscurations, obstructions to omniscience.
• see also: drib (obscuration); dribpa nyi (2 obscurations): (1) nyöndrip (emotional obscurations), (2) shédrip (cognitive obscurations)
• glossary: 2 obscurations = emotional obscurations (nyöndrip) & cognitive obscurations (shédrip)

≫ shekpa (Tibetan: གཤེགས་པ་, shekpa; Wylie: gshegs pa; Sanskrit: गत, IAST: gata) = to approach, proceed, depart, go away, dissolve into; DJKR "going and coming, together (i.e. at the same time)".
• other languages: gata (Sanskrit)
• see also: dézhin shekpa (tathagata)

sherab (Tibetan: ཤེས་རབ་, shérap; Wylie: shes rab) = prajña, transcendent knowledge - see prajña (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ shila (Sanskrit: शील, IAST: śīla, Pāli: सील, IAST: sīla; Tibetan: ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་, tsultrim; Wylie: tshul khrims, literally "acting appropriately"; Chinese: 尸羅 / 尸罗, Pinyin: shīluó; also translated as: 持戒 / 持戒, Pinyin: chíjiè, in the sense of "keeping the precepts") = virtue, discipline, moral conduct, moral discipline, morality, ethical conduct; the second of the 6 paramitas and first aspect of the 3-fold training.
• other languages: tsültrim (Tibetan)
• see also: paramita (transcendent perfection); satparamita (6 paramitas): (1) dana (generosity), (2) shila (discipline), (3) kshanti (patience), (4) virya (diligence), (5) dhyana (meditative concentration), (6) prajña (wisdom); trishiksha (3-fold training) = discipline (shila), meditation (samadhi) & wisdom (prajña); tsültrim sum (the 3 kinds of discipline according to the Mahayana)
• Buddhist terms: 6 paramitas: (1) generosity, (2) discipline, (3) patience, (4) diligence, (5) meditative concentration, (6) wisdom.
• external links: (Buddhist ethics): wikipedia; (discipline): rigpawiki

shiné (Tibetan) = redirects to zhiné (Tibetan)

≫ shloka (Sanskrit: श्लोक, IAST: śloka; Tibetan (1): ཚིག་བཅད་, tsikché; Wylie: tshig bcad; Tibetan (2): ཚིགས་བཅད་, Wylie: tshigs bcad) = stanza, verse.
• other languages: tsikché (Tibetan)

≫ shramana (Sanskrit: श्रमण, IAST: śramaṇa; Pali: समण, IAST: samaṇa; Tibetan: དགེ་སྦྱོང་, géjong; Wylie: dge sbyong; Burmese: သမဏ; Chinese: 動息 / 动息, Pinyin: dòngxí) = Buddhist ascetic, disciple, mendicant; wanderer, recluse, practitioner; one who labors, toils, or exerts themselves (for some higher or religious purpose); seeker, one who performs acts of austerity, ascetic.
• external links: wikipedia

≫ shramanera (Sanskrit: श्रामणेर, IAST: śrāmaṇera; Pali: सामणेर, IAST: sāmaṇera; Tibetan: དགེ་ཚུལ་, gé tsül; Wylie: dge tshulBurmese: သာမေဏရ; Chinese: 沙彌 / 沙弥, Pinyin: shāmí) = male novice monk not yet of age.
• see also: bhikshu (male monastic or monk); bhikshuni (female monastic or nun); shramanerika (female novice nun); upasaka (male lay practitioner); upasika (female lay practitioner)
• see also: Theravada (the school of the elders)

≫ shramanerika (Sanskrit: श्रामणेरिका, IAST: śrāmaṇerikā; Pali: सामणेरी; IAST: sāmaṇerī; Tibetan: དགེ་ཚུལ་མ་, gé tsül ma; Wylie: dge tshul ma; Burmese: သာမေဏရီ; Chinese: 沙彌尼 / 沙弥尼, Pinyin: shāmíní) = female novice nun not yet of age.
• see also: bhikshu (male monastic or monk); bhikshuni (female monastic or nun); shramanera (male novice monk); upasaka (male lay practitioner); upasika (female lay practitioner)
• see also: Theravada (the school of the elders)

≫ shravaka (Sanskrit: श्रावक, IAST: śrāvaka; Pāli: सावक, IAST: sāvaka; literally "hearing, listening"; Burmese: သာဝက; Tibetan: ཉན་ཐོས་, nyentö; Wylie: nyan thos; Chinese: 聲聞 / 声闻, Pinyin: shēngwèn) = disciple of the Buddha; hearer or listener of the teachings; "one who hears and proclaims"; follower of the Shravakayana (basic vehicle) who strives to attain the level of an arhat.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ Shravakayana (Sanskrit: श्रावकयान, IAST: śrāvaka + yāna; Tibetan: ཉན་ཐོས་ཀྱི་ཐེག་པ་, nyentö kyi tekpa; Wylie: nyan thos kyi theg pa) = "the vehicle of the shravakas (listeners)", one of the three yanas known to Indian Buddhism (along with the Pratyekabuddhayana and Mahayana). The Shravakayana path leads to the goals of an arhat, an individual who achieves liberation as a result of listening to the teachings (or lineage) of a Samyaksambuddha (i.e. fully enlightened Buddha, such as Shakyamuni Buddha). The Theravada is the only surviving school of Buddhism based on the Shravakayana. First of the 9 yanas according to the Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism.
Note: some Mahayana texts refer to the Shravakayana vehicle as the "Hinayana" (or "lesser vehicle" in contrast to the later Mahayana as the "great vehicle"), a pejorative term also in the past widely used by Western scholars. In 1950 the World Fellowship of Buddhists declared that the term "Hinayana" should not be used when referring to any form of Buddhism existing today, and modern Buddhist scholarship uses the term "Nikaya Buddhism" to refer to early Buddhist schools. Some contemporary Buddhist teachers (including DJKR) prefer to use the term "Shravakayana"; DJKR: "Hinayana is a Mahayana chauvinist term, so we don’t want to use this term”.
• see also: Ekayana (the Single Vehicle); Hinayana (the Lesser Vehicle); Mahayana (the Great Vehicle); Theravada (the School of the Elders); Vajrayana (the Diamond Vehicle); yana (vehicle or method)
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

≫ shunyata (Sanskrit: शून्यता, IAST: śūnyatā; Pāli: सुञ्ञता, IAST: suññatā; Tibetan: སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་, tongpa nyi; Wylie: stong pa nyid; Burmese: သုည-တာ; Chinese: 空 / 空, Pinyin: kōng) = emptiness; lack of true existence; illusory nature (of all worldly phenomena); the ultimate nature of phenomena, namely their lack of inherent existence.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ Siddhartha (Sanskrit: सिद्धार्थ, IAST: Siddhārtha; Pāli: सिद्धत्थ, IAST: Siddhattha; Tibetan: དོན་གྲུབ་, döndrub, Wylie: don grub) = Siddhartha (literally "one who has accomplished his aim"), the Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE).
• see also: bodhi (enlightenment); Buddha;  pañchakula (5 buddha families); Shakyamuni (the Buddha); sugata ("gone blissfully", syn. the Buddha); tathagata ("thus come / thus gone", syn. the Buddha)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

Siddhartha Gautama (Sanskrit: सिद्धार्थ + गौतम, IAST: Siddhārtha + Gautama; Pāli: सिद्धत्थ + गोतम, IAST: Siddhattha + Gotama) = see Siddhartha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)
• see also: Gautama (Sanskrit), Gotama (Pāli)

≫ siddhi (Sanskrit: सिद्धि, IAST: siddhi; Tibetan: དངོས་གྲུབ་, ngödrup; Wylie: dngos grub; also: བསྒྲུབ་, drup; Wylie: bsgrub; Chinese: 悉地 / 悉地, Pinyin: xīdì) = accomplishment, complete attainment, success, performance, fulfilment, magical power; there are eight 'common' siddhis said to be developed by the practice of yoga. Among these are clairvoyance, clairaudiance, the ability to fly through the air, the ability to read thoughts, and control of the body and external world, enabling one to transform both at will. The supreme siddhi is enlightenment.
• see also: mahasiddha (great accomplished one)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ skandha (Sanskrit: स्कन्ध, IAST: skandha; Pāli: खन्ध, IAST: khandha; Tibetan: ཕུང་པོ་, pungpo; Wylie: phung po) = one of the 5 aggregates, the 5 constituent elements of being; psycho-physical constituents:
(1) rupa (Sanskrit: रूप, IAST: rūpa) = form (or matter)
(2) vedana (Sanskrit: वेदना, IAST: vedanā) = sensation (or feeling)
(3) samjña (Sanskrit: संज्ञा, IAST: saṃjñā) = perception
(4) samskara (Sanskrit: संस्कार, IAST: saṃskāra) = mental formations
(5) vijñana (Sanskrit: विज्ञान, IAST: vijñāna) = consciousness.
• see also: samskara (mental formations)
• external links: (5 skandhas): wikipedia

sloka (Sanskrit) = redirects to shloka (Sanskrit)

smriti (Sanskrit: स्मृति, IAST: smṛti) = mindfulness, recollection, calling to mind, bearing in mind, remembrance, presence of mind, memory, awareness - see sati (Pāli ≫ main entry).

sönam (Tibetan: བསོད་ནམས་, sönam; Wylie: bsod nams) = merit - see punya (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ stupa (Sanskrit: स्तूप, IAST: stūpa; Tibetan: མཆོད་རྟེན་, chörten; Wylie: mchod rten) = stupa.
• other languages: chörten (Tibetan)

≫ sugata (Sanskrit: सुगत, IAST: sugata) = going well, gone well, "one who has gone blissfully" (syn. the Buddha).
• see also: Buddha

≫ Sujata (Sanskrit: सुजाता, IAST: sujātā) = a milkmaid, who is said to have fed Gautama Buddha milk and rice, ending his six years of ascetism.
• external links: wikipedia

≫ sukha (Sanskrit: सुख, IAST: sukha; Tibetan: བདེ་བ་, dewa; Wylie: bde ba) = pleasure, bliss, happiness.
• other languages: dewa (Tibetan)
• see also: Sukhavati (the pure land of Amitabha)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ Sukhavati (Sanskrit: सुखावती, IAST: sukhāvatī; Tibetan: བདེ་བ་ཅན་, Dewachen; Wylie: bde ba can, literally: "Blissful [Land]") = Sukhavati, or the Western Paradise, refers to the western pure land of Amitabha in Mahayana Buddhism. The Sanskrit word sukhāvatī is the feminine form of sukhāvat ("full of joy; blissful").
• see also: Amitabha (buddha), sukha (pleasure, bliss)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ sutra (Sanskrit: सूत्र, IAST: sūtra also सूत्रम्, IAST: sūtram; Pāli: सुत्त, IAST: sutta; literally "string, thread"; Tibetan: མདོ་, do, Wylie: mdo) = discourse; canonical Buddhist scriptures, many of which are regarded as records of the oral teachings of Gautama Buddha. They were initially passed on orally by monks, then later written down and composed as manuscripts in various Indo-Aryan languages which were then translated into other local languages as Buddhism spread.
(partial list of sutras referred to on this website):
Dharmachakrapravartana Sutra (The Setting in Motion the Wheel of the Dharma Sutra) = the first teaching given by Shakyamuni Buddha at Deer Park in Sarnath. The main topic of the sutra is the 4 noble truths, and the sutra also refers to the middle way, impermanence, and dependent origination.
Lalitavistara Sutra ("The Play in Full") = a sutra that tells the life story of the Buddha from a Mahayana perspective, from the time of his descent from Tushita, through his attainment of enlightenment until his first sermon in the Deer Park near Varanasi.
Prajñaparamitahridaya Sutra ("Heart Sutra") = The Heart Sutra, said to be the most frequently used and recited text in the entire Mahayana tradition. It is a condensed exposé of the Mahayana teaching of the Two Truths doctrine, presented as a dialogue between Avalokiteshvara and Shariputra. It includes the famous statement "Form is emptiness, emptiness is form".
• Pundarika Sutra (The Lotus Sutra) = one of the most popular and influential Mahayana sutras, and the basis on which the Tiantai, Tendai, Cheontae, and Nichiren schools of Buddhism were established.
• see also: shastra (treatise or commentary on the words of the Buddha)
• external links: (Buddhist texts): wikipedia; (sutra): wikipediarigpawiki

≫ svasamvedana (Sanskrit: स्वसंवेदन, IAST: svasaṃvedana; Tibetan: རང་རིག་, rang rik; Wylie: rang rig) = self-cognition, self-cognisance, self-awareness; third of the 4 kinds of direct perception.
• other languages: rangrik (Tibetan)
• see also: ngönsum zhi (4 kinds of direct perception)

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T

≫ ta gom chöpa (Tibetan: ལྟ་སྒོམ་སྤྱོད་; Wylie: lta sgom spyod pa) = view, meditation and action (also translated as "view, meditation and conduct") [note: here "meditation" is bhavana = development, training, cultivation, practice]
• see also: chöpa (action, conduct), gompa (meditation, development, training), tawa (view)
• external links: rigpawiki

≫ taigi (Japanese: 大疑, taigi) = "great darkness" or "great doubt", an aim of koan (gong'an) study and practice in Zen (Chan). There is a well-known saying in Zen that "Great awakening (大悟, taigo) is only possible amid great doubt (大疑, taigi)”. (Also: "Great doubt, great awakening; no doubt, no awakening").
• see also: bodhi (enlightenment, awakening), koan (story or question used in Zen study and practice)
• external links: buddhism.org

≫ tajitu (simplified Chinese: 太极图; traditional Chinese: 太極圖; pinyin: tàijítú) = circular black and white symbol used to depict the concept of the "supreme ultimate" (太极, taiji) in Taoism, representing both its dualist (陰陽, yin-yang) and monist (无极, wuji) aspects.
• see also: nyidzin (dualism), yin-yang (literally "dark-bright", "negative-positive", a concept of dualism in Taoism)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ takta (Tibetan: རྟག་ལྟ་, tak ta; Wylie: rtag lta; also (long version): Tibetan: རྟག་པའི་ལྟ་བ་, takpé tawa; Wylie: rtag pa'i lta ba; Sanskrit: शाश्वतदृष्टि, IAST: śāśvata-dṛṣṭi; Pāli: सस्सतवाद, IAST: sassatavāda) = eternalism, view of permanence. The belief that there is a permanent and causeless creator of everything; in particular, that one's identity or consciousness has a concrete essence which is independent, everlasting and singular.
• see also: tanyi (2 extremes) = (1) takta (eternalism), (2) chéta (nihilism); tawa (view)
• Buddhist terms: eternalism, nihilism, view
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

≫ tamel gyi shepa (Tibetan: ཐ་མལ་གྱི་ཤེས་པ་, tamel gyi shepa; Wylie: tha mal gyi shes pa) = ordinary mind.

Tangtong Gyalpo (Tibetan) - redirects to Thangtong Gyalpo.

≫ tantra (Sanskrit: तन्त्र, IAST: tantra; Tibetan: རྒྱུད་, gyü; Wylie: rgyud) = continuity, continuum; tantra is classified into the three aspects of (1) ground/nature, (2) path/method and (3) result.
• other languages: gyü (Tibetan)

≫ tanyi (Tibetan: མཐའ་གཉིས་, ta nyi, Wylie: mtha' gnyis) = the two extremes or two sides; usually refers to the two extremes of eternalism and nihilism, but may also refer to being and non-being, or subject and object.
• see also: tanyi (2 extremes) = (1) takta (eternalism), (2) chéta (nihilism); tawa (view)

tarpa (Tibetan: ཐར་པ་, tarpa; Wylie: thar pa; Sanskrit: मोक्ष, IAST: mokṣa) = enlightenment, nirvana, liberation, release - see nirvana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ tashi (Tibetan: བཀྲ་ཤིས་, trashi; Wylie: bkra shis) = auspicious, favourable, good fortune, good luck.

≫ Tashi Tagyé (Tibetan: བཀྲ་ཤིས་རྟགས་བརྒྱད་, trashi takgyé; Wylie: bkra shis rtags brgyad; Sanskrit: अष्टमङ्गल, ashtamangala, IAST: aṣṭamaṅgala) = The Eight Auspicious Symbols. According to the Tibetan Buddhist tradition (following the order given in rywiki), these are:
(1) Parasol (Sanskrit: छत्त्ररत्न, IAST: chattraratna = छत्त्र, chattra, "umbrella" + रत्न, ratna, "jewel" also sitātapatra; Tibetan: ༺གདུགས་མཆོག།༻, gdugs mchog, "excellent umbrella", also རིན་ཆེན་གདུགས་, rinchenduk; Wylie: rin chen gdugs) = jeweled parasol, which is similar in ritual function to the baldachin or canopy, and represents the protection of beings from harmful forces and illness.
(2) Pair of Golden Fish (Sanskrit: गौर्मत्स्य, IAST: gaurmatsya or kanakamatsya; Tibetan: ༺གསེར་ཉ།༻, sernya; Wylie: gser nya) = symbolise the auspiciousness of all sentient beings in a state of fearlessness without danger of drowning in samsara. The two fishes originally represented the two main sacred rivers of India, the Ganges and Yamuna, which are associated with the lunar and solar channels, and represent fertility and abundance.
(3) Treasure Vase (Sanskrit: निधिघट, IAST: nidhighaṭa = निधि, nidhi, "treasure" + घट, ghaṭa, "jar, large earthen water-jar"; घट; Tibetan: ༺བུམ་པ།༻, bum pa, also གཏེར་ཆེན་པོའི་བུམ་པ་, terchenpo'i bumpa; Wylie: gter chen po'i bum pa, "vase of great treasure") = treasure vase, which represents health, longevity, wealth, prosperity, wisdom and the phenomenon of space. It also symbolizes the Buddha's infinite quality of teaching the dharma: no matter how many teachings he gives, the treasure never lessens.
(4) Lotus (Sanskrit: पद्म, IAST: padma or padmakuñjara; Tibetan: ༺པད་མ།༻, péma; Wylie: pad ma) = represents the primordial purity of body, speech, and mind, floating above the muddy waters of attachment and desire. The lotus symbolizes purity and renunciation. Although the lotus has its roots in the mud at the bottom of a pond, its flower lies immaculate above the water.
(5) Conch (Sanskrit: शङ्ख, IAST: śaṅkha or śaṅkhavarta; Tibetan: ༺དུང་དཀར་གཡས་འཁྱིལ།༻, dungkar yénkhyil; Wylie: dung dkar g.yas 'khyil) = a right-turning white conch shell, which represents the beautiful, deep, melodious, interpenetrating and pervasive sound of the dharma, which awakens disciples from the deep slumber of ignorance and urges them to accomplish their own welfare for the welfare of others.
(6) Endless knot (Sanskrit: श्रीवत्स, IAST: śrīvatsa; Tibetan: ༺དཔལ་བེའུ།༻, pelbeu; Wylie: dpal be'u, "knot of eternity")= a symbol of the ultimate unity of everything, which denotes "the auspicious mark represented by a curled noose emblematic of love". It also represents the intertwining of wisdom and compassion and the union of wisdom and method.
(7) Victory Banner (Sanskrit: ध्वज, IAST: dhvaja; Tibetan: ༺རྒྱལ་མཚན།༻, gyeltsen; Wylie: rgyal mtshan) = the banner or flag was a military standard of ancient Indian warfare. The symbol represents the Buddha's victory over the four maras, or hindrances on the path of enlightenment.
(8) Dharmachakra (Sanskrit: धर्मचक्र, IAST: dharmacakra; Tibetan: ༺གསེར་གྱི་འཁོར་ལོ།༻, gser gyi 'khor lo, also ཆོས་ཀྱི་འཁོར་ལོ་, chö kyi khorlo; Wylie: chos kyi 'khor lo) = an 8-spoked "Wheel of the Dharma" or "Wheel of the Law", which represents Gautama Buddha and the Dharma teaching.
The symbols are ordered differently in other Buddhist traditions (e.g. in Nepali Buddhism or Chinese Buddhism).
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywikiHimalayan Art

≫ Tashi Tsekpa (Tibetan: བཀྲ་ཤིས་བརྩེགས་པ་, trashi tsekpa; Wylie: bkra shis brtsegs pa) = "Heap of Goodness", a dharani from the Collection of Dharanis (Tibetan: གཟུངས་འདུས་, zungdü; Wylie: gzungs 'dus). Also known as "The Noble Stack of Auspiciousness".
• see also: dharani (chant, incantation, recitation)
• external links: FPMT (translation by Gavin Kilty)

≫ tatha (Sanskrit: तथा, IAST: tathā; Tibetan: དེ་བཞིན་, dézhin; Wylie: de bzhin) = that itself, like that, in that manner, so, thus; DJKR: "whatever it is", "as it is", "what is", "here and now".
• other languages: dézhin (Tibetan)
• see also: tathata (suchness, thusness); tathagata ("thus come / thus gone", syn. the Buddha); tathagatagarbha (buddhanature)

≫ tathata (Sanskrit: तथाता, IAST: tathātā; Tibetan: དེ་བཞིན་ཉིད་, dézhin nyi; Wylie: de bzhin nyid) = suchness, thusness, as it is, reality, state of being just as it is; true nature, true state of things.

≫ tathagata (Sanskrit: तथागत, IAST: tathāgata; Tibetan: དེ་བཞིན་གཤེགས་པ་, dézhin shekpa; Wylie: de bzhin gshegs pa) = thus gone, thus come, intrinsically inhering buddhahood, tathagata (syn. the Buddha); DJKR: "one who has gone beyond samsara and nirvana", "authentic presence", "authenticity".
• other languages: dézhin shekpa (Tibetan)
• see also: buddha; tathagatagarbha (buddhanature)

tathagatagarbha (Sanskrit: तथागतगर्भ, IAST: tathāgatagarbha; Tibetan: དེ་བཞིན་གཤེགས་པའི་སྙིང་པོ་, dézhin shekpé nyingpo; Wylie: de bzhin gshegs pa'i snying po) = buddhanature.
• see also: tathagata ("thus come / thus gone", syn. the Buddha)

tawa (Tibetan: ལྟ་བ་, tawa; Wylie: lta ba) = view, orientation, perspective, belief - see drishti.
• other languages: drishti (Sanskrit main entry)
• see also: tanyi (2 extremes) = (1) takta (eternalism), (2) chéta (nihilism); tawa (view); ta gom chöpa (view, meditation & action); tawa gompa chöpa drébu (view, meditation, action & result)
• Buddhist terms: eternalism, nihilism, view

tawa gompa chöpa (Tibetan: ལྟ་བ་སྒོམ་པ་སྤྱོད་པ་; Wylie: lta ba sgom pa spyod pa) = view, meditation & action - see ta gom chöpa (main entry)
• see also: tawa gompa chöpa drébu (view, meditation, action & result)

≫ tawa gompa chöpa drébu (Tibetan: ལྟ་བ་སྒོམ་པ་སྤྱོད་པ་འབྲས་བུ་; Wylie: lta ba sgom pa spyod pa 'bras bu) = view (the philosophical orientation), meditation (the act of growing accustomed to that view, for example in sitting practice), conduct (the implementation of that insight during the activities of daily life) and fruition (the final outcome resulting from such training). Each of the nine vehicles has its particular definition of view, meditation, conduct and fruition [note: here "meditation" is bhavana = development, training, cultivation, practice]; DJKR: "view, meditation, action and result".
• see also: tawa (view), gompa (meditation), chöpa (action), drébu (result)

≫ tekpa gu (Tibetan: ཐེག་པ་དགུ་, tekpa gu; Wylie: theg pa dgu; also ཐེག་པ་རིམ་པ་དགུ་, tekpa rimpa gu; Wylie: theg pa rim pa dgu "nine successive vehicles") = the nine yanas or vehicles according to the Nyingma classification of the Buddhist path.
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

≫ tekpa sum (Tibetan: ཐེག་པ་གསུམ་, tek pa sum; Wylie: theg pa gsum; also: ཀུན་འབྱུང་འདྲེན་པའི་ཐེག་པ་གསུམ་, kunjung drenpé tekpa sum; Wylie: kun 'byung 'dren pa'i theg pa gsum, "Three outer yanas leading from the origin") = the three yanas or vehicles known to Indian Buddhism; considered as the first 3 of the nine yanas in the Nyingma classification of the Buddhist path. The 3 yanas are:
(1) Shravakayana (Tibetan: ཉན་ཐོས་ཀྱི་ཐེག་པ་, nyentö kyi tekpa; Wylie: nyan thos kyi theg pa) =  the vehicle of listeners, pious attendants, shravakas.
(2) Pratyekabuddhayana (Tibetan: རང་སངས་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་ཐེག་པ་, rang sang gyé kyi tekpa; Wylie: rang sangs rgyas kyi theg pa) = the vehicle of lone-learners, pratyekabuddhas, solitary realizers.
(3) Mahayana/Bodhisattvayana (Tibetan: ཐེག་པ་ཆེན་པོ་, tekpa cheap; Wylie: theg pa chen po) = the vehicle of bodhisattvas, altruistic saints.
• external links: (yana): wikipedia; (three yanas): wikipediarigpawiki

≫ tertön (Tibetan: གཏེར་སྟོན་, ter tön; Wylie: gter ston) = treasure-revealer; a discoverer of ancient hidden texts or spiritual treasures (terma) said to have been hidden mainly by Guru Rinpoche (Padmasambhava) and Yeshe Tsogyal for the benefit of future generations. Many tertöns are considered to be incarnations of the 25 main disciples of Guru Rinpoche.
• see also: Padmasambhava
• external links: (tertön): wikipedia / rigpawiki; (25 disciples of Guru Rinpoche): rigpawiki

tétsom (Tibetan: ཐེ་ཚོམ་, té tsom; Wylie: the tshom) = doubt, suspicion, indecision, hesitation - see vicikitsa.
• other languages: vicikitsa (Sanskrit main entry)
• see also: klesha (afflictive/disturbing emotions, negative emotions); mulaklesha (six root disturbing emotions): raga (राग, desire), pratigha (प्रतिघ, anger), avidya (अविद्या, ignorance), mana (मान, pride), vicikitsa (विचिकित्सा, doubt), drishti (दृष्टि, view); nyöndrip (emotional obscurations)
• see also (six root disturbing emotions): raga (desire), pratigha (anger), mana (pride), vicikitsa (doubt)

≫ thab ké (Tibetan: ཐབས་མཁས་, thab ké; Wylie: thabs mkhas; Sanskrit: उपायकौशल्य, IAST: upāyakauśalya, from उपाय + कुशल, IAST: upāya + kuśala) = skilful means, skill in means, excellence in means, resourceful, expedient.
• see also: upaya (means, approach)

≫ Thangtong Gyalpo (Tibetan: ཐང་སྟོང་རྒྱལ་པོ་; Wylie: thang stong rgyal po, "King of the Empty Plain") (1361–1485), also known as Chakzampa, the "Iron Bridge Maker" (Wylie: lcags zam pa, from lcags zam "iron bridge"), Tsöndrü Zangpo "Excellent Persistence" (Wylie: brtson 'grus bzang po). He was also known as Madman of the Empty Valley. He was a great Buddhist practitioner, Chöd master, yogi, physician, blacksmith, architect, and a pioneering civil engineer. He is said to have built 58 iron chain suspension bridges around Tibet and Bhutan, several of which are still in use today. He also designed and built several large stupas of unusual design including the great Kumbum at Chung Riwoche in Tibet; established Gonchen Monastery in Derge; and is considered to be the father of a style of Tibetan opera called Lhamo. He is associated with the Shangpa Kagyü, Nyingma and Sakya traditions of Tibetan Buddhism, and with the tradition of "mad yogis" known as nyönpa. He is also known as a sorcerer character in the popular Tibetan story of Gesar. In addition, he is believed to be the most widely traveled person in Tibetan history.
• see also: nyönpa (madman, crazy yogi)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki / Himalayan Art

≫ Theravada (Pāli: थेरवाद, IAST: theravāda; Burmese: ေထရဝါဒ) = "the school of the elders", the most commonly accepted name of Buddhism's oldest extant school. The word "thero" (commonly appearing in the masculine and feminine forms thera and therī respectively) is an honorific term in Pali for senior bhikkhus and bhikkhunis (Buddhist monks and nuns) in the Buddhist monastic order.
• see also: bhikshu (Buddhist monk); bhikshuni (Buddhist nun); Ekayana (the Single Vehicle); Hinayana (the Lesser Vehicle); Mahayana (the Great Vehicle); Shravakayana (the Vehicle of the Shravakas); Vajrayana (the Diamond Vehicle); yana (vehicle or method)
• external links: (Theravada): wikipedia; (thero): wikipedia; (What is Theravada Buddhism?): Access to Insight

≫ thün (Tibetan: ཐུན་, Wylie: thun) = session, period; meditation session, practice session.
• see also: dathün (month-long meditation session)

≫ Tilopa (Prakrit: Tilopa; Tibetan: ཏི་ལོ་པ་, Wylie: ti lo pa) (988-1069), considered as the Indian patriarch of the Kagyü lineage and one of the 84 mahasiddhas. Although born into the priestly caste in Bengal, he took monastic vows and travelled throughout India receiving tantric teachings from many gurus. Following the advice of Matangi, one of his gurus, Tilopa started to work at a brothel in Bengal for a prostitute called Dharima as her solicitor and bouncer. During the day, he made his living by grinding sesame seeds (Sanskrit: तिल, IAST: tila), which gave rise to his name. Tilopa is often depicted eating a live fish, as it is said that his most famous student Naropa first met him while he was eating fish entrails by the side of a lake. He transmitted the Mahamudra to Naropa by means of the song known as The Ganges Mahamudra, which contains Tilopa's oral instructions for accomplishing enlightenment and is considered a definitive source text the tradition of Mahamudra meditation in general.
• see also: mahasiddha; Naropa
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Himalayan ArtTBRC / wisdom library

timuk (Tibetan: གཏི་མུག་, timuk; Wylie: gti mug) = bewilderment, confusion, delusion - see moha (Pāli & Sanskrit main entry).

tingédzin (Tibetan: ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་, tingédzin or ting ngé dzin; Wylie: ting nge 'dzin, from Tibetan: འཛིན་, dzin; Wylie: 'dzin = "to hold, grasp, apprehend" also "apprehending subject" + Tibetan: ཏིང་ངེ་, ting nyé; Wylie: ting nge = "clearly") = meditative concentration, stabilization, absorption - see samadhi (Sanskrit main entry).

≫ tokmé (Tibetan: རྟོག་མེད་, tokmé; Wylie: rtog med) = nonconceptuality, nonconceptual, nonthought, free from conceptual thinking.
• see also: mi tokpa (nonconceptuality)
• external links: rigpawiki

≫ tong (Tibetan: མཐོང་, tong; Wylie: mthong) = seeing, noticing, experiencing; DJKR: "realising", "awakened with".
• other languages: passana (Pāli)

≫ trang (Tibetan: འཕྲང་, trang; Wylie: 'phrang) = narrow dangerous path (on a cliff or in a ravine); narrow defile; perilous journey; ambush.
• see also: gompé trang (the ravine of meditation)

trashi (Tibetan) = redirects to tashi (Tibetan)

≫ trikaya (Sanskrit: त्रिकाय, IAST: trikāya; Tibetan: སྐུ་གསུམ, ku sum; Wylie: sku gsum; Chinese: 三身 / 三身, Pinyin: sānshēn) = three kayas; having three bodies; in Mahayana Buddhism, refers to the three bodies or three aspects of a buddha:
(1) dharmakaya ("truth body")
(2) sambhogakaya ("body of enjoyment")
(3) nirmanakaya ("body of manifestations")
• see also: kaya (body, dimension); rupakaya (form body)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Digital Dictionary of Buddhism

≫ trilakshana (Sanskrit: त्रिलक्षण, IAST: trilakṣaṇa = tri + lakṣaṇa; Pāli: तिलक्खण, IAST: tilakkhaṇa; Japanese: 三法印, sanbōin; Tibetan: ཕྱག་རྒྱ་གསུམ་, chak gya sum; Wylie: phyag rgya gsum, "three seals" or "three mudras") = the three marks of existence:
(1) anicca (impermanence)
(2) dukkha (unsatisfactoriness)
(3) anatta (non-self).
• see also: chökyi domzhi (the 4 seals, a Mahayana elaboration of the 3 marks of existence)
• glossary: 3 marks of existence
• external links: wikipedia

≫ Tripitaka (Sanskrit: त्रिपिटक, IAST: Tripiṭaka, literally "three baskets", from पिट, piṭa "basket", which is from the root word √पिट्, piṭ "gathering together"; Pāli: तिपिटक, IAST: Tipiṭaka; Tibetan: སྡེ་སྣོད་གསུམ་, denö sum; Wylie: sde snod gsum; Burmese: ပိဋကတ် သုံးပုံ ; Chinese: 三藏 / 三藏, Pinyin: Sānzàng) = The Three Baskets, the traditional term for the Buddhist scriptures (originally referring to the receptacles that held the palm-leaf manuscripts). The version canonical to Theravada Buddhism is known as the Pali Canon. Mahayana Buddhism also holds the Tripitaka to be authoritative but, unlike the Theravada, it also includes in its canon other literature and commentaries that were composed much later. The Tripitaka was composed between about 550 BCE and about the start of the common era, and likely written down for the first time in the 1st century BCE during the reign of King Walagambahu of Sri Lanka. The three baskets or categories of teachings are:
(1) Vinaya (Sanskrit: विनयपिटक, Vinaya Piṭaka, IAST: vinayapiṭaka; Pāli: विनयपिटक, IAST: Vinaya Piṭaka) = Rules and regulations of monastic life, ranging from dress code and dietary rules to prohibition of certain personal conduct. The Vinaya appears to have grown gradually as a commentary and justification of the monastic code (Pratimoksha).
(2) Sutra (Sanskrit: सूत्रपिटक, Sūtra Piṭaka, IAST: sūtrapiṭaka; Pāli: सुत्तपिटक, IAST: Sutta Piṭaka) = The teachings of the Buddha, which were transmitted orally until they were written down. The oldest of the three baskets.
(3) Abhidharma (Sanskrit: अभिधर्मपिटक, Abhidharma Piṭaka, IAST: abhidharmapiṭaka; Pāli: अभिधम्मपिटक, IAST: Abhidhamma Piṭaka) = Philosophical and psychological analysis and interpretation of Buddhist doctrine, a later tradition of scholastic analysis and systematization of the contents of the Sutra Pitaka originating at least two centuries after the two other parts of the canon.
• external links: wikipedia

≫ trishiksha (Sanskrit: त्रिशिक्षा, IAST: triśikṣā = tri + śikṣā; Pāli: तिसिक्खा, IAST: tisikkhā; also known simply as Sanskrit: शिक्षा, IAST: śikṣā or Pali: सिक्खा, IAST: sikkhā; Tibetan: བསླབ་པ་གསུམ་, lap pa sum, Wylie: bslab pa gsum, "three trainings"; also: ལྷག་པའི་བསླབ་པ་གསུམ་, lhak pé lap pa sum; Wylie: lhag pa'i bslab pa gsum, "three special trainings") = the 3-fold training in higher discipline/virtue, higher mind and higher wisdom (part of the Theravada canonical teachings from the Pali Canon). Pursuing this training leads to the abandonment of the three poisons (passion, aggression and ignorance or lust, hatred, and delusion). One who is fully accomplished in this training attains nirvana. The threefold training is also part of the bodhisattva training in the Mahayana (e.g. as mentioned by Nagarjuna in his Letter to a Friend, verse 53). The three aspects of the 3-fold training are:
(1) shila (moral discipline or virtue) = leads to abandonment of the poison of passion/lust
(2) samadhi (contemplation/meditation) = leads to abandonment of the poison of aggression/hatred
(3) prajña (discriminative awareness/wisdom) = leads to abandonment of the poison of ignorance/delusion
• Buddhist terms: 3-fold training
• external links: wikipedia

≫ trivisha (Sanskrit: त्रिविष, IAST = tri + viṣa, "poison, venom, anything actively pernicious"; Tibetan: དུག་གསུམ་, dug sum; Wylie: dug gsum) = the 3 poisons:
(1) moha (Pāli: moha) = delusion, confusion, bewilderment.
(2) raga (Pāli: lobha) = attachment, desire, sensuality, greed.
(3) dvesha (Pāli: dosa) = aversion, anger, hatred, hostility.
• see also: klesha
• external links: wikipedia

≫ trülpa (Tibetan: སྤྲུལ་པ་, trülpa; Wylie: sprul pa) = magical appearance, magically created appearance, apparition, emanation, manifestation, incarnation
• see also: trülku (emanation body)

trülku (Tibetan) = redirects to tulku (Tibetan)

≫ tshechu (Dzongkha: ཚེས་བཅུ་, tséchu; Wylie: tshes bcu; literally "day ten") = annual religious Bhutanese festivals held in each district or dzongkhag of Bhutan on the tenth day of a month of the lunar Tibetan calendar.
• external links: wikipedia

tsikché (Tibetan (1): ཚིག་བཅད་, tsikché; Wylie: tshig bcad; Tibetan (2): ཚིགས་བཅད་, Wylie: tshigs bcad) = stanza, verse - see shloka (Sanskrit main entry).

≫ tsimpa (Tibetan: ཚིམ་པ་, tsimpa; Wylie: tshim pa) = satisfied, content, contented.
• see also: mi tsimpa (unsatisfied, not content)

≫ tsolché (Tibetan: རྩོལ་བཅས་, Wylie: rtsol bcas) = involving effort.
• see also: (contrasted with): tsolmé (effortless)

≫ tsolmé (Tibetan: རྩོལ་མེད་, Wylie: rtsol med) = effortless, without striving.
• see also: (contrasted with): tsolché (involving effort)

tsültrim (Tibetan: ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་, tsül trim; Wylie: tshul khrims) = discipline, morality, ethical conduct - see shila (Sanskrit main entry).
• see also: tsültrim sum (the 3 kinds of discipline according to the Mahayana)

≫ tsültrim sum (Tibetan: ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་གསུམ་, tsül trim sum; Wylie: tshul khrims gsum) = the 3 kinds of ethical conduct or discipline according to the Mahayana. These are:
(1) nyéchö dompé tsültrim (Tibetan: ཉེས་སྤྱོད་སྡོམ་པའི་ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་, nyé chö dom pé tsül trim; Wylie: nyes spyod sdom pa'i tshul khrims) = the ethical conduct or discipline of controlling transgressions (DJKR: "refraining from non-virtuous actions").
(2) semchen dön jépé tsültrim (Tibetan: སེམས་ཅན་དོན་བྱེད་པའི་ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་, sem chen dön jé pé tsül trim; Wylie: sems can don byed pa'i tshul khrims) = the ethical conduct or discipline of benefitting sentient beings (DJKR: "helping others").
(3) gewé chö düpé tsültrim (Tibetan: དགེ་བའི་ཆོས་སྡུད་པའི་ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་, gewé chö dü pé tsül trim; Wylie: dge ba'i chos sdud pa'i tshul khrims) = the ethical conduct or discipline of gathering virtuous dharmas (DJKR: "extracting virtue, extracting wisdom/prajña").
• see also: shila (discipline, Sanskrit main entry for "discipline"); tsültrim (discipline)
• external links: rigpawiki / rywiki

≫ tulku (Tibetan: སྤྲུལ་སྐུ་, trülku; Wylie: sprul sku) = manifested body, emanation body, form body, nirmanakaya, incarnate lama
• see also: nirmanakaya (form body), trülpa (magical appearance)

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U

≫ uma shing tanyi (Tibetan: དབུ་མ་ཤིང་རྟ་གཉིས་, uma shing ta nyi; Wylie: dbu ma shing rta gnyis) = the "two chariots of madhyamaka", i.e. the two traditions of Nagarjuna and Asanga that have shaped the development of Mahayana Buddhism in Tibet and East Asia. Nagarjuna in 2nd century CE founded the Madhyamaka school, which emphasizes emptiness and nonself. Asanga in 4th century CE founded the Yogachara school, which emphasizes cognition, perception and consciousness.
• external links: rywiki

≫ upasaka (Sanskrit: उपासक, IAST: upāsaka; Tibetan: དགེ་བསྙེན་, genyen / gé nyen; Wylie: dge bsnyen; Chinese: 優婆塞 / 优婆塞, Pinyin: yōupósāi) = an adult lay male practitioner, devotee or disciple (female: upasika); layman. Originally meaning an attendant or servant, one of low caste, it became the name for a Buddhist layman who observes the five precepts (to avoid killing, stealing, lying, sexual misconduct, and intoxicating liquor). Contrast with monastic Buddhists who are referred to as bhikshu (male) and bhikshuni (female).
• see also: bhikshu (male monastic); bhikshuni (female monastic); pañchashila (five precepts); upasika (female lay practitioner)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ upasika (Sanskrit: IAST: upāsikā; Tibetan: དགེ་བསྙེན་མ་, genyenma; Wylie: dge bsnyen ma; Chinese: 優婆夷 / 优婆夷, Pinyin: yōupóyí) = an adult lay female practitioner, devotee or disciple (male: upasaka). More more information see upasaka.
• see also: bhikshu (male monastic); bhikshuni (female monastic); pañchashila (five precepts); upasaka (male lay practitioner)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ upaya (Sanskrit: उपाय, IAST: upāya) = means, approach, device, craft.
• see also: thab ké (skilful means)

≫ upekkha (Pāli: उपेक्खाा, IAST: upekkhā; Sanskrit: उपेक्षा, IAST: upekṣā; Tibetan: བཏང་སྙོམས་, tangnyom; Wylie: btang snyoms) = equanimity, one of the four sublime states (brahmavihara). (The Sanskrit has a semantic range more oriented towards overlooking, disregard, negligence, indifference, contempt, abandonment).
• see also: 4 brahmaviharas (4 sublime attitudes; 4 immeasurables): (1) metta (loving-kindness), (2) karuna (compassion), (3) mudita (sympathetic joy), (4) upekkha (equanimity)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ ushnisha (Sanskrit: उष्णीष, IAST: uṣṇīṣa also uṣṇīṣaḥ) = the protuberance on the head of a buddha, one of the 32 major marks of the Buddha (the Sanskrit word also means anything wound round the head, hence also turban, diadem, crown). Later definitions of the 32 major marks elaborate that the ushnisha is covered with hairs that curl in the direction of the sun, and later still the ushnisha includes a flame that ascends from the middle of the protuberance.
• external links: wikipedia

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V

≫ Vajrayana (Sanskrit: वज्रयान, Vajrayāna; IAST: vajrayāna, literally: "the vehicle of the vajra"; Tibetan: རྡོ་རྗེ་ཐེག་པ་, dorje tekpa; Wylie: rdo rje theg pa) = "Diamond Vehicle" or "Vehicle of the Vajra" (in Indian mythology, vajra refers both to "thunderbolt", especially that of Indra, and "diamond", which was thought to be the same substance as the thunderbolt or equally as hard); refers to the various traditions of Buddhist Tantra and "Secret Mantra", which developed in medieval India and spread to Tibet, Bhutan, and East Asia. Founded by medieval Indian Mahasiddhas, Vajrayana includes practices that make use of mantras, dharanis, mudras, mandalas and the visualization of deities and Buddhas. According to Vajrayana scriptures, Vajrayana is one of three vehicles or paths to enlightenment, the other two being the Shravakayana and Mahayana.
• see also: Mahayana (the Great Vehicle); mahasiddha; mandalamantra; mudraShravakayana (the Vehicle of the Shravakas); yana (vehicle or method)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

Vesak (Pāli: वेसाख, IAST: vesākha; Sanskrit: वैशाख, vaishaka; IAST: vaiśākha) = a holiday traditionally observed by Buddhists and some Hindus in South and Southeast Asia as well as Tibet and Mongolia. Also known as Buddha Jayanti, Buddha Purnima and Buddha Day, the festival commemorates the birth, enlightenment and parinirvana of Gautama Buddha in Theravada and Tibetan Buddhism. See Saga Dawa (Tibetan ≫ main entry).
• see also: Saga Dawa (Tibetan ≫ main entry)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ vi- (Sanskrit: वि; IAST: vi; Pāli: वि, IAST: vi; Burmese: ဝိ) = a prefix with multiple meanings, including: (1) it may give a meaning opposite to the idea contained in the simple root (e.g. krī-,"to buy"; vi-krī-,"to sell"); (2) it may intensify that idea (e.g. hiṃs-,"to injure"; vi-hiṃs-,"to injure severely"), hence "greater", "special", etc.; (3) it may connote expansion or spreading out. Added as a prefix to "passana" (seeing), it forms the word "vipassana" (special seeing, insight); DJKR (1): "special"; DJKR (2) "suchness”, “that”, “that which is”, “the real thing”, “the real deal”, “the real McCoy”, “the true color”.
• other languages: lhak (Tibetan)
• see also: vipassana (special seeing)

vicikitsa (Sanskrit: विचिकित्सा, IAST: vicikitsā; Tibetan: ཐེ་ཚོམ་, té tsom; Wylie: the tshom) = doubt; fifth of the 6 destructive emotions (mulaklesha).
(other languages): tétsom (Tibetan)
• see also: klesha (afflictive/destructive/disturbing/negative emotions); mulaklesha (6 destructive emotions): (1) raga (desire), (2) pratigha (anger), (3) avidya (ignorance), (4) mana (pride), (5) vicikitsa (doubt), (6) drishti (view); nyöndrip (emotional obscurations)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ vihara (Sanskrit: विहार, IAST: vihāra, literally: "a place of recreation, pleasure ground") = monastery, temple, or convent; in early Sanskrit and Pali texts, it meant any arrangement of space or facilities for pleasure and entertainment. The term evolved into an architectural concept referring to living quarters for monks with an open shared space or courtyard. It also refers to temporary refuges for wandering monks or nuns during the annual Indian monsoons.
• see also: Jetavana (Jeta's Grove, a vihara); Mrigadava (Deer Park, a vihara)
• external links: wikipediawisdom library

≫ Vikramashila (Sanskrit: विक्रमशिला, IAST: vikramaśilā) = one of the two most important centers of learning in India during the Pala Empire, along with Nalanda. Vikramashila was established (in the 8th century CE) by the Pala emperor Dharmapala (783 to 820) in response to a supposed decline in the quality of scholarship at Nalanda. Atisha, the renowned pandita, is sometimes listed as a notable abbot. Vikramashila was also a centre for Vajrayana, and its Tantric preceptors included Jayabhadra, a monk from Sri Lanka, who was the first prominent commentator on the Chakrasamvara tantra (in the 9th century CE).
• see also: Dharmapala (emperor)
• external links: wikipedia

vipashyana (Sanskrit: विपश्यन, IAST: vipaśyana) = vipassana (Pāli ≫ main entry).

≫ vipassana (Pāli: विपस्सना, IAST: vipassanā; Tibetan: ལྷག་མཐོང་, lhaktong; Wylie: lhag mthong; Sanskrit: विपश्यन, IAST: vipaśyanā; Chinese: 觀 / 观, Pinyin: guān, literally: "to observe", also transliterated as 毘婆舍那 / 毗婆舍那, Pinyin: pípóshènà) = special seeing, special insight, insight, greater seeing, clear seeing, vipassana.
• other languages: lhaktong (Tibetan), vipashyana (Sanskrit)
• see also: lhak (special), shamatha (calm abiding), sati (mindfulness, recollection), tong (seeing, noticing), vi- (special)

≫ virya (Sanskrit: वीर्य, IAST: vīrya; Pali: विरिय, IAST: viriya; Tibetan: བརྩོན་འགྲུས་, tsöndrü; Wylie: brtson 'grus; Chinese: 精進 / 精进, Pinyin: jīngjìn) = energy, diligence, enthusiasm, effort, exertion, vigor, strength; the fourth of the 6 paramitas.
• see also: paramita (transcendent perfection); satparamita (6 paramitas): (1) dana (generosity), (2) shila (discipline), (3) kshanti (patience), (4) virya (diligence), (5) dhyana (meditative concentration), (6) prajña (wisdom).
• Buddhist terms: 6 paramitas: (1) generosity, (2) discipline, (3) patience, (4) diligence, (5) meditative concentration, (6) wisdom.
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

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W

≫ wabi-sabi (Japanese: 侘寂) = a world view centered on the acceptance of transience and imperfection in traditional Japanese aesthetics. It is derived from the Buddhist teaching on the 3 marks of existence (三法印, sanbōin).
• see also: trilakshana (3 marks of existence): (1) anicca (impermanence), (2) dukkha (unsatisfactoriness) (3) anatta (nonself).
• glossary: 3 marks of existence
• external links: wikipedia

wadipa (Dzongkha: ཝ་དི་པ་) = cowherd - see nakdzi (Tibetan ≫ main entry).

wang (Tibetan: དབང་, wang; Wylie: dbang) = initiation, empowerment - see abhisheka (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ wangpo nönpo (Tibetan: དབང་པོ་རྣོན་པོ་; Wylie: dbang po rnon po; Sanskrit: तीक्ष्णेन्द्रिय, tīkṣṇendriya; IAST: tīkṣṇaindriya) = sharp faculties, keen faculties; sharp minded, intelligent, perceptive; as in "superior disciples of keen faculties" or "superior faculties" (as contrasted with inferior disciples with relatively dull faculties, wangpo tülpo)
• see also: wangpo tülpo (dull faculties)

≫ wangpo tülpo (Tibetan: དབང་པོ་རྟུལ་པོ་; Wylie: dbang po rtul po; Sanskrit: मृद्विन्द्रिय, mṛdv-indriya; IAST: mṛdv + indriya) = dull faculties; insensitive; as in "inferior disciples of dull faculties" or "inferior faculties" (as contrasted with superior disciples with relatively sharp faculties, wangpo nönpo)
• see also: wangpo nönpo (sharp faculties)

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Y

≫ yana (Sanskrit and Pāli: यान, IAST: yāna; Tibetan: ཐེག་པ་, tekpa; Wylie: theg pa) = vehicle or method; "that which carries"; a mode or method of spiritual practice in Buddhism, and in particular to divisions of various schools of Buddhism according to their type of practice.
• see also: Ekayana (the Single Vehicle); Hinayana (the Lesser Vehicle); Mahayana (the Great Vehicle); Shravakayana (the Vehicle of the Shravakas); Theravada (the School of the Elders); Vajrayana (the Diamond Vehicle)
• external links: (yana): wikipedia; (nine yanas in the Nyingma tradition): rigpawiki

≫ ye (Tibetan: ཡེ་, yé; Wylie; ye) = primordial, original, from the beginning, eternal.

yeshe (Tibetan: ཡེ་ཤེས་, yéshé; Wylie: ye shes) = wisdom, primordial wisdom - see jñana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ yin-yang (Chinese: 陰陽, pinyin: yīnyáng, literally "dark-bright", "negative-positive") = a concept of dualism in Taoist philosophy that describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another. It is often depicted using the tajitu, a circular black and white symbol or diagram.
• see also: nyidzin (dualism), tajitu (circular black and white symbol used to depict yin-yang)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ yoga (Sanskrit: योग, IAST: yoga also yogaḥ; Tibetan: རྣལ་འབྱོར་, naljor / nenjor; Wylie: rnal 'byor) = joining, uniting, union (in tantra: "union in fundamental reality"); attaching, harnessing (of horses); application or concentration of the thoughts, abstract contemplation, meditation.
• see also: yogi (practitioner of yoga)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ yogi (Sanskrit: योगि, IAST: yogi; also: योगिन्, IAST: yogin; Tibetan: རྣལ་འབྱོར་པ་, naljorpa / nenjorpa; Wylie: rnal 'byor pa) = a contemplative, devotee or ascetic; practitioner of yoga; endowed with, possession. A female practitioner of yoga is called a yogini.
• see also: yoga (joining, uniting)
• external links: wikipedia

yogin (Sanskrit) redirects to yogi (Sanskrit)

≫ yogipratyaksha (Sanskrit: योगिप्रत्यक्ष, yogipratyaksha; IAST: yogipratyakṣa; Tibetan: རྣལ་འབྱོར་མངོན་སུམ་, naljor ngönsum / nenjor ngönsum; Wylie: rnal 'byor mngon sum) = yogic direct perception; fourth of the 4 kinds of direct perception.
• other languages: naljor ngönsum (Tibetan)
• see also: ngönsum zhi (4 kinds of direct perception); yogi (practitioner of yoga)

≫ yönten (Tibetan: ཡོན་ཏན་, yön ten; Wylie: yon tan; Sanskrit: गुण, guna, IAST: guṇa) = quality, precious qualities, positive traits, value, capacities.

≫ yum (Tibetan: ཡུམ་, Wylie: yum) = mother; female consort; female principle.

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Z

≫ zafu (Japanese: 座蒲, zafu, pronounced [d͡zaɸɯ]) = round meditation cushion, best known for its use in zazen Zen meditation.

zen (Japanese: 禅, zen) = meditative concentration, meditation, concentration - see dhyana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ zhak (Tibetan: བཞག་, Wylie: bzhag) = put, place, stay, remain, leave behind, leave alone; DJKR: zhak has the connotation of "leave it”, “leave it alone”, “just leave it as it is”.
• see also: nyamzhak (meditative equipoise)

zhédang (Tibetan: ཞེ་སྡང་, zhédang; Wylie: zhe sdang) = aversion, dislike, enmity, hatred, hostility, ill-will - see dvesha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ zheljé (Tibetan: ཞལ་འབྱེད་; Wylie: zhal ‘byed) = open, unveil, inaugurate.

zhiné (Tibetan: ཞི་གནས་, zhiné; Wylie: zhi gnas) = shamatha, calm abiding - see shamatha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ zhiwa (Tibetan: ཞི་བ་, zhi wa; Wylie: zhi ba; Sanskrit: शान्ति, shanti; IAST: śānti) = peace, peaceful, pacification; tranquility; calmness of mind; absence of passion.

≫ zungjuk (Tibetan: ཟུང་འཇུག་, zun juk; Wylie: zung 'jug; Sanskrit: yuganaddha = युग + नद्ध, IAST: yuga + naddha) = union, indivisibility, primordial unity that resolves dualities.

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Sources:


Note on capitalisation:

Capitalisation is used for proper names and names of schools (e.g. Mahayana) or religions (e.g. Buddhism), and also for followers of a religion (e.g. Buddhist). The historical Buddha is capitalised, also when he is referred to by other names such as Tathagata. The word buddha is in lower case when used to refer to buddhas or enlightened beings in general. 


Artwork: The Prayer Wheel Shop

Page last updated July 30, 2020