Tibetan + Sanskrit words

Tibetan + Sanskrit mani mantra v2

This page contains a partial list of some Tibetan, Sanskrit and Pali words found on this website (and also some Dzongkha, Hindi and Japanese words). The list is ordered according to the English pronunciation of the Tibetan, Sanskrit and Pali words (following the approach of the Tibetan & Himalayan Library). Tibetan, Sanskrit (with diacritics) and Wylie/IAST transliterations are provided as appropriate. Brief definitions are also provided, together with links to external Tibetan and Sanskrit dictionary entries with more information, further definitions, and etymology. Where there are multiple entries/languages for a word, external links and definitions are only given for the main entry, which is indicated by "≫".


A

≫ Abhidharmakosha (Sanskrit: अभिधर्मकोश, abhidharmakosha; IAST: abhidharmakośa; Tibetan: མངོན་པ་མཛོད་, ngönpa dzö; Wylie: mngon pa mdzod. Also known as अभिधर्मकोशकारिका, abhidharmakoshakarika; IAST: abhidharmakośakārikā; Tibetan: ཆོས་མངོན་པའི་མཛོད་, chö ngönpé dzö; Wylie: chos mngon pa'i mdzod) = The Treasury of Abhidharma, a complete and systematic account of the Abhidharma composed by the Indian pandita Vasubandhu in the 4th or 5th century CE. It is considered the peak of scholarship in the Fundamental Vehicle (Shravakayana / Theravada).
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ anatta (Pāli: अनत्ता, IAST: anattā; Sanskrit: अनात्मन्, IAST: anātman; Tibetan: བདག་མེད་, dakmé; Wylie: bdag med) = no-self, non-self, without self, egoless, ownerless.
• other languages: dakmé (Tibetan)
• see also (glossary): 3 marks of existence = anicca (mi takpa), dukkha (duk ngel), anatta (dakmé)

≫ anicca (Pāli: अनिच्चा, IAST: anicca; Sanskrit: अनित्य, IAST: anitya; Tibetan: མི་རྟག་པ་, mi takpa; Wylie: mi rtag pa) = impermanent, impermanence.
• other languages: mi takpa (Tibetan)
• see also (glossary): 3 marks of existence = anicca (mi takpa), dukkha (duk ngel), anatta (dakmé)

anumana (Sanskrit: अनुमान, IAST: anumāna; also: अनुमानम्, IAST: anumānam) = inference, inferential cognition.
• other languages: jépak (Tibetan ≫ main entry)

≫ arya (Sanskrit: आर्य, IAST: ārya, literally "honourable, noble, high"; Pāli: अय्य, IAST: ayya; Tibetan: འཕགས་པ་, pakpa; Wylie: 'phags pa; Burmese: အယ်) = noble being or sublime being, i.e. no longer an ordinary samsaric being. Refers to a being that has attained the path of seeing, whether as a shravaka, pratyekabuddha or bodhisattva.
• see also (external): wikipediarigpawiki

≫ ashrama (Sanskrit: आश्रम, ashrama; IAST: āśrama) = the four age-based life stages discussed in Hindu philosophy: brahmachārya (ब्रह्मचारिन्, student), grihastha (गृहस्थ, householder), vānaprastha (वानप्रस्थ, retired) and sannyāsa (संन्यास, renunciant).
• see also: sannyasa (renunciant)
• see also (external): wikipedia

avarana (Sanskrit: आवरण, IAST: āvaraṇa) = defilement, obscuration - see drip (Tibetan main entry)

≫ avidya (Sanskrit: अविद्या, IAST: avidyā; Tibetan: མ་རིག་པ་, ma rigpa; Wylie: ma rig pa) = ignorance.
• see also: klesha (afflictive/destructive/disturbing/negative emotions), nyöndrip (emotional obscurations)
• see also: mulaklesha (six root disturbing emotions): raga (राग, desire), pratigha (प्रतिघ, anger), avidya (अविद्या, ignorance), mana (मान, pride), vicikitsa (विचिकित्सा, doubt), drishti (दृष्टि, view)


B

≫ bhajan (Sanskrit: भजन, IAST: bhajana) = reverence, worship, adoration; refers to devotional songs with religious or spiritual themes, in any of the languages of the Indian subcontinent. The term "bhajan" is also used to refer to a group event, with one or more lead singers, accompanied with music, and sometimes dancing.

bhikkhu (Pāli: भिक्खु, IAST: bhikkhu) = fully ordained male Buddhist monastic.
• other languages: bhikshu (Sanskrit main entry)

bhikkhuni (Pāli: भिक्खुनी, IAST: bhikkhunī) = fully ordained female Buddhist monastic.
• other languages: bhikshuni (Sanskrit main entry)

≫ bhikshu (Sanskrit: भिक्षु, IAST: bhikṣu; Pāli: भिक्खु, IAST: bhikkhu; Tibetan: དགེ་སློང་, gelong; Wylie: dge slong) = fully ordained male Buddhist monastic ("monk").
• see also: Theravada (the school of the elders)
• other languages: bhikkhu (Pāli)

≫ bhikshuni (Sanskrit: भिक्षुणी, IAST: bhikṣuṇī; Pāli: भिक्खुनी, IAST: bhikkhunī; Tibetan: དགེ་སློང་མ་, gelongma; Wylie: dge slong ma) = fully ordained female Buddhist monastic ("nun").
• see also: Theravada (the school of the elders)
• other languages: bhikkhuni (Pāli)

≫ bodhi (Pāli & Sanskrit: बोधि, IAST bodhi; Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་, jangchup; Wylie: byang chub; Burmese: ေဗာဓိ) = enlightenment, perfect knowledge or wisdom (by which one becomes a buddha), awakening.
NB: DJKR emphasises that the semantic range of word "enlightenment" does not at all do justice to the meaning of buddha/sangyé or bodhi/jangchup - see notes for buddha.
• other languages: jangchup (Tibetan)
• see also: buddha (fully enlightened person)
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ bodhichitta (Sanskrit: बोधिचित्त, IAST: bodhicitta, from बोधि + चित्त, IAST bodhi + chitta; Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་, jangchup kyi sem; Wylie: byang chub kyi sems) = the mind of enlightenment, awakened state of mind, enlightened attitude, altruistic aspiration to enlightenment, the compassionate wish to attain enlightenment for the benefit of all beings and also to bring them to that state.
NB: DJKR emphasises that the semantic range of the English word "compassion" does not at all do justice to the meaning of nyingjé/karuna/bodhichitta - see notes for nyingjé.
• other languages: jangchup kyi sem (Tibetan)
• see also: brahmavihara (the four immeasurables in aspiration bodhichitta)
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpawiki

bodhicitta (Sanskrit) = redirects to bodhichitta (Sanskrit)

≫ bodhisattva (Sanskrit: बोधिसत्त्व, IAST: bodhisattva; Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའ་, jangchup sempa; Wylie: byang chub sems dpa') = being on the path of enlightenment, "one whose essence is perfect knowledge", someone who has developed/aroused bodhichitta, a practitioner of the Mahayana path.
• other languages: jangchup sempa (Tibetan)
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ brahmavihara (Pāli & Sanskrit: ब्रह्मविहार, IAST: brahmavihāra) = sublime attitude (lit. "abode of brahma"); a series of four Buddhist virtues and the meditation practices to cultivate them, which comprise "aspiration bodhichitta". Also known as the immeasurable or boundless thoughts (Sanskrit: अप्रमाण, IAST: apramāṇa; Pāli: appamaññā), collectively comprising the "four immeasurables" (Sanskrit: चतुर्अप्रमाण, IAST: caturapramāṇa = catur + apramāṇa; Tibetan: ཚད་མེད་བཞི་, tsémé shyi; Wylie: tshad med bzhi)
• see also: four brahmaviharas (four sublime attitudes; four immeasurables): (1) metta (मेत्ता, loving-kindness), (2) karuna (करुणा, compassion), (3) mudita (मुदिता, sympathetic joy), (4) upekkha (उपेक्खाा, equanimity)
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ buddha (Pāli: बुद्ध, IAST; buddha; Sanskrit: बुद्ध, IAST: buddha; Tibetan: སངས་རྒྱས་, sangyé; Wylie: sangs rgyas) = buddha, fully enlightened person.
NB: DJKR emphasises that the semantic range of the English word "enlightenment" does not at all do justice to the meaning of buddha/sangyé or bodhi/jangchup. The dictionary definition of the word "enlightenment" is (1) the action of enlightening or the state of being enlightened; the action or state of attaining or having attained spiritual knowledge or insight, in particular (in Buddhism) that awareness which frees a person from the cycle of rebirth; (2) a European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition. It was heavily influenced by 17th-century philosophers such as Descartes, Locke, and Newton, and its prominent exponents include Kant, Goethe, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Adam Smith - Google Dictionary).
• other languages: sangyé (Tibetan)
• see also: bodhi (enlightenment), sugata ("gone blissfully", syn. the Buddha), tathagata ("thus come / thus gone", syn. the Buddha), Siddhartha (the Buddha)
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpawiki


C

≫ chado (Japanese: 茶道, chadō, "the way of tea") = the Japanese tea ceremony, the preparation and presentation of matcha, powdered green tea.
• see also: the three classical Japanese arts of refinement: kadō (flower arrangement), kōdō (incense appreciation) and chadō (tea and the tea ceremony)
• see also (external): wikipedia

≫ cham (Tibetan: འཆམ་, Wylie: 'cham) = sacred dance, ritual dance, masked dance.

changchup (Tibetan) = redirects to jangchup (Tibetan)

≫ chégom (Tibetan: དཔྱད་སྒོམ་, ché gom; Wylie: dpyad sgom) = analytical meditation, meditation through analysis, meditation involving mental analysis and investigation, analytical investigation.

≫ chéta (Tibetan: ཆད་ལྟ་, ché ta; Wylie: chad lta; Sanskrit: उच्छेददृष्टि, IAST: uccheda-dṛṣṭi; Sanskrit & Pāli: उच्छेदवाद, IAST: ucchedavāda) = nihilism, annihilationism (lit. "the view of discontinuance"). The extreme view of nothingness: no rebirth or karmic effects, and the nonexistence of a mind after death.
• see also: takta (eternalism), tawa (view)
• see also (external): wikipediarigpawiki

chitta (Pāli & Sanskrit: चित्त, IAST: citta) = mind.
• other languages: sem (Tibetan main entry)

chö (Tibetan: ཆོས་, chö; Wylie: chos) = (a) reality, true nature, character; (b) phenomenon, property, mark, peculiar condition or essential quality, peculiarity; (c) practice, way, usage, customary observance, prescribed conduct, duty, law, doctrine; (d) Dharma, the Buddhist path, the spiritual path, spirituality.
• other languages: dharma (Sanskrit main entry)

≫ choga (Tibetan: ཆོ་ག་, choga; Wylie: cho ga) = ritual, method, sadhana practice, ceremony.

≫ chöpa (Tibetan: ཆོས་པ་, chöpa; Wylie: chos pa) = Dharma practitioner, Buddhist, religious practitioner.

chörten (Tibetan: མཆོད་རྟེན་, chörten; Wylie: mchod rten) = stupa.
• other languages: stupa (Sanskrit main entry)

≫ chösham (Tibetan: མཆོད་བཤམ་, chösham; Wylie: mchod bsham) = altar, shrine, shrine room.

citta (Sanskrit) = redirects to chitta (Sanskrit)


D

dakmé (Tibetan: བདག་མེད་, dakmé; Wylie: bdag med) = no-self, non-self, without self.
• other languages: anatta (Pāli ≫ main entry)

≫ dampa sum (Tibetan: དམ་པ་གསུམ་, dampa sum; Wylie: dam pa gsum) = the three supreme methods (also known as the three noble principles or the three excellencies) that make the difference between practice being merely a way of bringing temporary relaxation, peace, and bliss and practice becoming a powerful cause for the enlightenment of oneself and others. They are "good in the beginning" (i.e. starting one's practice by arousing bodhichitta), "good in the middle" (i.e. avoiding getting caught in conceptualisation and maintaining the view of emptiness during practice), and "good in the end" (i.e. dedicating the merit at the end of practice).
• see also (practice): applying the three supreme methods (work as practice)
• see also (external): rigpawiki

≫ dang (Tibetan: གདངས་, dang, Wylie: gdangs) = radiance, lustre, self-radiance, light, clarity; tone, tune, melody.

≫ dathün (Tibetan: ཟླ་ཐུན་, datün, Wylie: zla + thun) = month-long meditation retreat, popularised by Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche for the Shambhala sangha.
• see also: thün (session)

denpa (Tibetan) redirects to drenpa (Tibetan)

dézhin (Tibetan: དེ་བཞིན་, dézhin; Wylie: de bzhin; Sanskrit: तथा, IAST: tathā) = that itself, like that, thus; DJKR: "whatever it is", "as it is", "what is".
• other languages: tatha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)
• see also: dézhin shekpa (tathagata)

dézhin shekpa (Tibetan: དེ་བཞིན་གཤེགས་པ་, dézhin shekpa; Wylie: de bzhin gshegs pa) = tathagata.
• other languages: tathagata (Sanskrit main entry)

≫ dharani (Sanskrit: धारणी, IAST: dhāraṇī): a Buddhist chant, incantation, or recitation believed to be protective and with powers to generate merit, usually a Sanskrit or Pali mantra; a mystical verse or charm.
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpawikiLotsawa House

≫ dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म, IAST: dharma also dharmaḥ; Pāli: धम्म, IAST: dhamma; Tibetan: ཆོས་, chö; Wylie: chos) = (a) Dharma, the Buddhist path, the spiritual path, spirituality; (b) reality, true nature, character; (c) phenomenon, property, mark, peculiar condition or essential quality, peculiarity; (d) practice, way, usage, customary observance, prescribed conduct, duty, law, doctrine.
• other languages: chö (Tibetan)
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ dharmakaya (Sanskrit: धर्मकाय, IAST: dharmakāya; Tibetan: ཆོས་སྐུ་, chö ku; Wylie: chos sku) = the "truth body", "reality body" or absolute body: one of the three bodies (trikaya) of a buddha in Mahayana Buddhism. The dharmakaya constitutes the unmanifested, "inconceivable" (acintya) aspect of a buddha out of which buddhas arise and to which they return after their dissolution.
• see also: kaya (body, dimension), rupakaya ("form body" of a buddha)
• see also (external): wikipedia (dharmakaya) / wikipedia (trikaya) / rigpawiki (dharmakaya)

≫ dharmata (Sanskrit: धर्मत, IAST: dharmata; Tibetan: ཆོས་ཉིད་; Wylie: chos nyid) = the intrinsic nature of phenomena and mind, real condition of existence, very nature of things, ultimate nature of phenomena, suchness, reality itself.

≫ dhatu (Sanskrit: धातु, IAST: dhātu; Tibetan: ཁམས་, kham; Wylie: khams) = element, factor, primitive matter, constituent element; realm.
• other languages: kham (Tibetan)

≫ dhyana (Sanskrit: ध्यान, IAST: dhyāna; Pāli: झान, IAST: jhāna; Japanese: 禅, zen; Tibetan: བསམ་གཏན་, samten; Wylie: bsam gtan; Burmese: ဈာန) = meditation, concentration, mental focus, mind-training (according to early Buddhist texts, its aim is to withdraw the mind from automatic responses to sense-impressions, thus leading to upekkhā-sati-parisuddhi, a "state of perfect equanimity and awareness").
• other languages: jhana (Pāli), samten (Tibetan), zen (Japanese)

≫ dikpa ratsa (Tibetan: སྡིག་པ་ར་ཙ་, dikpa ratsa; Wylie: sdig pa ra tsa) = scorpion.

drenpa (Tibetan: དྲན་པ་, drenpa; Wylie: dran pa) = mindfulness, memory, recollection, presence of mind, remembrance, calling to mind.
• other languages: sati (Pāli), smriti (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ drip (Tibetan: གྲིབ་, drip; Wylie: grib; Sanskrit: आवरण, IAST: āvaraṇa) = defilement, obscuration, stain, contamination.
• other languages: avarana (Sanskrit)
• see also (glossary): 2 obscurations = emotional obscurations (nyöndrip) & cognitive obscurations (shédrip)

≫ drishti (Sanskrit: दृष्टि, IAST: dṛṣṭi; Tibetan: ལྟ་བ་, tawa; Wylie: lta ba) = view, orientation, perspective, belief (sometimes translated as "wrong views" to reflect the Buddhist understanding that ultimately all views are wrong views).
• other languages: tawa (Tibetan)
• see also: chéta (nihilism), takta (eternalism)
• see also: klesha (afflictive/destructive/disturbing/negative emotions), nyöndrip (emotional obscurations)
• see also: mulaklesha (six root disturbing emotions): raga (राग, desire), pratigha (प्रतिघ, anger), avidya (अविद्या, ignorance), mana (मान, pride), vicikitsa (विचिकित्सा, doubt), drishti (दृष्टि, view)

duk ngel (Tibetan: སྡུག་བསྔལ་, duk ngel; Wylie: sdug bsngal) = suffering, pain, unsatisfactoriness.
• other languages: dukkha (Pali main entry)

≫ dukkha (Pāli: दुक्ख, IAST: dukkha; Sanskrit: दुःख, IAST: duḥkha; Tibetan: སྡུག་བསྔལ་, duk ngel; Wylie: sdug bsngal) = suffering, unsatisfactoriness, dissatisfaction, pain, frustration.
NB: DJKR emphasises that the semantic range of the English word "suffering" does not at all do justice to the meaning of dukkha. The dictionary definition of the word "suffering" is "the state of undergoing pain, distress, or hardship" - Google Dictionary.
• other languages: duk ngel (Tibetan)
• see also: mi tsimpa (not satisfied, not contented)
• see also (glossary): 3 marks of existence = anicca (mi takpa), dukkha (duk ngel), anatta (dakmé)


E

≫ ema datshi (Dzongkha: ཨེ་མ་དར་ཚིལ་, éma dartsil; Wylie (reconstructed): e ma dar tshil) = the Bhutanese national dish made of chilli peppers and cheese.
• see also (external): wikipedia

≫ evam (Sanskrit: एवम्, IAST: evam) = thus, in this way, in such a manner, such.


G

≫ garbha (Sanskrit: गर्भ, IAST: garbha; Tibetan: སྙིང་པོ་, nyingpo; Wylie: snying po) = the inside, middle, interior of anything; seed, egg, embryo, womb (indicating potential); pith, heart; essence, quintessence.

gata (Sanskrit: गत, IAST: gata) = gone, departed, arrived at, being in, situated in.
• other languages: shekpa (Tibetan ≫ main entry)

Gautama (Sanskrit: गौतम, IAST: gautama; Pāli: गोतम, IAST: Gotama; Burmese: ေဂါတမ) = the Buddha - see Siddhartha Gautama (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ gewa (Tibetan: དགེ་བ་, gewa; Wylie: dge ba; Sanskrit (1): कुशल, IAST: kuśala = right, good, proper; Sanskrit (2): कल्याण, IAST: kalyāṇa = lucky, fortunate) = virtuous, virtue, wholesome, good, positive.
• see also: mi gewa (non-virtuous)

≫ gho (Dzongkha: བགོ་, go; Wylie: bgo) = the Bhutanese traditional national dress for men, a knee-length robe tied at the waist by a cloth belt known as the kera (Dzongkha: སྐེད་རགས་).
• see also: kira (the Bhutanese traditional national dress for women)
• see also (external): wikipedia

≫ gom (Tibetan: གོམས་, gom; Wylie: goms; also homophone for Tibetan: སྒོམ་, gom: Wylie: sgom) = (གོམས་) to be habituated, trained, made familiar with, adept, practiced, mastered, skilled, accustomed; (སྒོམ་) reflection, meditation, contemplation, practice, cultivation.

≫ gompé trang (Tibetan: སྒོམ་པའི་འཕྲང་, gom pé trang; Wylie: sgom pa'i 'phrang) = the ravine of meditation; DJKR: the abyss of meditation.
• see also: gom (meditation, habituation, practice), trang (narrow dangerous path)

Gotama (Pāli: गोतम, IAST: Gotama) = the Buddha = Gautama (Sanskrit)

gyü (Tibetan: རྒྱུད་, gyü; Wylie: rgyud) = tantra.
• other languages: tantra (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)


H

≫ havan (Sanskrit: हवन, IAST: havana) = fire offering; ritual rooted in the Vedic tradition, in which offerings of food etc. are burned in order to create merit or bring good luck on a special occasion.

≫ Hinayana (Sanskrit: हीनयान, IAST: hīnayāna), Tibetan: (1) ཐེག་ཆུང་, tekchung; Wylie: theg chung, literally "small vehicle"; also: (2) ཐེག་དམན་, tekmen; Wylie: theg dman, literally "inferior vehicle") = the "simpler/lesser vehicle" (also "small/deficient vehicle"), a pejorative term used in some Mahayana texts (and also in the past widely used by Western scholars) to refer to the earliest system of Buddhist doctrine (in contrast to the later Mahayana as the "great vehicle"). In 1950 the World Fellowship of Buddhists declared that the term "Hinayana" should not be used when referring to any form of Buddhism existing today, and modern Buddhist scholarship uses the term "Nikaya Buddhism" to refer to early Buddhist schools. Some contemporary Buddhist teachers (including DJKR) prefer to use the term "Shravakayana"; DJKR: "Hinayana is a Mahayana chauvinist term, so we don’t want to use this term”.
• see also: Mahayana (the great vehicle), Shravakayana (the vehicle of the shravakas), Theravada (the school of the elders), yana (vehicle or method)
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ hundun (Chinese: 混沌; pinyin: hùndùn, literally "muddled confusion") = both the "primordial and central chaos" in Chinese cosmogony and a "legendary faceless being" in Chinese mythology.
• see also (external): wikipedia


I

≫ ikebana (Japanese: 生け花, ikebana, "arranging flowers" or "making flowers alive") = the Japanese art of flower arrangement, one of the three classical Japanese arts of refinement. Also known as kadō (Japanese: 華道, kadō, "the way of flowers").
• see also: the three classical Japanese arts of refinement: kadō (flower arrangement), kōdō (incense appreciation) and chadō (tea and the tea ceremony)
• see also (external): wikipedia

≫ indriyapratyaksha (Sanskrit: इन्द्रियप्रत्यक्ष, IAST: indriyapratyakṣa = indriya + pratyakṣa) = sense perception.
• see also (the four kinds of direct perception): (1) indriyapratyaksha (sense perception), (2) manasapratyaksha (mental perception), (3) svasamvedana (self-cognition), (4) yogipratyaksha (yogic direct perception)


J

jangchup (Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་, jangchup; Wylie: byang chub) = awakening, enlightenment, 'purified and perfected'.
• other languages: bodhi (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

jangchup kyi sem (Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་, jangchup kyi sem; Wylie: byang chub kyi sems) = bodhichitta.
• other languages: bodhichitta (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

jangchup sempa (Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའ་, jangchup sempa; Wylie: byang chub sems dpa') = bodhisattva.
• other languages: bodhisattva (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

jangsem (Tibetan: བྱང་སེམས་, jangsem; Wylie: byang sems) = bodhichitta, short form of jangchup kyi sem (Tibetan)
• other languages: bodhichitta (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ jépak (Tibetan: རྗེས་དཔག་, jépak; Wylie: rjes dpag; Sanskrit: अनुमान, IAST: anumāna; also: अनुमानम्, IAST: anumānam) = inference, inferential cognition.
• other languages: anumana (Sanskrit)

jhana (Pāli: झान, IAST: jhāna) = meditation, concentration.
• other languages: dhyana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)
• note: easily confused: jhana (Pali: meditation, concentration) & jñana (Sanskrit: wisdom, primordial wisdom)

≫ jñana (Sanskrit (1): ज्ञान, IAST: jñāna also (2): ज्ञानम्, IAST: jñānam; Tibetan: ཡེ་ཤེས་, yéshé; Wylie: ye shes) = wisdom, primordial wisdom, pristine cognition, knowing, becoming acquainted with, gnosis, wakefulness, basic cognisance independent of intellectual constructs.
• other languages: yeshe (Tibetan)
• note: easily confused: jhana (Pāli: meditation, concentration) & jñana (Sanskrit: wisdom, primordial wisdom)

≫ jokpa (Tibetan: འཇོག་པ་, jok pa; Wylie: 'jog pa) = rest, place, settle; classify, posit, set forth; DJKR: "leave it", "let it be".


K

kado (Japanese: 華道, kadō, "the way of flowers") = the Japanese art of flower arrangement - see ikebana (Japanese ≫ main entry)

≫ karma (Sanskrit: कर्मन्, IAST: karman; Tibetan: ལས་, lé; Wylie: las) = action, law of cause and effect, duty, religious rite.
• other languages:  (Tibetan)

≫ karmé (Tibetan: དཀར་མེ་, karmé; Wylie: dkar me) = lamp, offering lamp, sacred fire.

≫ karuna (Pāli & Sanskrit: करुणा, karuṇā; Tibetan: སྙིང་རྗེ་, nyingjé; Wylie: snying rje ) = compassion, the wish to free all beings from suffering and the causes of suffering.
NB: DJKR emphasises that the semantic range of the English word "compassion" does not at all do justice to the meaning of nyingjé/karuna/bodhichitta. The dictionary definition of the word "compassion" is "sympathetic pity and concern for the sufferings or misfortunes of others" - Google dictionary.
• other languages: nyingjé (Tibetan)
• see also: four brahmaviharas (four sublime attitudes; four immeasurables): (1) metta (मेत्ता, loving-kindness), (2) karuna (करुणा, compassion), (3) mudita (मुदिता, sympathetic joy), (4) upekkha (उपेक्खाा, equanimity)
• see also: bodhichitta (the compassionate wish to attain enlightenment for the benefit of all beings and also to bring them to that state)
• see also (glossary): 3 types of compassion
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ Kashyapa (Sanskrit: काश्यप, IAST: kāśyapa; Pali: कस्सप, IAST: kassapa; Tibetan: འོད་སྲུང་, ösung; Wylie: 'od srung) = Buddha Kashyapa, the supreme nirmanakaya buddha immediately preceding Buddha Shakyamuni in this Fortunate Aeon; also used as short form of Mahakashyapa, one of the Buddha's principal disciples.
• see also: Mahakashyapa (one of the Buddha's principal disciples)
• see also (external): wikipediarigpawiki

≫ kaya (Sanskrit: काय, IAST: kāya also kāyaḥ; Tibetan: སྐུ་, ku; Wylie: sku) = "body" in the sense of a body or embodiment of numerous qualities; dimension; field; basis.
• see also: dharmakaya ("truth body" of a buddha), rupakaya ("form body" of a buddha)
• see also (external): wikipedia (trikaya) / rigpawiki

kham (Tibetan: ཁམས་, kham; Wylie: khams) = realm, element, disposition, type, nature, component of experience.
• other languages: dhatu (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ khom (Tibetan: ཁོམས་, khom; Wylie: khoms) = familiarise, condition to, familiarisation.

khorwa (Tibetan: འཁོར་བ་, khorwa; Wylie: 'khor ba) = samsara, cyclic existence.
• other languages: samsara (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)
• note: easily confused: khorwa (samsara) & korwa (circumambulation)

≫ kira (Dzongkha: དཀྱི་ར་, kyira; Wylie: dkyi ra) = the Bhutanese traditional national dress for women, an ankle-length dress consisting of a rectangular piece of woven fabric.
• see also: gho (the Bhutanese traditional national dress for men)
• see also (external): wikipedia

≫ klesha (Sanskrit: क्लेश, IAST: kleśa; (Tibetan (1): ཉོན་མོང་, nyönmong; Wylie: nyon mong; Tibetan (2): ཉོན་མོངས་, Wylie: nyon mongs) = afflictive emotions, destructive emotions, disturbing emotions, negative emotions, afflictions, mental afflictions, factors which disturb the mind (according to the abhidharma, the six root disturbing emotions and attitudes are: desire, anger, arrogance / pride, unawareness / ignorance, indecisive wavering / doubt and deluded outlooks / wrong views).
NB: the word "klesha" includes a sense of mental obscuration or defilement that is not fully captured by the English word "emotion". The dictionary definition of "emotion" is "a natural instinctive state of mind deriving from one's circumstances, mood, or relationships with others" and "instinctive or intuitive feeling as distinguished from reasoning or knowledge" - Google Dictionary.
• other languages: nyönmong (Tibetan)
• see also: nyöndrip (emotional obscurations)
• see also: mulaklesha (six root disturbing emotions): raga (राग, desire), pratigha (प्रतिघ, anger), avidya (अविद्या, ignorance), mana (मान, pride), vicikitsa (विचिकित्सा, doubt), drishti (दृष्टि, view)
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpawiki / study buddhism (Berzin)

≫ koan (Japanese: 公案, kōan; Chinese: 公案; pinyin: gōng'àn) = a story, dialogue, question, or statement which is used in Zen practice (Chinese: Chán) to provoke the "great doubt" (Japanese: 大疑, taigi) and to practice or test a student's progress in Zen.
• see also: taigi (great doubt)
• see also (external): wikipedia

≫ kodo (Japanese: 香道, kōdō, "the way of fragrance") = the art of appreciating Japanese incense.
• see also: the three classical Japanese arts of refinement: kadō (flower arrangement), kōdō (incense appreciation) and chadō (tea and the tea ceremony)
• see also (external): wikipedia

≫ kor (Tibetan: བསྐོར་, kor; Wylie: bskor) = surrounded by, encircle, revolve, circumambulate (around a holy object e.g. stupa).
• see also: korwa (circumambulation, to be turned around)

kora (Tibetan) = redirects to korwa (Tibetan)

≫ korwa (Tibetan: བསྐོར་བ་, korwa; Wylie: bskor ba) = to be turned around, circumambulation, encircle, surround.
• see also: kor (circumambulate, surrounded by)
• note: easily confused: khorwa (samsara) & korwa (circumambulation)

≫ Krishna (Sanskrit: कृष्ण, IAST: kṛṣṇa) = Krishna (Vishnu in his eighth incarnation), the most celebrated hero of Indian mythology and the most popular of all the deities; wicked, evil; black, dark, dark-blue; the black antelope; a crow; the (Indian) cuckoo; the dark half of a lunar month (from full to new moon); the Kali age.

≫ kusulu (Tibetan: ཀུ་སུ་ལུ་; Wylie: ku su lu) = beggar, bum; natural, uncontrived; type of yogin who does what comes naturally; shaman; one who gives up all work and frequents mountain retreats; DJKR: renunciant, wanderer, yogi; "usually found in the bar or prostitutes' house".


L

(Tibetan: ལས་, lé; Wylie: las) = karma, action, law of cause and effect.
• other languages: karma (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ len (Tibetan: ལེན་, Wylie: len) = receive, accept, absorb, take hold, grasp, study.
• see also: panglen (accepting and rejecting)

≫ lhak (Tibetan: ལྷག་, lhak; Wylie: lhag) = special, supreme, beyond; DJKR: "something extra", "the real deal", "the true colour".
• see also: lhaktong (vipassana)

lhaktong (Tibetan: ལྷག་མཐོང་, lhaktong; Wylie: lhag mthong) = vipassana.
• other languages: vipassana (Pāli ≫ main entry)
• see also: lhak (special)

≫ lung (Tibetan: ལུང་, lung; Wylie: rlung) = scriptural transmission, reading transmission, scriptural authority.


M

≫ madhyamaka (Sanskrit: माध्यमक, IAST: mādhyamaka; Tibetan: དབུ་མ་པ་, umapa; Wylie: dbu ma pa) = madhyamaka, the middle way free from all extremes (including the extreme views of eternalism and nihilism).
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ maha (Sanskrit: महा, IAST: mahā) = great.

≫ mahakaruna (Sanskrit: महाकरुण, IAST: mahākaruṇa) = great compassion.
• see also: karuna (compassion)

≫ Mahakashyapa (Sanskrit: महाकाश्यप; IAST: mahākāśyapa; Pali: महाकस्सप, IAST: mahākassapa; Tibetan: འོད་སྲུང་ཆེན་པོ་, ösung chenpo; Wylie: 'od srung chen po) = one of the Buddha's principal disciples, regarded as the foremost in ascetic practice.
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ mahasiddha (Sanskrit: महासिद्ध, IAST: mahāsiddha; Tibetan: གྲུབ་ཐོབ་ཆེན་པོ, druptop chenpo; Wylie: grub thob chen po; also (short form): གྲུབ་ཆེན་, drupchen; Wylie: grub chen) = great accomplished one; highly realised practitioner; someone who embodies and cultivates the "siddhi of perfection"; a yogi who has attained the supreme siddhi or accomplishment (i.e. enlightenment). The Mahasiddhas are the founders of Vajrayana traditions and lineages such as Dzogchen and Mahamudra, and most lived between 750 CE and 1150 CE. By convention, there are eighty-four Mahasiddhas in both Hindu and Tibetan Buddhist traditions, with some overlap between the two lists.
• see also: siddhi (accomplishment, attainment)
• see also (external / list of the 84 mahasiddhas): wikipedia / rigpawiki / RYwiki

≫ Mahayana (Sanskrit: महायान, IAST: mahāyāna; Tibetan: ཐེག་པ་ཆེན་པོ་, tekpa chenpo; Wylie: theg pa chen po) = the great or universal vehicle; one of the two main existing branches of Buddhism (the other being Theravada) and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice. The Mahayana is also called the Bodhisattvayana, referring to the path followed by the bodhisattva seeking complete enlightenment for the benefit of all sentient beings.
• see also: Hinayana (the lesser vehicle), Shravakayana (the vehicle of the shravakas), Theravada (the school of the elders), yana (vehicle or method)
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ mana (Sanskrit: मान, IAST: māna; Tibetan: ང་རྒྱལ་, nga gyel; Wylie: nga rgyal) = pride, arrogance, self-conceit.
• see also: klesha (afflictive/destructive/disturbing/negative emotions), nyöndrip (emotional obscurations)
• see also: mulaklesha (six root disturbing emotions): raga (राग, desire), pratigha (प्रतिघ, anger), avidya (अविद्या, ignorance), mana (मान, pride), vicikitsa (विचिकित्सा, doubt), drishti (दृष्टि, view)

≫ manas (Sanskrit & Pāli: मनस्, IAST: manas; also: मनसा, IAST: manasā; Tibetan: ཡིད་, yi; Wylie: yid) = mind (in its widest sense as applied to all the mental powers); ideational consciousness, the intellect, mental functioning, thought, subjective mind, conceptual mind.
• see also (external): wikipedia

≫ manasapratyaksha (Sanskrit: मानसप्रत्यक्ष, IAST: manasāpratyakṣa = manasāpratyakṣa) = mental perception.
• see also (the four kinds of direct perception): (1) indriyapratyaksha (sense perception), (2) manasapratyaksha (mental perception), (3) svasamvedana (self-cognition), (4) yogipratyaksha (yogic direct perception)
• see also: manas (mind)

≫ Mara (Sanskrit: मार, IAST: māra; Tibetan: བདུད་, dü; Wylie: bdud) = killing, destroying; malevolent forces, demonic influences, obstructions, negative influences; the Destroyer who tempts men to indulge their passions; the demonic celestial king who attempted to prevent Prince Siddhartha from attaining enlightenment by threatening and tempting him when he was meditating under the bodhi tree.
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ maya (Sanskrit: मय, IAST: maya; Tibetan: སྒྱུ་འཕྲུལ་, gyuntrül; Wylie: sgyu 'phrul) = illusion, magical display, magic, artifice.

≫ metta (Pāli: मेत्ता, IAST: mettā; Sanskrit: मैत्री, IAST: maitrī); Tibetan: བྱམས་པ་, jampa; Wylie: byams pa) = loving-kindness.
• see also: four brahmaviharas (four sublime attitudes; four immeasurables): (1) metta (मेत्ता, loving-kindness), (2) karuna (करुणा, compassion), (3) mudita (मुदिता, sympathetic joy), (4) upekkha (उपेक्खाा, equanimity)
• see also (external): wikipedia

≫ mi gewa (Tibetan: མི་དགེ་བ་, mi gewa; Wylie: mi dge ba) = non-virtuous, unwholesome, bad, dharmas ripening with unpleasant fruition.
• see also: gewa (virtuous)

mi takpa (Tibetan: མི་རྟག་པ་, mi takpa; Wylie: mi rtag pa) = impermanent, impermanence.
• other languages: anicca (Pāli ≫ main entry)

≫ mi tsimpa (Tibetan: མི་ཚིམ་པ་, mi tsimpa; Wylie: mi + tshim pa) = not satisfied, not contented; DJKR: "not enough, not complete, there's no sense of enough or contentment".
• see also: dukkha (suffering, unsatisfactoriness), tsimpa (satisfied, content)

≫ moksha (Sanskrit: मोक्ष, IAST: mokṣa) = liberation, emancipation, release from.

≫ momo (Tibetan: མོག་མོག་, mok mok; Wylie: mog mog) = stuffed dumplings (Tibetan pasties), steamed bread.

≫ mudita (Pāli & Sanskrit: मुदिता, IAST: muditā) ; Tibetan: དགའ་བ་, gawa; Wylie: dga' ba) = sympathetic joy.
• see also: four brahmaviharas (four sublime attitudes; four immeasurables): (1) metta (मेत्ता, loving-kindness), (2) karuna (करुणा, compassion), (3) mudita (मुदिता, sympathetic joy), (4) upekkha (उपेक्खाा, equanimity)
• see also (external): wikipedia

≫ mulaklesha (Sanskrit: मूलक्लेश, IAST: mūla + kleśa; Tibetan: རྩ་ཉོན་དྲུག་, tsa nyön druk; Wylie: rtsa nyon drug) = the (six) root (or primary) afflictive/destructive/disturbing emotions, presented by Vasubandhu in the Abhidharmakosha.
• see also: Abhidharmakosha (Treasury of the Abhidharma), klesha (afflictive/destructive/disturbing/negative emotions), nyöndrip (emotional obscurations)
• see also: mulaklesha (six root disturbing emotions): raga (राग, desire), pratigha (प्रतिघ, anger), avidya (अविद्या, ignorance), mana (मान, pride), vicikitsa (विचिकित्सा, doubt), drishti (दृष्टि, view)

≫ Mulamadhyamakakarika (Sanskrit: प्रज्ञा-नाम-मूलमाध्यमककारिका = prajñā-nāma-mūlamadhyamakakārikā, IAST: prajñanāmamūla + mādhyamaka + kārikā; Tibetan: དབུ་མ་རྩ་བ་ཤེས་རབ་, uma tsawa shérap; Wylie: dbu ma rtsa ba shes rab) = The Root Verses on the Wisdom of the Middle Way, the most famous and important treatise on madhyamaka philosophy, written by Nagarjuna in approximately the 2nd or 3rd century CE.
• see also: madhyamaka (middle way), Nagarjuna
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpawiki


N

≫ Nagananda (Sanskrit: नागानन्द; IAST: nāgānanda; Tibetan: ཀླུ་ཀུན་ཏུ་དགའ་བའི་ཟློས་གར་, lu kün tu gawé dö gar; Wylie: klu kun tu dga' ba'i zlos gar) = "Joy of the serpents" (DJKR: "The play that makes the nagas happy"), a Sanskrit play attributed to King Harshavardhana (c. 590-647 CE), translated into Tibetan by Shongton Dorje Gyaltsen, available online as TBRC work W21861.
• see also (external): wikipedia

≫ Nagarjuna (Sanskrit: नागार्जुन, IAST: nāgārjuna; Tibetan: ཀླུ་གྲུབ་, ludrup; Wylie: klu grub) = Nagarjuna, founder of the madhyamaka school of Mahayana Buddhism.
• see also: Mulamadhyamakakarika (The Root Verses on the Wisdom of the Middle Way by Nagarjuna)
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ nakdzi (Tibetan: གནག་རྫི་, nakdzi; Wylie: gnag rdzi; Dzongkha: ཝ་དི་པ་, wadipa) = cowherd.

naljor ngönsum (Tibetan: རྣལ་འབྱོར་མངོན་སུམ་, naljor ngönsum / nenjor ngönsum; Wylie: rnal 'byor mngon sum; Sanskrit: योगिप्रत्यक्ष, yogipratyaksha; IAST: yogipratyakṣa) = yogic direct perception.
• other languages: yogipratyaksha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)
• see also: ngönsum (direct perception)

≫ Namu Myoho Renge Kyo (Japanese: 南無妙法蓮華經, Namu Myōhō Renge Kyō) = "Glory to the Dharma of the Lotus Sutra", a mantra chanted within Nichiren Buddhism. (Myōhō Renge Kyō is the Japanese name of the Lotus Sutra).
• see also: Pundarika Sutra (The Lotus Sutra)
• see also (external): wikipedia

nenjor ngönsum (Tibetan) = redirects to naljor ngönsum (Tibetan)

≫ ngéjung (Tibetan: ངེས་འབྱུང་, ngéjung; Wylie: nges ’byung) = renunciation, renunciation mind.

ngönsum (Tibetan: མངོན་སུམ་, ngönsum; Wylie: mngon sum) = direct perception, direct cognition.
• other languages: pratyaksha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ nirmana (Sanskrit (1): निर्माण, IAST: nirmāṇa; Sanskrit (2) निर्माणम्, IAST: nirmāṇam) = forming, making, creating, creation, created thing or form, transformation.

≫ nirmanakaya (Sanskrit: निर्माणकाय, IAST: nirmāṇakāya) = the body of transformations.

≫ nirvana (Sanskrit: निर्वाण, IAST: nirvāṇa; Tibetan: མྱང་འདས་, nyandé; Wylie: myang 'das) = beyond suffering, state beyond sorrow; blown or put out, extinguished (as a lamp or fire); liberated from existence; calmed, quieted; complete extinction of or liberation from individual or worldly existence.
• other languages: nyandé (Tibetan)
• see also: samsara (cyclic existence)

≫ nyamlen (Tibetan: ཉམས་ལེན་, nyamlen; Wylie: nyams len) = Dharma practice, spiritual practice, to put into practice (as opposed to theory), application.

nyandé (Tibetan: མྱང་འདས་, nyandé; Wylie: myang 'das) = nirvana.
• other languages: nirvana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

nyéjung (Tibetan) = redirects to ngéjung (Tibetan)

≫ nyidzin (Tibetan: གཉིས་འཛིན་, nyidzin; Wylie: gnyis 'dzin) = dualism, dualistic perception; dualistic grasping, dualistic fixation; subject-object dualism; the ordinary perception of unenlightened beings; the apprehension of phenomena in terms of subject (consciousness) and object (mental images and the outer world), and the belief in their true existence.
• see also: yin-yang (dualism in Taoism)
• see also (external): wikipedia (dualism in Indian philosophy)

nyingjé (Tibetan: སྙིང་རྗེ་, nyingjé; Wylie: snying rje) = compassion, the wish to free all beings from suffering and the causes of suffering.
NB: DJKR emphasises that the semantic range of the English word "compassion" does not at all do justice to the meaning of nyingjé/karuna/bodhichitta. The dictionary definition of the word "compassion" is "sympathetic pity and concern for the sufferings or misfortunes of others" - Google dictionary.
• other languages: karuna (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ nyöndrip (Tibetan: ཉོན་སྒྲིབ་, nyöndrip; Wylie: nyon sgrib; Sanskrit: kleśāvaraṇa from क्लेश + आवरण, IAST: kleśa + āvaraṇa) = emotional obscurations, afflictive obstructions, obstructions to liberation.
• see also: drip (obscuration), nyönmong (negative emotion)
• see also (glossary): 2 obscurations = emotional obscurations (nyöndrip) & cognitive obscurations (shédrip)

nyönmong (Tibetan (1): ཉོན་མོང་, nyönmong; Wylie: nyon mong; Tibetan (2): ཉོན་མོངས་, Wylie: nyon mongs) = kleshas, afflictive emotions.
• other languages: klesha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)


O

≫ oryoki (Japanese: 応量器, ōryōki; also called はったら, hattara, transliteration of Sanskrit: पात्र, IAST: pātra) = a set of nested bowls ("vessel that contains just enough") and other eating utensils for the personal use of Buddhist monks; the formal style of serving and eating meals practiced in Zen temples.


P

≫ paan (Hindi: पान, pān, lit. "betel vine"; from Sanskrit: पर्ण, IAST: parṇa, meaning “leaf”) = a stimulating, psychoactive preparation of betel leaf combined with areca nut and/or cured tobacco that is widely consumed in Southeast Asia, East Asia and the Indian subcontinent.

≫ panchashila (Sanskrit: पञ्चशील, pañcaśīla; Pali: pañcasīla) = the five precepts, the most important system of morality for Buddhist laypeople. They are: to abstain from killing, theft, sexual misconduct, falsehood and intoxication.
• see also (external): wikipedia

≫ pandita (Sanskrit: पण्डित, IAST: paṇḍita; Tibetan: མཁས་པ་, khepa; Wylie: mkhas pa) = learned master (lit. "learned one"), scholar; professor in Buddhist philosophy.
• see also (external): wikipedia

≫ panglen (Tibetan: སྤང་བླང་, panglen / panglang; Wylie: spang len / spang blang) = accept and reject, accepting and rejecting, adopt or abandon.
• see also: len (receive, accept, absorb, take hold, grasp, study)

≫ prajña (Sanskrit: प्रज्ञ, IAST: prajña; Tibetan: ཤེས་རབ་, shérap; Wylie: shes rab) = intelligence, knowledge, discriminating awareness, transcendent knowledge, sublime knowing.
• other languages: sherab (Tibetan)

≫ pramana (Sanskrit: प्रमाण, IAST: pramāṇa; Tibetan: ཚད་མ་, tsema; Wylie: tshad ma) = valid cognition (lit. proof, means of knowledge); it refers to epistemology in Indian philosophies including Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism.
• see also (external): wikipedia (pramana) / wikipedia (Buddhist logic) / rigpawiki (pramana)

≫ pratigha (Sanskrit: प्रतिघ, IAST: pratigha; Tibetan: ཁོང་ཁྲོ་, khongtro; Wylie: khong khro) = anger, aggression, wrath, enmity, malice.
• see also: klesha (afflictive/destructive/disturbing/negative emotions), nyöndrip (emotional obscurations)
• see also: mulaklesha (six root disturbing emotions): raga (राग, desire), pratigha (प्रतिघ, anger), avidya (अविद्या, ignorance), mana (मान, pride), vicikitsa (विचिकित्सा, doubt), drishti (दृष्टि, view)

≫ pratyaksha (Sanskrit: प्रत्यक्ष, pratyaksha; IAST: pratyakṣa; Tibetan: མངོན་སུམ་, ngönsum; Wylie: mngon sum) = direct perception, direct cognition.
• other languages: ngönsum (Tibetan)
• see also (the four kinds of direct perception): (1) indriyapratyaksha (sense perception), (2) manasapratyaksha (mental perception), (3) svasamvedana (self-cognition), (4) yogipratyaksha (yogic direct perception)

≫ puja (Sanskrit & Pali: पूजा, IAST: pūjā) = devotional practice; ritual prayer and practice; religious observance; worship, honour, respect, reverence, veneration, homage to the buddhas and bodhisattvas (in Buddhism) or adoration of the gods (in Hinduism).
• see also: pujari (priest who performs temple rituals and devotional practices such as puja)
• see also (external): (puja in Buddhism) wikipedia / (puja in Hinduism) wikipedia

≫ pujari (Sanskrit: पूजारी, IAST: pūjārī) = priest who performs temple rituals and devotional practices such as puja. (Although both Buddhism and Hinduism have puja, the word pujari is more strongly associated with Hindu temple priests).
• see also: puja (ritual prayer and practice)
• see also (external): wikipedia

≫ Pundarika Sutra (Sanskrit: सद्धर्मपुण्डरीक सूत्र, IAST: Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra; Chinese: 妙法蓮華經, pinyin: Miàofǎ Liánhuá jīng, shortened to 法華經, Fǎhuá jīng; Japanese: 妙法蓮華経, Myōhō Renge Kyō; Korean: 법화경, Myobeomnyeonhwagyeong) = The Lotus Sutra, one of the most popular and influential Mahayana sutras, and the basis on which the Tiantai, Tendai, Cheontae, and Nichiren schools of Buddhism were established.
• see also: DJKR teaching on Lotus Sutra, New Delhi (March 18, 2018)
• see also: Namu Myoho Renge Kyo (mantra chanted in Nichiren Buddhism)
• see also (external): wikipedia / New World Encyclopedia

≫ punya (Sanskrit: पुण्य, punya, IAST: puṇya; Pāli: पुञ्ञ, IAST: puñña; Tibetan: བསོད་ནམས་, sönam; Wylie: bsod nams) = merit, virtue, meritorious, meritorious karma.
• other languages: sönam (Tibetan)
• see also (external): wikipedia (merit in Buddhism) / wikipedia (punya in Hinduism) / rigpawiki (merit)

≫ purushartha (Sanskrit: पुरुषार्थ, IAST: puruṣārtha) = (one of) the four objects or aims of existence according to Hindu philosophy: (1) kāma (काम, the gratification of desire, pleasure, love, psychological values); (2) artha (अर्थ, acquiring wealth, prosperity, material values); (3) dharma (धर्म, discharging one's duty, righteousness, moral values); (4) moksha (मोक्ष, liberation, spiritual values).
• see also (external): wikipedia


R

≫ raga (Sanskrit: राग, IAST: rāga; Tibetan: འདོད་ཆོགས་, döchok; Wylie: 'dod + chogs) = desire, attachment, passion, love.
• see also: klesha (afflictive/destructive/disturbing/negative emotions), nyöndrip (emotional obscurations)
• see also: mulaklesha (six root disturbing emotions): raga (राग, desire), pratigha (प्रतिघ, anger), avidya (अविद्या, ignorance), mana (मान, pride), vicikitsa (विचिकित्सा, doubt), drishti (दृष्टि, view)

≫ Rinpoche (Tibetan: རིན་པོ་ཆེ་, rinpoché; Wylie: rin po che) = "precious one", honorific title for incarnate lama or distinguished Dharma practitioner.

≫ rupakaya (Sanskrit: रूपकाय, rūpakāya = रूप rūpa (form) + काय kāya (body, dimension); Tibetan: གཟུགས་སྐུ་, zuk ku; Wylie: gzugs sku) = the "form body" or physical manifestation of a buddha; in the Mahayana, the rupakaya includes the two "form kayas" of nirmanakaya and sambhogakaya.
• see also: dharmakaya ("truth body" of a buddha), kaya (body, dimension)
• see also (external): wikipedia (trikaya) / rigpawiki (rupakaya)


S

samatha (Pāli: समथ, IAST: samatha) = shamatha.
• other languages: see shamatha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ samsara (Sanskrit: संसार, IAST: saṃsāra; Tibetan: འཁོར་བ་, khorwa; Wylie: 'khor ba) = cyclic existence, birth-and-death, worldly life, transmigration.
• other languages: khorwa (Tibetan)
• see also: nirvana (beyond suffering, liberation from worldly existence)
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ samskara (Sanskrit: संस्कार, IAST: saṃskāra; Pāli: सङ्खार, IAST: saṅkhāra; Tibetan: འདུ་བྱེད་, dujé, Wylie: 'du byed) = mental formation, compounding, conditioned existence, formation, impulses; a mental creation (such as that of the external world, that is taken as real although actually non-existent), the second link in the twelvefold chain of causation or the fourth of the five skandhas).
• other languages: sankhara (Pāli)
• see also: skandha (aggregate)
• see also (external): wikipedia (saṅkhāra in Buddhist philosophy) / wikipedia (saṃskāra in Indian philosophy)

samten (Tibetan: བསམ་གཏན་, samten; Wylie: bsam gtan) = meditation, concentration, mental focus.
• other languages: dhyana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

sangyé (Tibetan: སངས་རྒྱས་, sangyé; Wylie: sangs rgyas) = buddha, buddhahood, fully enlightened.
NB: DJKR emphasises that the semantic range of the English word "enlightenment" does not at all do justice to the meaning of buddha/sangyé or bodhi/jangchup - see notes for buddha.
• other languages: buddha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)
• see also: bodhi (enlightenment)

sankhara (Pāli: सङ्खार, IAST: saṅkhāra) = samskara, mental formation.
• other languages: samskara (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ sannyasa (Sanskrit: संन्यास, IAST: saṃnyāsa also saṃnyāsaḥ) = renunciant, ascetic; putting or throwing down, laying aside, resignation, abandonment; renunciation, the fourth and final life stage within the Hindu philosophy of four age-based life stages (ashramas), marked by renunciation of material desires and prejudices and disinterest and detachment from material life. An individual in sannyasa is known as sannyasi (male) or sannyasini (female).
• see also: ashrama (the four life stages)
• see also (external): wikipedia

≫ Saraha (Sanskrit: सरह, IAST: saraha; Tibetan: མདའ་བསྣུན་, danün; Wylie: mda' bsnun) = Saraha (c. 8th century CE), one of the 84 mahasiddhas; in Tibetan his name is translated as "archer" (he who has shot the arrow of nonduality into the heart of duality); in iconography he is depicted holding an arrow.
• see also: mahasiddha (great accomplished one)
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpawiki

sati (Pāli: सति, IAST: sati) = mindfulness, awareness, recollection.
• other languages: drenpa (Tibetan), smriti (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ sem (Tibetan: སེམས་, sem; Wylie: sems; Sanskrit: चित्त, IAST: citta) = mind, 'cognitive act', thoughts, mentation, cognition, grasping mind.
• other languages: chitta (Sanskrit)

≫ sernya (Tibetan: གསེར་ཉ་, sernya; Wylie: gser nya; Sanskrit: gaurmatsya from गौर + मत्स्य, IAST: gaura + matsya) = The Auspicious Golden Fishes, one of the Eight Auspicious Symbols. A pair of golden fish that symbolise fearlessness, freedom and liberation, as well as happiness, fertility and abundance.
• see also: Tashi Tagyé (Eight Auspicious Symbols)

≫ shamatha (Sanskrit: शमथ, IAST: śamatha; Pāli: समथ, IAST: samatha; Tibetan: ཞི་གནས་, zhiné; Wylie: zhi gnas; Burmese: သမထ) = calm abiding, meditative equipoise, tranquility of the mind.
• other languages: samatha (Pāli), zhiné (Tibetan)
• see also: smriti (mindfulness, recollection), vipassana (insight)
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpawiki / study buddhism (Berzin)

≫ shastra (Sanskrit: शास्त्र, IAST: śāstra; Tibetan: བསྟན་བཅོས་, tenchö; Wylie: bstan bcos) = a treatise or commentary on the words of the Buddha.
• see also: sutra (discourse, words of the Buddha)
• see also (external): wikipediarigpawiki

≫ shédrip (Tibetan: ཤེས་སྒྲིབ་, shédrip; Wylie: shes sgrib; Sanskrit: jñeyāvaraṇa from ज्ञेय + आवरण, IAST: jñeya + āvaraṇa) = cognitive obscurations, obstructions to omniscience.
• see also: drip (obscuration)
• see also (glossary): 2 obscurations = emotional obscurations (nyöndrip) & cognitive obscurations (shédrip)

≫ shekpa (Tibetan: གཤེགས་པ་, shekpa; Wylie: gshegs pa; Sanskrit: गत, IAST: gata) = to approach, proceed, depart, go away, dissolve into; DJKR "going and coming, together (i.e. at the same time)".
• other languages: gata (Sanskrit)
• see also: dézhin shekpa (tathagata)

sherab (Tibetan: ཤེས་རབ་, shérap; Wylie: shes rab) = prajña, transcendent knowledge.
• other languages: prajña (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

shiné (Tibetan) = redirects to zhiné (Tibetan)

≫ shloka (Sanskrit: श्लोक, IAST: śloka; Tibetan (1): ཚིག་བཅད་, tsikché; Wylie: tshig bcad; Tibetan (2): ཚིགས་བཅད་, Wylie: tshigs bcad) = stanza, verse.
• other languages: tsikché (Tibetan)

≫ shravaka (Sanskrit: श्रावक, IAST: śrāvaka; Pāli: सावक, IAST: sāvaka; literally "hearing, listening"; Burmese: သာဝက; Tibetan: ཉན་ཐོས་, nyentö; Wylie: nyan thos) = disciple of the Buddha; hearer or listener of the teachings; "one who hears and proclaims"; follower of the Shravakayana (basic vehicle) who strives to attain the level of an arhat.
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ Shravakayana (Sanskrit: श्रावकयान, IAST: śrāvaka + yāna; Tibetan: ཉན་ཐོས་ཀྱི་ཐེག་པ་, nyentö kyi tekpa; Wylie: snyan thos kyi theg pa) = "the vehicle of the shravakas (listeners)", one of the three yanas known to Indian Buddhism (along with the Pratyekabuddhayana and Mahayana). The Shravakayana path leads to the goals of an arhat, an individual who achieves liberation as a result of listening to the teachings (or lineage) of a Samyaksambuddha (i.e. fully enlightened Buddha, such as Shakyamuni Buddha). The Theravada is the only surviving school of Buddhism based on the Shravakayana. Some Mahayana texts refer to the Shravakayana vehicle as the "Hinayana" (or "lesser vehicle" in contrast to the later Mahayana as the "great vehicle"), a pejorative term also in the past widely used by Western scholars. In 1950 the World Fellowship of Buddhists declared that the term "Hinayana" should not be used when referring to any form of Buddhism existing today, and modern Buddhist scholarship uses the term "Nikaya Buddhism" to refer to early Buddhist schools. Some contemporary Buddhist teachers (including DJKR) prefer to use the term "Shravakayana"; DJKR: "Hinayana is a Mahayana chauvinist term, so we don’t want to use this term”.
• see also: shravaka ("hearer", disciple of the Buddha)
• see also: Hinayana (the lesser vehicle), Mahayana (the great vehicle), Theravada (the school of the elders), yana (vehicle or method)
• see also (external): wikipediarigpawiki

≫ shunyata (Sanskrit: शून्यता, IAST: śūnyatā; Pali: सुञ्ञता, IAST: suññatā; Tibetan: སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་, tongpa nyi; Wylie: stong pa nyid; Burmese: သုည-တာ) = emptiness; lack of true existence; illusory nature (of all worldly phenomena); the ultimate nature of phenomena, namely their lack of inherent existence.
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ Siddhartha (Sanskrit: सिद्धार्थ, IAST: Siddhārtha; Pāli: सिद्धत्थ, IAST: Siddhattha; Tibetan: དོན་གྲུབ་, döndrub, Wylie: don grub) = Siddhartha (literally "one who has accomplished his aim"), the Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE).
• see also: Siddhartha Gautama
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpawiki

Siddhartha Gautama (Sanskrit: सिद्धार्थ + गौतम, IAST: Siddhārtha + Gautama; Pāli: सिद्धत्थ + गोतम, IAST: Siddhattha + Gotama) = see Siddhartha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)
• see also: Gautama (Sanskrit), Gotama (Pāli)

≫ siddhi (Sanskrit: सिद्धि, IAST: siddhi; Tibetan: དངོས་གྲུབ་, ngödrup; Wylie: dngos grub; also: བསྒྲུབ་, drup; Wylie: bsgrub) = accomplishment, complete attainment, success, performance, fulfilment, magical power; there are eight 'common' siddhis said to be developed by the practice of yoga. Among these are clairvoyance, clairaudiance, the ability to fly through the air, the ability to read thoughts, and control of the body and external world, enabling one to transform both at will. The supreme siddhi is enlightenment.
• see also: mahasiddha (great accomplished one)
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ skandha (Sanskrit: स्कन्ध, IAST: skandha; Pāli: खन्ध, IAST: khandha; Tibetan: ཕུང་པོ་, pungpo; Wylie: phung po) = one of the five aggregates, the five constituent elements of being; psycho-physical constituents: (1) रूप (rūpa) form (or matter), (2) वेदना (vedanā) sensation (or feeling), (3) संज्ञा (saṃjñā) perception, (4) संस्कार (saṃskāra) mental formations, (5) विज्ञान (vijñāna) consciousness.
• see also: samskara (mental formations)
• see also (external): wikipedia (five skandhas)

sloka (Sanskrit) = redirects to shloka (Sanskrit)

≫ smriti (Sanskrit: स्मृति, IAST: smṛti; Pāli: सति, IAST: sati; Tibetan: དྲན་པ་, drenpa, Wylie: dran pa; Burmese: သတိ) = mindfulness, recollection, calling to mind, bearing in mind, remembrance, presence of mind, memory, awareness.
• other languages: drenpa (Tibetan), sati (Pāli)
• see also: shamatha (calm abiding), vipassana (insight)
• see also (external): wikipedia (sati), wikipedia (smriti), wikipedia (mindfulness) / rigpawiki (mindfulness)

sönam (Tibetan: བསོད་ནམས་, sönam; Wylie: bsod nams) = merit.
• other languages: punya (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ stupa (Sanskrit: स्तूप, IAST: stūpa; Tibetan: མཆོད་རྟེན་, chörten; Wylie: mchod rten) = stupa.
• other languages: chörten (Tibetan)

≫ sugata (Sanskrit: सुगत, IAST: sugata) = going well, gone well, "one who has gone blissfully" (syn. the Buddha).
• see also: buddha

≫ Sujata (Sanskrit: सुजाता, IAST: sujātā) = a milkmaid, who is said to have fed Gautama Buddha milk and rice, ending his six years of ascetism.
• see also (external): wikipedia

≫ sutra (Sanskrit: सूत्र, IAST: sūtra also सूत्रम्, IAST: sūtram; Pali: सुत्त, IAST: sutta; literally "string, thread"; Tibetan: མདོ་, do, Wylie: mdo) = discourse; canonical Buddhist scriptures, many of which are regarded as records of the oral teachings of Gautama Buddha. They were initially passed on orally by monks, then later written down and composed as manuscripts in various Indo-Aryan languages which were then translated into other local languages as Buddhism spread.
• see also: shastra (treatise or commentary on the words of the Buddha)
• see also (external): wikipedia (sutra), wikipedia (Buddhist texts) / rigpawiki (sutra)

≫ svasamvedana (Sanskrit: स्वसंवेदन, IAST: svasaṃvedana; Tibetan: རང་རིག་, rang rik; Wylie: rang rig) = self-cognition, self-cognisance, self-awareness.
• see also (the four kinds of direct perception): (1) indriyapratyaksha (sense perception), (2) manasapratyaksha (mental perception), (3) svasamvedana (self-cognition), (4) yogipratyaksha (yogic direct perception)


T

≫ taigi (Japanese: 大疑, taigi) = "great darkness" or "great doubt", an aim of koan (gong'an) study and practice in Zen (Chan). There is a well-known saying in Zen that "Great awakening (大悟, taigo) is only possible amid great doubt (大疑, taigi)”. (Also: "Great doubt, great awakening; no doubt, no awakening").
• see also: bodhi (enlightenment, awakening), koan (story or question used in Zen study and practice)
• see also (external): buddhism.org

≫ tajitu (simplified Chinese: 太极图; traditional Chinese: 太極圖; pinyin: tàijítú) = circular black and white symbol used to depict the concept of the "supreme ultimate" (太极, taiji) in Taoism, representing both its dualist (陰陽, yin-yang) and monist (无极, wuji) aspects.
• see also: nyidzin (dualism), yin-yang (literally "dark-bright", "negative-positive", a concept of dualism in Taoism)
• see also (external): wikipedia

≫ takta (Tibetan: རྟག་ལྟ་, tak ta; Wylie: rtag lta; also (long version): Tibetan: རྟག་པའི་ལྟ་བ་, takpé tawa; Wylie: rtag pa'i lta ba; Sanskrit: शाश्वतदृष्टि, IAST: śāśvata-dṛṣṭi; Pāli: sassatavāda) = eternalism, view of permanence. The belief that there is a permanent and causeless creator of everything; in particular, that one's identity or consciousness has a concrete essence which is independent, everlasting and singular.
• see also: chéta (nihilism), tawa (view)
• see also (external): wikipediarigpawiki

≫ tamel gyi shepa (Tibetan: ཐ་མལ་གྱི་ཤེས་པ་, tamel gyi shepa; Wylie: tha mal gyi shes pa) = ordinary mind.

≫ tantra (Sanskrit: तन्त्र, IAST: tantra; Tibetan: རྒྱུད་, gyü; Wylie: rgyud) = continuity, continuum; tantra is classified into the three aspects of (1) ground/nature, (2) path/method and (3) result.
• other languages: gyü (Tibetan)

tarpa (Tibetan: ཐར་པ་, tarpa; Wylie: thar pa; Sanskrit: मोक्ष, IAST: mokṣa) = enlightenment, nirvana, liberation, release.
• other languages: nirvana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ tashi (Tibetan: བཀྲ་ཤིས་, trashi; Wylie: bkra shis) = auspicious, favourable, good fortune, good luck.

≫ Tashi Tagyé (Tibetan: བཀྲ་ཤིས་རྟགས་བརྒྱད་, trashi takgyé; Wylie: bkra shis rtags brgyad; Sanskrit: अष्टमङ्गल, IAST: aṣṭamaṅgala) = The Eight Auspicious Symbols.
• see also (external): wikipedia / rigpa wiki

≫ Tashi Tsekpa (Tibetan: བཀྲ་ཤིས་བརྩེགས་པ་, trashi tsekpa; Wylie: bkra shis brtsegs pa) = "Heap of Goodness", a dharani from the Collection of Dharanis (Tibetan: གཟུངས་འདུས་, zungdü; Wylie: gzungs 'dus). Also known as "The Noble Stack of Auspiciousness".
• see also: dharani (chant, incantation, recitation)
• see also (external): FPMT (translation by Gavin Kilty)

≫ tatha (Sanskrit: तथा, IAST: tathā; Tibetan: དེ་བཞིན་, dézhin; Wylie: de bzhin) = that itself, like that, in that manner, so, thus; DJKR: "whatever it is", "as it is", "what is", "here and now".
• other languages: dézhin (Tibetan)
• see also: tathata (suchness, thusness), tathagata ("thus come / thus gone", syn. the Buddha)

≫ tathata (Sanskrit: तथाता, IAST: tathātā; Tibetan: དེ་བཞིན་ཉིད་, dézhin nyi; Wylie: de bzhin nyid) = suchness, thusness, as it is, reality, state of being just as it is; true nature, true state of things.

≫ tathagata (Sanskrit: तथागत, IAST: tathāgata; Tibetan: དེ་བཞིན་གཤེགས་པ་, dézhin shekpa; Wylie: de bzhin gshegs pa) = thus gone, thus come, intrinsically inhering buddhahood, tathagata (syn. the Buddha); DJKR: "one who has gone beyond samsara and nirvana", "authentic presence", "authenticity".
• other languages: dézhin shekpa (Tibetan)
• see also: buddha

tathagatagarbha (Sanskrit: तथागतगर्भ, IAST: tathāgatagarbha; Tibetan: དེ་བཞིན་གཤེགས་པའི་སྙིང་པོ་, dézhin shekpé nyingpo; Wylie: de bzhin gshegs pa'i snying po) = buddhanature.

tawa (Tibetan: ལྟ་བ་, tawa; Wylie: lta ba) = view, orientation, perspective, belief.
• other languages: drishti (Sanskrit main entry)
• see also: chéta (nihilism), takta (eternalism)

té tsom (Tibetan: ཐེ་ཚོམ་, té tsom; Wylie: the tshom) = doubt, suspicion, indecision, hesitation.
• other languages: vicikitsa (Sanskrit main entry)
• see also: klesha (afflictive/disturbing emotions, negative emotions), nyöndrip (emotional obscurations)
• see also (six root disturbing emotions): raga (desire), pratigha (anger), mana (pride), vicikitsa (doubt)

≫ thab ké (Tibetan: ཐབས་མཁས་, thab ké; Wylie: thabs mkhas; Sanskrit: उपायकौशल्य, IAST: upāyakauśalya, from उपाय + कुशल, IAST: upāya + kuśala) = skilful means, skill in means, excellence in means, resourceful, expedient.
• see also: upaya (means, approach)

≫ Theravada (Pāli: थेरवाद, IAST: theravāda; Burmese: ေထရဝါဒ) = "the school of the elders", the most commonly accepted name of Buddhism's oldest extant school. The word "thero" (commonly appearing in the masculine and feminine forms thera and therī respectively) is an honorific term in Pali for senior bhikkhus and bhikkhunis (Buddhist monks and nuns) in the Buddhist monastic order.
• see also: Hinayana (the lesser vehicle), Mahayana (the great vehicle), Shravakayana (the vehicle of the shravakas), yana (vehicle or method)
• see also: bhikshu (Buddhist monk), bhikshuni (Buddhist nun)
• see also (external): wikipedia (Theravada), wikipedia (thero) / Access to Insight (What is Theravada Buddhism?)

≫ thün (Tibetan: ཐུན་, Wylie: thun) = session, period; meditation session, practice session.
• see also: dathün (month-long meditation session)

≫ tong (Tibetan: མཐོང་, tong; Wylie: mthong) = seeing, noticing, experiencing; DJKR: "realising", "awakened with".

≫ trang (Tibetan: འཕྲང་, trang; Wylie: 'phrang) = narrow dangerous path (on a cliff or in a ravine); narrow defile; perilous journey; ambush.
• see also: gompé trang (the ravine of meditation)

trashi (Tibetan) = redirects to tashi (Tibetan)

≫ trülpa (Tibetan: སྤྲུལ་པ་, trülpa; Wylie: sprul pa) = magical appearance, magically created appearance, apparition, emanation, manifestation, incarnation
• see also: trülku (emanation body)

trülku (Tibetan) = redirects to tulku (Tibetan)

≫ tshechu (Dzongkha: ཚེས་བཅུ་, tséchu; Wylie: tshes bcu; literally "day ten") = annual religious Bhutanese festivals held in each district or dzongkhag of Bhutan on the tenth day of a month of the lunar Tibetan calendar.
• see also (external): wikipedia

tsikché (Tibetan (1): ཚིག་བཅད་, tsikché; Wylie: tshig bcad; Tibetan (2): ཚིགས་བཅད་, Wylie: tshigs bcad) = stanza, verse.
• other languages: shloka (Sanskrit main entry)

≫ tsimpa (Tibetan: ཚིམ་པ་, tsimpa; Wylie: tshim pa) = satisfied, content, contented.
• see also : mi tsimpa (unsatisfied, not content)

≫ tulku (Tibetan: སྤྲུལ་སྐུ་, trülku; Wylie: sprul sku) = manifested body, emanation body, form body, nirmanakaya, incarnate lama
• see also: trülpa (magical appearance)


U

≫ upaya (Sanskrit: उपाय, IAST: upāya) = means, approach, device, craft.
• see also: thab ké (skilful means)

≫ upekkha (Pāli: उपेक्खाा, IAST: upekkhā; Sanskrit: उपेक्षा, IAST: upekṣā; Tibetan: བཏང་སྙོམས་, tangnyom; Wylie: btang snyoms) = equanimity, one of the four sublime states (brahmavihara). (The Sanskrit has a semantic range more oriented towards overlooking, disregard, negligence, indifference, contempt, abandonment).
• see also: four brahmaviharas (four sublime attitudes; four immeasurables): (1) metta (मेत्ता, loving-kindness), (2) karuna (करुणा, compassion), (3) mudita (मुदिता, sympathetic joy), (4) upekkha (उपेक्खाा, equanimity)
• see also (external): wikipedia

≫ ushnisha (Sanskrit: उष्णीष, IAST: uṣṇīṣa also uṣṇīṣaḥ) = the protuberance on the head of a buddha, one of the 32 major marks of the Buddha (the Sanskrit word also means anything wound round the head, hence also turban, diadem, crown). Later definitions of the 32 major marks elaborate that the ushnisha is covered with hairs that curl in the direction of the sun, and later still the ushnisha includes a flame that ascends from the middle of the protuberance.
• see also (external): wikipedia


V

vicikitsa (Sanskrit: विचिकित्सा, IAST: vicikitsā; Tibetan: ཐེ་ཚོམ་, té tsom; Wylie: the tshom) = doubt.
• other languages: té tsom (Tibetan)
• see also: klesha (afflictive/destructive/disturbing/negative emotions), nyöndrip (emotional obscurations)
• see also: mulaklesha (six root disturbing emotions): raga (राग, desire), pratigha (प्रतिघ, anger), avidya (अविद्या, ignorance), mana (मान, pride), vicikitsa (विचिकित्सा, doubt), drishti (दृष्टि, view)

vipashyana (Sanskrit: विपश्यन, IAST: vipaśyana) = vipassana.
• other languages: vipassana (Pali ≫ main entry)

≫ vipassana (Pāli: विपस्सना, IAST: vipassanā; Tibetan: ལྷག་མཐོང་, lhaktong; Wylie: lhag mthong; Sanskrit: विपश्यन, IAST: vipaśyanā) = special seeing, special insight, insight, clear seeing, vipassana.
• other languages: lhaktong (Tibetan), vipashyana (Sanskrit)
• see also: lhak (special), shamatha (calm abiding), smriti (mindfulness, recollection), tong (seeing, noticing)


W

wadipa (Dzongkha: ཝ་དི་པ་) = cowherd.
• other languages: nakdzi (Tibetan ≫ main entry)


Y

≫ yana (Sanskrit and Pāli: यान, IAST: yāna; Tibetan: ཐེག་པ་, tekpa; Wylie: theg pa) = vehicle or method; "that which carries"; a mode or method of spiritual practice in Buddhism, and in particular to divisions of various schools of Buddhism according to their type of practice.
• see also: Hinayana (the lesser vehicle), Mahayana (the great vehicle), Shravakayana (the vehicle of the shravakas), Theravada (the school of the elders)
• see also (external): wikipediarigpawiki (nine yanas in the Nyingma tradition)

yeshe (Tibetan: ཡེ་ཤེས་, yéshé; Wylie: ye shes) = wisdom, primordial wisdom.
• other languages: jñana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ yin-yang (Chinese: 陰陽, pinyin: yīnyáng, literally "dark-bright", "negative-positive") = a concept of dualism in Taoist philosophy that describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another. It is often depicted using the tajitu, a circular black and white symbol or diagram.
• see also: nyidzin (dualism), tajitu (circular black and white symbol used to depict yin-yang)
• see also (external): wikipedia

≫ yoga (Sanskrit: योग, IAST: yoga also yogaḥ; Tibetan: རྣལ་འབྱོར་, naljor / nenjor; Wylie: rnal 'byor) = joining, uniting, union (in tantra: "union in fundamental reality"); attaching, harnessing (of horses); application or concentration of the thoughts, abstract contemplation, meditation.
• see also: yogi (practitioner of yoga)
• see also (external): wikipedia

≫ yogi (Sanskrit: योगि, IAST: yogi; also: योगिन्, IAST: yogin; Tibetan: རྣལ་འབྱོར་པ་, naljorpa / nenjorpa; Wylie: rnal 'byor pa) = a contemplative, devotee or ascetic; practitioner of yoga; endowed with, possession. A female practitioner of yoga is called a yogini.
• see also: yoga (joining, uniting)
• see also (external): wikipedia

yogin (Sanskrit) redirects to yogi (Sanskrit)

≫ yogipratyaksha (Sanskrit: योगिप्रत्यक्ष, yogipratyaksha; IAST: yogipratyakṣa; Tibetan: རྣལ་འབྱོར་མངོན་སུམ་, naljor ngönsum / nenjor ngönsum; Wylie: rnal 'byor mngon sum) = yogic direct perception.
• other languages: naljor ngönsum (Tibetan)
• see also (the four kinds of direct perception): (1) indriyapratyaksha (sense perception), (2) manasapratyaksha (mental perception), (3) svasamvedana (self-cognition), (4) yogipratyaksha (yogic direct perception)
• see also: yogi (practitioner of yoga)


Z

≫ zafu (Japanese: 座蒲, pronounced [d͡zaɸɯ]) = round meditation cushion, best known for its use in zazen Zen meditation.

zen (Japanese: 禅, zen) = meditation, concentration.
• other languages: dhyana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ zheljé (Tibetan: ཞལ་འབྱེད་; Wylie: zhal ‘byed) = open, unveil, inaugurate.

zhiné (Tibetan: ཞི་གནས་, zhiné; Wylie: zhi gnas) = shamatha, calm abiding.
• other languages: shamatha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ zungjuk (Tibetan: ཟུང་འཇུག་, zunjuk; Wylie: zung 'jug; Sanskrit: yuganaddha = युग + नद्ध, IAST: yuga + naddha) = union, indivisibility, primordial unity that resolves dualities.


Sources:

Note on capitalisation:

Capitalisation is used for proper names and names of schools (e.g. Mahayana) or religions (e.g. Buddhism), and also for followers of a religion (e.g. Buddhist). The historical Buddha is capitalised, also when he is referred to by other names such as Tathagata. The word buddha is in lower case when used to refer to buddhas or enlightened beings in general. 


Artwork: The Prayer Wheel Shop

Page last updated March 28, 2020