Tibetan + Sanskrit words

Tibetan + Sanskrit mani mantra v2

This page contains a partial list of some Tibetan, Sanskrit and Pali words found on this website (and also some Chinese, Japanese, Dzongkha and Hindi words). The list is ordered according to the English pronunciation of the Tibetan, Sanskrit and Pali words (following the approach of the Tibetan & Himalayan Library). Tibetan, Sanskrit (with diacritics) and Wylie/IAST transliterations are provided as appropriate. Brief definitions are also provided, together with links to external Tibetan, Sanskrit and Pali dictionary entries with more information, further definitions, and etymology. Where there are multiple entries/languages for a word, external links and definitions are only given for the main entry, which is indicated by "≫".


A

≫ Abhidharmakosha (Sanskrit: अभिधर्मकोश, abhidharmakosha; IAST: abhidharmakośa; Tibetan: མངོན་པ་མཛོད་, ngönpa dzö; Wylie: mngon pa mdzod. Also known as अभिधर्मकोशकारिका, abhidharmakoshakarika; IAST: abhidharmakośakārikā; Tibetan: ཆོས་མངོན་པའི་མཛོད་, chö ngönpé dzö; Wylie: chos mngon pa'i mdzod) = The Treasury of Abhidharma, a complete and systematic account of the Abhidharma composed by the Indian pandita Vasubandhu in the 4th or 5th century CE. It is considered the peak of scholarship in the Fundamental Vehicle (Shravakayana / Theravada).
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ abhisheka (Sanskrit: अभिषेक, IAST: abhiṣeka, literally: "anointing, inaugurating or consecrating (by sprinkling water)"; Tibetan: དབང་, wang; Wylie: dbang) = initiation or empowerment.
(other languages): wang (Tibetan)
• external links: wikipedia (empowerment in Vajrayana) wikipedia (empowerment) / rigpawiki (empowerment), rigpawiki (four empowerments)

≫ abhyasa (Sanskrit: अभ्यास, IAST: abhyāsa; Tibetan: གོམས་, gom; Wylie: goms) = familiarize, become accustomed to, condition to; to be habituated, trained, made familiar with; adept, practiced, mastered, skilled, accustomed.
(other languages): gom (Tibetan)
• external links: wikipedia (abhyasa), rigpawiki (meditation)

Amida (Japanese: 阿弥陀仏, Amida Butsu) = Japanese name for Amitabha Buddha - see Amitabha .
(other languages): Amitabha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ Amitabha (Sanskrit: अमिताभ, IAST: amitābha; Tibetan: འོད་དཔག་མེད་, öpakmé or öpamé; Wylie: 'od dpag med, literally: "boundless/infinite light"; Japanese: 阿弥陀仏, Amida Butsu) = the Buddha of Boundless Light (also known as Amida or Amitayus), belonging to the padma or lotus family (one of the five buddha families). Amitabha is the principal buddha in Pure Land Buddhism, a branch of East Asian Buddhism. In Vajrayana Buddhism, Amitabha is known for his longevity attribute, magnetising red fire element, the aggregate of discernment, pure perception and the deep awareness of emptiness of phenomena.
(other languages): Amida (Japanese)
• see also: Amitayus (alternate name for Amitabha), pañchakula (five buddha families), Sukhavati (pure land of Amitabha)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

Amitayus (Sanskrit: अमितायुस्, IAST: amitāyus) = alternate name for Amitabha Buddha. (Amitabha means "Infinite Light", and Amitayus means "Infinite Life" so Amitabha is also called "The Buddha of Immeasurable Light and Life").
• see also: Amitabha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ anatta (Pāli: अनत्ता, IAST: anattā; Sanskrit: अनात्मन्, IAST: anātman; Tibetan: བདག་མེད་, dakmé; Wylie: bdag med; Japanese: 空, kū) = no-self, non-self, without self, egoless, ownerless. Third of the 3 marks of existence.
(other languages): dakmé (Tibetan)
• see also: trilakshana (3 marks of existence): (1) anicca (impermanence), (2) dukkha (unsatisfactoriness) (3) anatta (nonself).
• Buddhist terms: 3 marks of existence: (1) impermanence, (2) unsatisfactoriness, (3) nonself
• glossary: 3 marks of existence

≫ anicca (Pāli: अनिच्चा, IAST: anicca; Sanskrit: अनित्य, IAST: anitya; Tibetan: མི་རྟག་པ་, mi takpa; Wylie: mi rtag pa; Japanese: 無常, mujō) = impermanent, impermanence. First of the 3 marks of existence.
• see also: trilakshana (3 marks of existence): (1) anicca (impermanence), (2) dukkha (unsatisfactoriness) (3) anatta (nonself).
• Buddhist terms: 3 marks of existence: (1) impermanence, (2) unsatisfactoriness, (3) nonself
• glossary: 3 marks of existence

anumana (Sanskrit: अनुमान, IAST: anumāna; also: अनुमानम्, IAST: anumānam) = inference, inferential cognition - see jépak.
(other languages): jépak (Tibetan ≫ main entry)

ariya (Pali: अरिय, IAST: ariya; also shortened to Pāli: अय्य, IAST: ayya) = noble being or sublime being - see arya.
(other languages): arya (Sanskrit ≫ main entry), ayya (Pāli)

≫ ariya atthangika magga (Pāli: अरिय अट्ठङ्गिक मग्ग, IAST: ariya + aṭṭhaṅgika + magga, Sanskrit: आर्याष्टाङ्गमार्ग, IAST: āryāṣṭāṅgamārga; Tibetan: འཕགས་པའི་ལམ་ཡན་ལག་བརྒྱད་པ་, pakpé lam yenlak gyépa; Wylie: 'phags pa'i lam yan lag brgyad pa, also: Tibetan: འཕགས་ལམ་གྱི་ཡན་ལག་བརྒྱད་, paklam gyi yenlak gyé; Wylie: 'phags lam gyi yan lag brgyad) = The Noble Eightfold Path, literally "8-fold path of the noble ones", which comprises eight practices: (1) right view, (2) right intention or resolve, (3) right speech, (4) right action or conduct, (5) right livelihood, (6) right effort, (7) right mindfulness, (8) right concentration or samadhi. When related to the 3-fold training, right view and intention correspond to the training in wisdom; right speech, action and livelihood to the training in discipline (or virtue); and right effort, mindfulness and concentration to the training in meditation.
• see also: cattari ariyasaccani (The Four Noble Truths: the Noble Eightfold Path corresponds to the fourth noble truth)
• Buddhist terms: 4 noble truths, 8-fold noble path
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

ariya sacca (Pāli: अरिय सच्च, IAST: ariya + sacca) = [Four] Noble Truths, literally "truths of the noble ones", i.e. it is not that the truths are noble, rather that they are truths of the noble ones (aryas).
• see also: arya (noble or sublime being), cattari ariyasaccani (Four Noble Truths ≫ main entry)

≫ arya (Sanskrit: आर्य, IAST: ārya, literally "honourable, noble, high"; Pāli: अरिय, IAST: ariya; also shortened to Pāli: अय्य, IAST: ayya; Tibetan: འཕགས་པ་, pakpa; Wylie: 'phags pa; Burmese: အယ်) = noble being or sublime being, i.e. no longer an ordinary samsaric being. Refers to a being that has attained the path of seeing, whether as a shravaka, pratyekabuddha or bodhisattva.
(other languages): ariya (Pāli), ayya (Pāli)
• see also: cattari ariyasaccani (Four Noble Truths, i.e. four truths of the aryas)
• Buddhist terms: 4 noble truths
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

≫ asana (Sanskrit: आसन, IAST: āsana; Tibetan: འདུག་སྟངས་, duk tang, Wylie: 'dug stangs) = physical posture; general term for a sitting meditation pose, later extended in hatha yoga and modern yoga as any type of pose or position.
(other languages): duktang (Tibetan)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ ashrama (Sanskrit: आश्रम, ashrama; IAST: āśrama) = the four age-based life stages discussed in Hindu philosophy: (1) brahmachārya (ब्रह्मचारिन्, student), (2) grihastha (गृहस्थ, householder), (3) vānaprastha (वानप्रस्थ, retired), (4) sannyāsa (संन्यास, renunciant).
• see also: sannyasa (renunciant)
• external links: wikipedia

Atiyoga (Sanskrit: अतियोग, IAST: atiyoga = ati ("beyond", "surpassing") + yoga ("joining", "uniting", "union"); Tibetan:  ཤིན་ཏུ་རྣལ་འབྱོར་, shintu naljor or shintu nenjor; Wylie: shin tu rnal 'byor; literally "yoga of the innermost essence") = Dzogchen; the highest yana within the classification of nine yanas of the Nyingma school. "Ati" indicates the topmost, summit or zenith. It has the sense of scaling a mountain, reaching the peak and having a view over everything.
(other names): Dzogchen, Mahasandhi
• external links: rigpawiki

avarana (Sanskrit: आवरण, IAST: āvaraṇa) = defilement, obscuration - see drip.
(other languages): drip (Tibetan main entry)

≫ avidya (Sanskrit: अविद्या, IAST: avidyā; Pali: अविज्जा, IAST: avijjā; Tibetan: མ་རིག་པ་, ma rigpa; Wylie: ma rig pa) = ignorance, confusion, delusion; misconceptions about the nature of reality, in particular not understanding or acceptance the 3 marks of existence (trilakshana); third of the 6 destructive emotions (mulaklesha).
• see also: klesha (afflictive/destructive/disturbing/negative emotions); mulaklesha (6 destructive emotions): (1) raga (desire), (2) pratigha (anger), (3) avidya (ignorance), (4) mana (pride), (5) vicikitsa (doubt), (6) drishti (view)
• Buddhist terms: 6 destructive emotions: (1) desire or attachment, (2) anger, (3) ignorance, (4) pride or conceit, (5) doubt, (6) wrong view.

avijja (Pali: अविज्जा, IAST: avijjā) = ignorance, confusion, delusion - see avidya.
(other languages): avidya (Sanskrit main entry)

ayya (Pāli: अय्य, IAST: ayya) = noble being or sublime being; used as honorific to refer to ordained Buddhist monks and nuns (bhikkhus and bhikkunis) in the Theravada tradition - see arya.
(other languages): arya (Sanskrit main entry)
• see also: bhikshu (Buddhist monk), bhikshuni (Buddhist nun), Theravada (the school of the elders)


B

≫ bhajan (Sanskrit: भजन, IAST: bhajana) = reverence, worship, adoration; refers to devotional songs with religious or spiritual themes, in any of the languages of the Indian subcontinent. The term "bhajan" is also used to refer to a group event, with one or more lead singers, accompanied with music, and sometimes dancing.

≫ bhavana (Sanskrit: भावन, IAST: bhāvana; Tibetan: སྒོམ་, gom: Wylie: sgom) = development, training, cultivation, practice; contemplation, meditation.
(other languages): gom (Tibetan)
• see also: ta gom chöpa (view, meditation & action) [note: here "meditation" is bhavana]
• external links: wikipedia (bhavana), rigpawiki (meditation)

bhikkhu (Pāli: भिक्खु, IAST: bhikkhu) = fully ordained male Buddhist monastic - see bhikshu.
(other languages): bhikshu (Sanskrit main entry)

bhikkhuni (Pāli: भिक्खुनी, IAST: bhikkhunī) = fully ordained female Buddhist monastic - see bhikshuni.
(other languages): bhikshuni (Sanskrit main entry)

≫ bhikshu (Sanskrit: भिक्षु, IAST: bhikṣu; Pāli: भिक्खु, IAST: bhikkhu; Tibetan: དགེ་སློང་, gelong; Wylie: dge slong) = fully ordained male Buddhist monastic ("monk").
(other languages): bhikkhu (Pāli)
• see also: Theravada (the school of the elders)

≫ bhikshuni (Sanskrit: भिक्षुणी, IAST: bhikṣuṇī; Pāli: भिक्खुनी, IAST: bhikkhunī; Tibetan: དགེ་སློང་མ་, gelongma; Wylie: dge slong ma) = fully ordained female Buddhist monastic ("nun").
(other languages): bhikkhuni (Pāli)
• see also: Theravada (the school of the elders)

≫ bodhi (Pāli & Sanskrit: बोधि, IAST bodhi; Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་, jangchup; Wylie: byang chub; Burmese: ေဗာဓိ) = enlightenment, perfect knowledge or wisdom (by which one becomes a buddha), awakening.
Note: DJKR emphasises that the semantic range of word "enlightenment" does not at all do justice to the meaning of buddha/sangyé or bodhi/jangchup - see notes for buddha.
(other languages): jangchup (Tibetan)
• see also: buddha (fully enlightened person)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ Bodhicharyavatara (Sanskrit: बोधिचर्यावतार, bodhi + caryāvatāra; IAST: Bodhicaryāvatāra, also बोधिसत्त्वचर्यावतार, bodhisattva + caryāvatāra; Bodhisattvacharyavatara; IAST: Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra; Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའི་སྤྱོད་པ་ལ་འཇུག་པ་, changchub sempé chöpa la jukpa; Wylie: byang chub sems dpa'i spyod pa la 'jug pa, short form: སྤྱོད་འཇུག་, chönjuk; Wylie: spyod 'jug) = "The Way of the Bodhisattva" (alternative translations: "A Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life", "Engaging in Bodhisattva Conduct" or "Introduction to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life), a classic guide to the Mahayana path written in Sanskrit verse by the 8th Century Indian master Shantideva at Nalanda University. It is included among the so-called "thirteen great texts", which form the core of the curriculum in most shedras.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ bodhichitta (Sanskrit: बोधिचित्त, IAST: bodhicitta, from बोधि + चित्त, IAST bodhi + chitta; Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་, jangchup kyi sem; Wylie: byang chub kyi sems) = the mind of enlightenment, awakened state of mind, enlightened attitude, altruistic aspiration to enlightenment, the compassionate wish to attain enlightenment for the benefit of all beings and also to bring them to that state.
Note: DJKR emphasises that the semantic range of the English word "compassion" does not at all do justice to the meaning of nyingjé/karuna/bodhichitta - see notes for nyingjé.
(other languages): jangchup kyi sem (Tibetan)
• see also: 4 brahmaviharas (the 4 immeasurables in aspiration bodhichitta)
• Buddhist terms: compassion
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

bodhicitta (Sanskrit) = redirects to bodhichitta (Sanskrit)

≫ bodhisattva (Sanskrit: बोधिसत्त्व, IAST: bodhisattva; Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའ་, jangchup sempa; Wylie: byang chub sems dpa') = being on the path of enlightenment, "one whose essence is perfect knowledge", someone who has developed/aroused bodhichitta, a practitioner of the Mahayana path.
(other languages): jangchup sempa (Tibetan)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

Bodhisattvacharyavatara (Sanskrit) = redirects to Bodhicharyavatara (Sanskrit)

≫ Bon (Tibetan: བོན་, bon; Wylie: bon; Lhasa dialect: [pʰø̃̀]; also transliterated into English as Bön or Pön) = a Tibetan religion that arose in the eleventh century and established its scriptures mainly from termas and visions by tertöns such as Loden Nyingpo. Bon termas contain myths of Bon existing as a pre-Buddhist religion before the introduction of Buddhism in Tibet, but modern scholarship has demonstrated that this is unlikely, although there were pre-existing indigenous shamanistic practices. The early "black Bon" relied on magic and shamanistic rituals, and shared similarities with Chinese folk religions and Mongolian shamanism.
• see also: Dzogchen (Great Perfection); tertön (treasure-revealer)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

Bön (Tibetan) = redirects to Bon (Tibetan)

≫ brahmavihara (Pāli & Sanskrit: ब्रह्मविहार, IAST: brahmavihāra) = sublime attitude (lit. "abode of brahma"); a series of four Buddhist virtues and the meditation practices to cultivate them, which comprise "aspiration bodhichitta". Also known as the immeasurable or boundless thoughts (Sanskrit: अप्रमाण, IAST: apramāṇa; Pāli: appamaññā), collectively comprising the "four immeasurables" (Sanskrit: चतुर्अप्रमाण, IAST: caturapramāṇa = catur + apramāṇa; Tibetan: ཚད་མེད་བཞི་, tsémé shyi; Wylie: tshad med bzhi)
• see also: 4 brahmaviharas (4 sublime attitudes; 4 immeasurables): (1) metta (मेत्ता, loving-kindness), (2) karuna (करुणा, compassion), (3) mudita (मुदिता, sympathetic joy), (4) upekkha (उपेक्खाा, equanimity)
• Buddhist terms: 4 immeasurables: (1) loving-kindness, (2) compassion [here "compassion" is karuna], (3) sympathetic joy, (4) equanimity.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ Buddha (Pāli: बुद्ध, IAST; buddha; Sanskrit: बुद्ध, IAST: buddha; Tibetan: སངས་རྒྱས་, sangyé; Wylie: sangs rgyas) = (1) Siddhartha Gautama, the historical Buddha who lived in ancient India in the 5th to 4th century BCE (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE); (2) a buddha, a fully enlightened person.
Note: DJKR emphasises that the semantic range of the English word "enlightenment" does not at all do justice to the meaning of buddha/sangyé or bodhi/jangchup.
• dictionary definition ("enlightenment") = (1) the action of enlightening or the state of being enlightened; the action or state of attaining or having attained spiritual knowledge or insight, in particular (in Buddhism) that awareness which frees a person from the cycle of rebirth; (2) a European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition. It was heavily influenced by 17th-century philosophers such as Descartes, Locke, and Newton, and its prominent exponents include Kant, Goethe, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Adam Smith (Google Dictionary).
(other languages): sangyé (Tibetan)
• see also: bodhi (enlightenment); pañchakula (5 buddha families); Siddhartha (the Buddha); sugata ("gone blissfully", syn. the Buddha); tathagata ("thus come / thus gone", syn. the Buddha)
• Buddhist terms: 5 buddha familiesBuddha
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki


C

≫ cattari ariyasaccani (Pāli: चत्तारि अरियसच्चानि, IAST: cattāri ariyasaccāni; Sanskrit: चत्वारि आर्यसत्यानि, IAST: catvāri ārya+satyāni; Tibetan: འཕགས་པའི་བདེན་པ་བཞི་, pakpé denpa shyi; Wylie: 'phags pa'i bden pa bzhi) = the Four Noble Truths, literally "four truths of the noble beings", i.e. it is not that the truths are noble, rather that they are truths of the Noble Ones (aryas). They are: (1) suffering, (2) the origin of suffering, (3) the cessation of suffering, (4) the path which brings the cessation of suffering. Part of the Dharmachakrapravartana Sutra, the first teaching given by the Buddha at Deer Park in Sarnath.
• see also: ariya atthangika magga (the 8-fold noble path, which corresponds to the fourth noble truth); ariya sacca ([four] noble truths); cattari ariyasaccani (4 noble truths): (1) dukkha (suffering), (2) samudaya (origin of suffering), (3) nirodha (cessation of suffering), (4) magga (path); Dharmachakrapravartana Sutra (the first teaching given by Shakyamuni Buddha); Mrigadava (Deer Park)
• Buddhist terms: 3-fold training; 4 noble truths8-fold noble path; Buddha; Deer Park
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ chado (Japanese: 茶道, chadō, "the way of tea") = the Japanese tea ceremony, the preparation and presentation of matcha, powdered green tea.
• see also (the three classical Japanese arts of refinement): kadō (flower arrangement), kōdō (incense appreciation) and chadō (tea and the tea ceremony)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ cham (Tibetan: འཆམ་, Wylie: 'cham) = sacred dance, ritual dance, masked dance.

changchup (Tibetan) = redirects to jangchup (Tibetan)

≫ chégom (Tibetan: དཔྱད་སྒོམ་, ché gom; Wylie: dpyad sgom) = analytical meditation, meditation through analysis, meditation involving mental analysis and investigation, analytical investigation.

≫ chéta (Tibetan: ཆད་ལྟ་, ché ta; Wylie: chad lta; Sanskrit: उच्छेददृष्टि, IAST: uccheda-dṛṣṭi; Sanskrit & Pāli: उच्छेदवाद, IAST: ucchedavāda) = nihilism, annihilationism (lit. "the view of discontinuance"). The extreme view of nothingness: no rebirth or karmic effects, and the nonexistence of a mind after death.
• see also: tanyi (2 extremes) = (1) takta (eternalism), (2) chéta (nihilism); tawa (view)
• Buddhist terms: eternalism, nihilism, view
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

chitta (Pāli & Sanskrit: चित्त, IAST: citta) = mind; ordinary dualistic mind - see sem.
(other languages): sem (Tibetan main entry)

chittata (Sanskrit: चित्तता, IAST: cittatā) = nature of mind - see semnyi.
(other languages): semnyi (Tibetan main entry)

chö (Tibetan: ཆོས་, chö; Wylie: chos) = (a) reality, true nature, character; (b) phenomenon, property, mark, peculiar condition or essential quality, peculiarity; (c) practice, way, usage, customary observance, prescribed conduct, duty, law, doctrine; (d) Dharma, the Buddhist path, the spiritual path, spirituality - see dharma.
(other languages): dharma (Sanskrit main entry)

≫ choga (Tibetan: ཆོ་ག་, choga; Wylie: cho ga) = ritual, method, sadhana practice, ceremony.

≫ chökyi domzhi (Tibetan: ཆོས་ཀྱི་སྡོམ་བཞི་, chö kyi dom zhi, Wylie: chos kyi sdom bzhi; also shortened to Tibetan: སྡོམ་བཞི་, domzhi, Wylie: sdom bzhi; the word dom (སྡོམ་) means "bind, fasten, tie", "add up, add together, bring together, collect", "summary, synopsis"; Sanskrit: चतुर्लक्षण, caturlakshana; IAST: caturlakṣaṇa = catur + lakṣaṇa) = the four seals; the four Dharma emblems; the four main principles marking a doctrine as Buddhist are:
1) (Tibetan: འདུ་བྱས་ཐམས་ཅད་མི་རྟག་པ་, dujé tamché mi takpa; Wylie: 'du byas thams cad mi rtag pa = All compounded/conditioned things are impermanent.
2) (Tibetan: ཟག་བཅས་ཐམས་ཅད་སྡུག་བསྔལ་, zakché tamché dukngel; Wylie: zag bcas thams cad sdug bsngal) = all contaminated/defiling things (defiled with ego-clinging) are suffering (dukkha).
3) (Tibetan: ཆོས་ཐམས་ཅད་སྟོང་ཞིང་བདག་མེད་པའོ་, chö tamché tongzhing dakmé pao; Wylie: chos thams cad stong zhing bdag med pa'o) = all phenomena are devoid of a self-entity / all phenomena are empty and devoid of self / all phenomena are without inherent existence.
4) (Tibetan: མྱ་ངན་ལས་འདས་པ་ནི་ཞི་བ་, nya ngenlé dépa ni zhiwa; Wylie: mya ngan las 'das pa ni zhi ba) = nirvana is peace / nirvana is beyond description.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / RYwiki

≫ chöpa [homophone of two different Tibetan words]:
(1) (Tibetan: ཆོས་པ་, chöpa; Wylie: chos pa) = Dharma practitioner, Buddhist, religious practitioner.
(2) (Tibetan: སྤྱོད་པ་, chöpa; Wylie: spyod pa) = action, behavior, conduct.
• see also: ta gom chöpa (view, meditation & action) [note: here "meditation" is bhavana = development, training, cultivation, practice.]

chörten (Tibetan: མཆོད་རྟེན་, chörten; Wylie: mchod rten) = stupa.
(other languages): stupa (Sanskrit main entry)

≫ chösham (Tibetan: མཆོད་བཤམ་, chösham; Wylie: mchod bsham) = altar, shrine, shrine room.

citta (Sanskrit) = redirects to chitta (Sanskrit)


D

dakmé (Tibetan: བདག་མེད་, dakmé; Wylie: bdag med) = no-self, non-self, without self - see anatta.
(other languages): anatta (Pāli ≫ main entry)

≫ dampa sum (Tibetan: དམ་པ་གསུམ་, dampa sum; Wylie: dam pa gsum) = the three supreme methods (also known as the three noble principles or the three excellencies) that make the difference between practice being merely a way of bringing temporary relaxation, peace, and bliss and practice becoming a powerful cause for the enlightenment of oneself and others. They are:
(1) "good in the beginning" (i.e. starting one's practice by arousing bodhichitta = སྦྱོར་བ་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་, jorwa semkyé; Wylie: sbyor ba sems bskyed)
(2) "good in the middle" (i.e. avoiding getting caught in conceptualization and maintaining the view of emptiness during practice = དངོས་གཞི་དམིགས་མེད་, ngözhi mikmé; Wylie: dngos gzhi dmigs med)
(3) "good in the end" (i.e. dedicating the merit at the end of practice = རྗེས་བསྔོ་བ་, jé ngowa; Wylie: rjes bsngo ba).
• see also (practice): applying the three supreme methods (work as practice)
• external links: rigpawiki

≫ dana (Sanskrit: दान, IAST: dāna; Tibetan: སྦྱིན་པ་, jinpa, Wylie: sbyin pa) = generosity, the first of the 6 paramitas; defined as an attitude of giving.
• see also: satparamita (6 paramitas): (1) dana (generosity), (2) shila (discipline), (3) kshanti (patience), (4) virya (diligence), (5) dhyana (meditative concentration), (6) prajña (wisdom).
• Buddhist terms: 6 paramitas: (1) generosity, (2) discipline, (3) patience, (4) diligence, (5) meditative concentration, (6) wisdom.
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

≫ dang (Tibetan: གདངས་, dang, Wylie: gdangs) = radiance, lustre, self-radiance, light, clarity; tone, tune, melody.

≫ dathün (Tibetan: ཟླ་ཐུན་, datün, Wylie: zla + thun) = month-long meditation retreat, popularised by Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche for the Shambhala sangha.
• see also: thün (session)

≫ denpa (Tibetan: བདེན་པ་, denpa; Wylie: bden pa; Sanskrit: सत्य, satya) = true, truth, authentic, valid, genuine.

≫ denpa nyi (Tibetan: བདེན་པ་གཉིས་, denpa nyi; Wylie: bden pa gnyis; Sanskrit: द्वसत्य, dvasatva; IAST: dva + satya) = the two aspects of all phenomena: the way things exist inherently (ultimate truth or absolute truth) and the way they appear (relative truth).
• see also: denpa nyi (2 truths) = (1) döndam denpa (absolute or ultimate truth), (2) kündzop denpa (relative truth)
• Buddhist terms: 2 truths = (1) ultimate truth, (2) relative truth
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

≫ denpa tong (Tibetan: བདེན་པ་མཐོང་བ་, denpa tongwa; Wylie: bden pa mthong ba) = realizing the truth, seeing the truth, direct perception of the truth.

dewa (Tibetan: བདེ་བ་, dewa; Wylie: bde ba) = pleasure, bliss, happiness - see sukha.
(other languages): sukha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)
• see also: dewé nyam (experience of bliss)

≫ dewé nyam (Tibetan: བདེ་བའི་ཉམས་, dewé nyam; Wylie: bde ba'i nyams) = experience of bliss (e.g. as a meditation experience), experience of pleasurable sensation.
• see also (three experiences): dewé nyam (bliss), selwé nyam (clarity), mi tokpé nyam (nonconceptuality)
• external links: rigpawiki (three experiences of bliss, clarity and nonconceptuality)

dézhin (Tibetan: དེ་བཞིན་, dézhin; Wylie: de bzhin; Sanskrit: तथा, IAST: tathā) = that itself, like that, thus; DJKR: "whatever it is", "as it is", "what is" - see tatha.
(other languages): tatha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)
• see also: dézhin shekpa (tathagata)

dézhin shekpa (Tibetan: དེ་བཞིན་གཤེགས་པ་, dézhin shekpa; Wylie: de bzhin gshegs pa) = tathagata.
(other languages): tathagata (Sanskrit main entry)

≫ dharani (Sanskrit: धारणी, IAST: dhāraṇī): a Buddhist chant, incantation, or recitation believed to be protective and with powers to generate merit, usually a Sanskrit or Pali mantra; a mystical verse or charm.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawikiLotsawa House

≫ dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म, IAST: dharma also dharmaḥ; Pāli: धम्म, IAST: dhamma; Tibetan: ཆོས་, chö; Wylie: chos) = (a) Dharma, the Buddhist path, the spiritual path, spirituality; (b) reality, true nature, character; (c) phenomenon, property, mark, peculiar condition or essential quality, peculiarity; (d) practice, way, usage, customary observance, prescribed conduct, duty, law, doctrine.
(other languages): chö (Tibetan)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ Dharmachakrapravartana Sutra (Sanskrit: धर्मचक्रप्रवर्तनसूत्र, IAST: dharmacakrapravartana-sūtra; Pali: धम्मचक्कप्पवत्तनसुत्त, IAST: dhammacakkappavattana-sutta; Burmese: ဓမ္မစက္ကပဝတ္တနသုတ်) = "The Setting in Motion the Wheel of the Dharma Sutra", the first teaching given by Shakyamuni Buddha at Deer Park in Sarnath. The main topic of the sutra is the 4 noble truths, and the sutra also refers to the middle way, impermanence, and dependent origination.
• see also: cattari ariyasaccani (4 noble truths); Mrigadava (Deer Park)
• external links: wikipedia 

≫ dharmakaya (Sanskrit: धर्मकाय, IAST: dharmakāya; Tibetan: ཆོས་སྐུ་, chö ku; Wylie: chos sku) = the "truth body", "reality body" or absolute body: one of the three bodies (trikaya) of a buddha in Mahayana Buddhism. The dharmakaya constitutes the unmanifested, "inconceivable" (acintya) aspect of a buddha out of which buddhas arise and to which they return after their dissolution.
• see also: kaya (body, dimension), trikaya (three bodies of a buddha), nirmanakaya ("body of manifestations"), rupakaya ("form body"), sambhogakaya ("body of enjoyment")
• external links: wikipedia (dharmakaya) / wikipedia (trikaya) / rigpawiki / rywiki

≫ Dharmapala (emperor) (Sanskrit: धर्म्मपाल, IAST: dha-rmma-pā-la) = the second ruler of the Pala Empire in the Indian Subcontinent (ruled 8th century, c.783-820 CE), which corresponds to the present-day Bengal and Bihar regions. He was the son and successor of Gopala, the founder of the Pala Dynasty, and he greatly expanded the boundaries and influence of the Pala empire. Dharmapala was a great patron of Buddhism. He revived Nalanda university and founded Vikramashila university.
• see also: Vikramashila (Buddhist university)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ dharmata (Sanskrit: धर्मत, IAST: dharmata; Tibetan: ཆོས་ཉིད་; Wylie: chos nyid) = the intrinsic nature of phenomena and mind, real condition of existence, very nature of things, ultimate nature of phenomena, suchness, reality itself.

≫ dhatu (Sanskrit: धातु, IAST: dhātu; Tibetan: ཁམས་, kham; Wylie: khams) = element, factor, primitive matter, constituent element; realm.
(other languages): kham (Tibetan)

≫ dhyana (Sanskrit: ध्यान, IAST: dhyāna; Pāli: झान, IAST: jhāna; Japanese: 禅, zen; Tibetan: བསམ་གཏན་, samten; Wylie: bsam gtan; Burmese: ဈာန) = meditative concentration, meditation, concentration, mental focus, attention, reflection, non-distraction, mind-training (according to early Buddhist texts, its aim is to withdraw the mind from automatic responses to sense-impressions, thus leading to upekkhā-sati-parisuddhi, a "state of perfect equanimity and awareness"); the fifth of the 6 paramitas.
(other languages): jhana (Pāli), samten (Tibetan), zen (Japanese)
• see also: satparamita (6 paramitas): (1) dana (generosity), (2) shila (discipline), (3) kshanti (patience), (4) virya (diligence), (5) dhyana (meditative concentration), (6) prajña (wisdom).
• Buddhist terms: 6 paramitas: (1) generosity, (2) discipline, (3) patience, (4) diligence, (5) meditative concentration, (6) wisdom.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ dikpa ratsa (Tibetan: སྡིག་པ་ར་ཙ་, dikpa ratsa; Wylie: sdig pa ra tsa) = scorpion.

≫ döndam denpa (Tibetan: དོན་དམ་བདེན་པ་; Wylie: don dam bden pa; Sanskrit: परमार्थसत्य, IAST: paramārtha + satya; also shortened to Sanskrit: परमार्थ, IAST: paramārtha; literally "highest or whole truth") = absolute truth, ultimate truth.
• see also: denpa nyi (2 truths) = (1) döndam denpa (absolute or ultimate truth), (2) kündzop denpa (relative truth)
• Buddhist terms: 2 truths = (1) ultimate truth, (2) relative truth
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / RYwiki

dosa (Pāli: दोस, IAST, dosa) = aversion, hatred - see dvesha.
(other languages): dvesha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ drébu (Tibetan: འབྲས་བུ་, dré bu; Wylie: 'bras bu) = result, effect, fruit, fruition, accomplishment.

drenpa (Tibetan: དྲན་པ་, drenpa; Wylie: dran pa) = mindfulness, memory, recollection, presence of mind, remembrance, calling to mind - see sati.
(other languages): sati (Pāli ≫ main entry), smriti (Sanskrit)

≫ drip (Tibetan: གྲིབ་, drip; Wylie: grib; Sanskrit: आवरण, IAST: āvaraṇa) = defilement, obscuration, stain, contamination.
(other languages): avarana (Sanskrit)
• glossary: 2 obscurations = emotional obscurations (nyöndrip) & cognitive obscurations (shédrip)

≫ drishti (Sanskrit: दृष्टि, IAST: dṛṣṭi; Pāli: दिट्ठि, IAST: diṭṭhi; Tibetan: ལྟ་བ་, tawa; Wylie: lta ba) = view, orientation, perspective, belief (the Sanskrit and Tibetan words both mean to look or see as well as to hold a particular belief, much like the English word "view"); sixth of the 6 destructive emotions (mulaklesha); unless qualified as "samyak drishti" (i.e. "right view"), the Sanskrit "drishti" mostly refers to wrong views and only in a few instances to right view. The Tibetan word "tawa" has a more neutral valence; (wikipedia: "In Buddhist thought, a view is not a simple, abstract collection of propositions, but a charged interpretation of experience which intensely shapes and affects thought, sensation, and action. Having the proper mental attitude toward views is therefore considered an integral part of the Buddhist path, as sometimes correct views need to be put into practice and incorrect views abandoned, and sometimes all views are seen as obstacles to enlightenment").
• other languages: tawa (Tibetan)
• see also (view): chéta (nihilism), takta (eternalism)
• see also (emotional obscurations): klesha (afflictive/destructive/disturbing/negative emotions); mulaklesha (6 destructive emotions): (1) raga (desire), (2) pratigha (anger), (3) avidya (ignorance), (4) mana (pride), (5) vicikitsa (doubt), (6) drishti (view); nyöndrip (emotional obscurations)
• Buddhist terms: 6 destructive emotions: (1) desire or attachment, (2) anger, (3) ignorance, (4) pride or conceit, (5) doubt, (6) wrong vieweternalism, nihilism, view

druptap (Tibetan: སྒྲུབ་ཐབས་, druptap, Wylie: sgrub thabs) = sadhana, means of accomplishment - see sadhana.
(other languages): sadhana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

duk ngel (Tibetan: སྡུག་བསྔལ་, duk ngel; Wylie: sdug bsngal) = suffering, pain, unsatisfactoriness - see dukkha.
(other languages): dukkha (Pāli main entry)

≫ dukkha (Pāli: दुक्ख, IAST: dukkha; Sanskrit: दुःख, IAST: duḥkha; Tibetan: སྡུག་བསྔལ་, duk ngel; Wylie: sdug bsngal; Japanese: 苦, ku) = suffering, unsatisfactoriness, dissatisfaction, pain, frustration. Second of the 3 marks of existence.
Note: DJKR emphasises that the semantic range of the English word "suffering" does not at all do justice to the meaning of dukkha.
• dictionary definition ("suffering") = "the state of undergoing pain, distress, or hardship" (Google Dictionary).
(other languages): duk ngel (Tibetan)
• see also: cattari ariyasaccani (4 noble truths): (1) dukkha (suffering), (2) samudaya (origin of suffering), (3) nirodha (cessation of suffering), (4) magga (path); mi tsimpa (not satisfied, not contented); trilakshana (3 marks of existence): (1) anicca (impermanence), (2) dukkha (unsatisfactoriness) (3) anatta (nonself).
• Buddhist terms: 3 marks of existence: (1) impermanence, (2) unsatisfactoriness, (3) nonself4 noble truthssuffering
• glossary: 3 marks of existence

duktang (Tibetan: འདུག་སྟངས་, duk tang, Wylie: 'dug stangs) = posture, way of sitting; way of doing something; DJKR: "way of being" - see asana.
(other languages): asana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ dvesha (Sanskrit: द्वेष, IAST: dveṣa; Pāli: दोस, IAST, dosa; Tibetan: ཞེ་སྡང་, zhédang; Wylie: zhe sdang) = aversion, dislike, enmity, hatred, hostility, ill-will; one of the 3 poisons (in the Theravada teachings).
• other languages: dosa (Pāli)
• external links: wikipedia/ rigpawiki

≫ Dzogchen (Tibetan: རྫོགས་ཆེན, dzog chen; Wylie: rdzogs chen, literally "great perfection" or "great completeness"; also longer form: Tibetan: རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་, dzogpa chenpo; Wylie: rdzogs pa chen po; Sanskrit: अतियोग , IAST: atiyoga) = a tradition of teachings in Tibetan Buddhism aimed at discovering and continuing in the natural primordial state of being (the nature of mind). It is a central teaching of the Yundrung Bon tradition as well as in the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism. In these traditions, Dzogchen is the highest and most definitive path of the nine vehicles to liberation.
(other names) Atiyoga, Mahasandhi
• see also: Bon; mahasiddha (great accomplished one); NyingmaPadmasambhava; semnyi (nature of mind)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki (Dzogchen) / rigpawiki (Dzogchen terminology) / RYwiki / Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia (Dzogchen terminology)


E

≫ ema datshi (Dzongkha: ཨེ་མ་དར་ཚིལ་, éma dartsil; Wylie (reconstructed): e ma dar tshil) = the Bhutanese national dish made of chilli peppers and cheese.
• external links: wikipedia

≫ evam (Sanskrit: एवम्, IAST: evam) = thus, in this way, in such a manner, such.


G

≫ garbha (Sanskrit: गर्भ, IAST: garbha; Tibetan: སྙིང་པོ་, nyingpo; Wylie: snying po) = the inside, middle, interior of anything; seed, egg, embryo, womb (indicating potential); pith, heart; essence, quintessence.

gata (Sanskrit: गत, IAST: gata) = gone, departed, arrived at, being in, situated in - see shekpa.
(other languages): shekpa (Tibetan ≫ main entry)

≫ GATE GATE PARAGATE PARASAMGATE BODHI SVAHA (Sanskrit: गते गते पारगते पारसंगते बोधि स्वाहा, IAST: gate gate pāragate pārasaṃgate bodhi svāhā; Tibetan: ག༌ཏེ༌ག༌ཏེ༌པཱ༌ར༌ག༌ཏེ༌པཱ༌ར༌སཾ༌ག༌ཏེ༌བོ༌དྷི༌སྭཱ༌ཧཱ།) = Sanskrit mantra at the conclusion of the Prajñāpāramitāhṛdayasūtra (“Heart Sūtra”), which means "Gone, gone, gone beyond, gone completely beyond, awakened existence".
• external links: wikipedia / Jay Garfield translation and commentary

Gautama (Sanskrit: गौतम, IAST: gautama; Pāli: गोतम, IAST: Gotama; Burmese: ေဂါတမ) = the Buddha - see Siddhartha Gautama.
• see also: Siddhartha Gautama (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)
• Buddhist terms: Buddha

≫ gewa (Tibetan: དགེ་བ་, gewa; Wylie: dge ba; Sanskrit (1): कुशल, IAST: kuśala = right, good, proper; Sanskrit (2): कल्याण, IAST: kalyāṇa = lucky, fortunate) = virtuous, virtue, wholesome, good, positive.
• see also: mi gewa (non-virtuous)

≫ gho (Dzongkha: བགོ་, go; Wylie: bgo) = the Bhutanese traditional national dress for men, a knee-length robe tied at the waist by a cloth belt known as the kera (Dzongkha: སྐེད་རགས་).
• see also: kira (the Bhutanese traditional national dress for women)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ gom [homophone of two different Tibetan words]:
(1) (Tibetan: གོམས་, gom; Wylie: goms; Sanskrit: अभ्यास, IAST: abhyāsa) = familiarization (through repetition), becoming accustomed to, conditioning.
(2) (Tibetan: སྒོམ་, gom: Wylie: sgom; also Tibetan: སྒོམ་པ་, gom pa; Wylie: sgom pa; Sanskrit: भावन, IAST: bhāvana) = development, training, practice, cultivation; meditation, contemplation.
(other languages): abhyasa (Sanskrit for གོམས་), bhavana (Sanskrit for སྒོམ་)
• see also: ta gom chöpa (view, meditation and action)
• Buddhist terms: meditation
• external links: wikipedia (abhyasa), wikipedia (bhavana), wikipedia (meditation), rigpawiki (meditation)

gompa (Tibetan: སྒོམ་པ་, gom pa; Wylie: sgom pa) = see gom (Tibetan)

≫ gompé trang (Tibetan: སྒོམ་པའི་འཕྲང་, gom pé trang; Wylie: sgom pa'i 'phrang) = the ravine of meditation; DJKR: the abyss of meditation.
• see also: gom (meditation, habituation, practice), trang (narrow dangerous path)

Gotama (Pāli: गोतम, IAST: Gotama) = the Buddha - see Siddhartha Gautama.
(other languages): Gautama (Sanskrit)
• see also: Siddhartha Gautama (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)
• Buddhist terms: Buddha

Guru Rinpoche (Tibetan: གུ་རུ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་, guru rinpoché; Wylie: gu+ru rin po che; literally "precious master") = Padmasambhava.
(other names): Padmakara; Padmasambhava

gyü (Tibetan: རྒྱུད་, gyü; Wylie: rgyud) = tantra.
(other languages): tantra (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)


H

≫ havan (Sanskrit: हवन, IAST: havana) = fire offering; ritual rooted in the Vedic tradition, in which offerings of food etc. are burned in order to create merit or bring good luck on a special occasion.

≫ hijra (Hindustani: (Nastaliq) ﮩيجرَا, (Devanagari) हिजड़ा, hijra; Bengali: হিজড়া, hijra; hīj'ṛā) = eunuchs, intersex people, and transgender people, officially recognized as third gender in countries in the Indian subcontinent. The hijra community in India prefer to call themselves Kinnar or Kinner, referring to the mythological beings that excel at song and dance.
• external links: wikipedia / Hindustani dictionary

≫ Hinayana (Sanskrit: हीनयान, IAST: hīnayāna), Tibetan: (1) ཐེག་ཆུང་, tekchung; Wylie: theg chung, literally "small vehicle"; also: (2) ཐེག་དམན་, tekmen; Wylie: theg dman, literally "inferior vehicle") = the "simpler/lesser vehicle" (also "small/deficient vehicle"), a pejorative term used in some Mahayana texts (and also in the past widely used by Western scholars) to refer to the earliest system of Buddhist doctrine (in contrast to the later Mahayana as the "great vehicle"). In 1950 the World Fellowship of Buddhists declared that the term "Hinayana" should not be used when referring to any form of Buddhism existing today, and modern Buddhist scholarship uses the term "Nikaya Buddhism" to refer to early Buddhist schools. Some contemporary Buddhist teachers (including DJKR) prefer to use the term "Shravakayana"; DJKR: "Hinayana is a Mahayana chauvinist term, so we don’t want to use this term”.
• see also: Mahayana (the great vehicle), Shravakayana (the vehicle of the shravakas), Theravada (the school of the elders), yana (vehicle or method)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ hundun (Chinese: 混沌; pinyin: hùndùn, literally "muddled confusion") = both the "primordial and central chaos" in Chinese cosmogony and a "legendary faceless being" in Chinese mythology.
• external links: wikipedia


I

≫ ikebana (Japanese: 生け花, ikebana, "arranging flowers" or "making flowers alive") = the Japanese art of flower arrangement, one of the three classical Japanese arts of refinement. Also known as kadō (Japanese: 華道, kadō, "the way of flowers").
• see also (the three classical Japanese arts of refinement): kadō (flower arrangement), kōdō (incense appreciation) and chadō (tea and the tea ceremony)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ indriyapratyaksha (Sanskrit: इन्द्रियप्रत्यक्ष, IAST: indriyapratyakṣa = indriya + pratyakṣa; Tibetan: དབང་པོའི་མངོན་སུམ་, wangpö ngönsum; Wylie: dbang po'i mngon sum) = sense perception, sensory direct perception, direct perception by the sense organs.
• see also (4 kinds of direct perception): (1) indriyapratyaksha (sense perception), (2) manasapratyaksha (mental perception), (3) svasamvedana (self-cognition), (4) yogipratyaksha (yogic direct perception)


J

jangchup (Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་, jangchup; Wylie: byang chub) = awakening, enlightenment, 'purified and perfected' - see bodhi.
(other languages): bodhi (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

jangchup kyi sem (Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་, jangchup kyi sem; Wylie: byang chub kyi sems) = bodhichitta.
(other languages): bodhichitta (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

jangchup sempa (Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའ་, jangchup sempa; Wylie: byang chub sems dpa') = bodhisattva.
(other languages): bodhisattva (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ jangdom (Tibetan: བྱང་སྡོམ་, jang dom; Wylie: byang sdom) = bodhisattva vow, bodhisattva precepts.
• external links: rigpawiki

jangsem (Tibetan: བྱང་སེམས་, jangsem; Wylie: byang sems) = bodhichitta, short form of jangchup kyi sem (Tibetan)
(other languages): bodhichitta (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ jépak (Tibetan: རྗེས་དཔག་, jépak; Wylie: rjes dpag; Sanskrit: अनुमान, IAST: anumāna; also: अनुमानम्, IAST: anumānam) = inference, inferential cognition.
(other languages): anumana (Sanskrit)

≫ Jetavana (Sanskrit: जेतवन, IAST: jetavana; literally "Jeta's wood") = Jeta's Grove, one of the most famous Buddhist viharas (monasteries) in India. It was the second vihara donated to Gautama Buddha after the Venuvana in Rajgir. The monastery was given to him by his chief male lay disciple, Anathapindika. Jetavana was the place where the Buddha gave the majority of his teachings and discourses, having stayed there for 19 out of 45 vassas (rainy season retreats), more than in any other monastery. Jetavana is located just outside the old city of Savatthi (Shravasti) (part of the present-day Shravasti district in Uttar Pradesh).
• see also: Mrigadava (Deer Park, a vihara); vihara (monastery)
• external links: wikipedia (Jetavana) / wikipedia (Shravasti) / wisdom library (Jetavana)

jhana (Pāli: झान, IAST: jhāna) = meditative concentration - see dhyana.
(other languages): dhyana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry), samten (Tibetan), zen (Japanese)
• note [easily confused]: jhana (Pāli: meditative concentration) is the same as dhyana (Sanskrit: meditative concentration) and different from jñana (Sanskrit: wisdom)
• Buddhist terms: meditation

≫ jñana (Sanskrit (1): ज्ञान, IAST: jñāna also (2): ज्ञानम्, IAST: jñānam; Tibetan: ཡེ་ཤེས་, yéshé; Wylie: ye shes) = wisdom, primordial wisdom, pristine cognition, knowing, becoming acquainted with, gnosis, wakefulness, basic cognisance independent of intellectual constructs.
(other languages): yeshe (Tibetan)
• note [multiple translations]: prajña (precise discernment, transcendent knowledge) and jñana (primordial wisdom) are both translated into English as "wisdom"
• note [easily confused]: jhana (Pāli: meditative concentration) is the same as dhyana (Sanskrit: meditative concentration) and different from jñana (Sanskrit: wisdom)
• Buddhist terms: wisdom

≫ jokpa (Tibetan: འཇོག་པ་, jok pa; Wylie: 'jog pa) = rest, place, settle; classify, posit, set forth; DJKR: "leave it", "let it be".

≫ jukpa semkyé (Tibetan: འཇུག་པའི་བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་, juk pé jang chup kyi sem; Wylie: 'jug pa'i byang chub kyi sems; also shortened to Tibetan: འཇུག་པ་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་, juk pa sem kyé; Wylie: 'jug pa sems bskyed) = bodhichitta in action or bodhisattva of application; comprised chiefly of the practice of the 6 paramitas.
• see also: bodhichitta, mönpa semkyé (bodhichitta of aspiration), satparamita (6 paramitas)
• external links: wikipedia (bodhichitta) / rigpawiki / RYwiki


K

kado (Japanese: 華道, kadō, "the way of flowers") = the Japanese art of flower arrangement - see ikebana (Japanese ≫ main entry)
• see also (the three classical Japanese arts of refinement): kadō (flower arrangement), kōdō (incense appreciation) and chadō (tea and the tea ceremony)

≫ karma (Sanskrit: कर्मन्, IAST: karman; Tibetan: ལས་, lé; Wylie: las) = action, law of cause and effect, duty, religious rite.
(other languages):  (Tibetan)

≫ karmé (Tibetan: དཀར་མེ་, karmé; Wylie: dkar me) = lamp, offering lamp, sacred fire.

≫ karuna (Pāli & Sanskrit: करुणा, karuṇā; Tibetan: སྙིང་རྗེ་, nyingjé; Wylie: snying rje ) = compassion, the wish to free all beings from suffering and the causes of suffering.
Note: DJKR emphasises that the semantic range of the English word "compassion" does not at all do justice to the meaning of nyingjé/karuna/bodhichitta. In particular, because it has a dualistic and hierarchical connotation of "one who needs help" (in a "lower" situation) and "one who helps" (from a "higher" situation); DJKR: "The word compassion involves a lot of hierarchy. It’s very limiting and limited".
• dictionary definition ("compassion") = "sympathetic pity and concern for the sufferings or misfortunes of others" (Google dictionary).
(other languages): nyingjé (Tibetan)
• see also: 4 brahmaviharas (4 sublime attitudes; 4 immeasurables): (1) metta (मेत्ता, loving-kindness), (2) karuna (करुणा, compassion), (3) mudita (मुदिता, sympathetic joy), (4) upekkha (उपेक्खाा, equanimity); bodhichitta (the compassionate wish to attain enlightenment for the benefit of all beings and also to bring them to that state)
• Buddhist terms: 4 immeasurablescompassion
• glossary: 3 types of compassion
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ Kashyapa (Sanskrit: काश्यप, IAST: kāśyapa; Pali: कस्सप, IAST: kassapa; Tibetan: འོད་སྲུང་, ösung; Wylie: 'od srung) = Buddha Kashyapa, the supreme nirmanakaya buddha immediately preceding Buddha Shakyamuni in this Fortunate Aeon; also used as short form of Mahakashyapa, one of the Buddha's principal disciples.
• see also: Mahakashyapa (one of the Buddha's principal disciples)
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

≫ kaya (Sanskrit: काय, IAST: kāya also kāyaḥ; Tibetan: སྐུ་, ku; Wylie: sku) = "body" in the sense of a body or embodiment of numerous qualities; dimension; field; basis.
• see also: dharmakaya ("truth body" of a buddha), rupakaya ("form body" of a buddha)
• external links: wikipedia (trikaya) / rigpawiki

kham (Tibetan: ཁམས་, kham; Wylie: khams) = realm, element, disposition, type, nature, component of experience - see dhatu.
• other languages: dhatu (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ khom (Tibetan: ཁོམས་, khom; Wylie: khoms) = familiarise, condition to, familiarisation.

khorwa (Tibetan: འཁོར་བ་, khorwa; Wylie: 'khor ba) = samsara, cyclic existence - see samsara.
• other languages: samsara (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)
• note [easily confused]: khorwa (samsara) & korwa (circumambulation)

≫ kira (Dzongkha: དཀྱི་ར་, kyira; Wylie: dkyi ra) = the Bhutanese traditional national dress for women, an ankle-length dress consisting of a rectangular piece of woven fabric.
• see also: gho (the Bhutanese traditional national dress for men)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ klesha (Sanskrit: क्लेश, IAST: kleśa; (Tibetan (1): ཉོན་མོང་, nyönmong; Wylie: nyon mong; Tibetan (2): ཉོན་མོངས་, Wylie: nyon mongs) = afflictive emotions, destructive emotions, disturbing emotions, negative emotions, afflictions, mental afflictions, factors which disturb the mind (according to the abhidharma, the six root disturbing emotions and attitudes are: (1) desire, (2) anger, (3) unawareness / ignorance, (4) arrogance / pride,(5) indecisive wavering / doubt and (6) deluded outlooks / wrong views).
Note: the word "klesha" includes a sense of mental obscuration or defilement that is not fully captured by the English word "emotion".
• dictionary definition ("emotion") = "a natural instinctive state of mind deriving from one's circumstances, mood, or relationships with others" and "instinctive or intuitive feeling as distinguished from reasoning or knowledge" (Google Dictionary).
(other languages): nyönmong (Tibetan)
• see also (DJKR teaching): the six root kleshas in The Way of the Tathagata, Day 1, Pune (December 27, 2019)
• see also: Abhidharmakosha (Treasury of the Abhidharma); mulaklesha (the six root disturbing emotions presented by Vasubandhu in the Abhidharmakosha): (1) raga (राग, desire), (2) pratigha (प्रतिघ, anger), (3) avidya (अविद्या, ignorance), (4) mana (मान, pride), (5) vicikitsa (विचिकित्सा, doubt), (6) drishti (दृष्टि, view); nyöndrip (emotional obscurations)
• Buddhist terms: 6 destructive emotions: (1) desire or attachment, (2) anger, (3) ignorance, (4) pride or conceit, (5) doubt, (6) wrong view.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / study buddhism (Berzin)

≫ koan (Japanese: 公案, kōan; Chinese: 公案; pinyin: gōng'àn) = a story, dialogue, question, or statement which is used in Zen practice (Chinese: Chán) to provoke the "great doubt" (Japanese: 大疑, taigi) and to practice or test a student's progress in Zen.
• see also: taigi (great doubt)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ kodo (Japanese: 香道, kōdō, "the way of fragrance") = the art of appreciating Japanese incense.
• see also (the three classical Japanese arts of refinement): kadō (flower arrangement), kōdō (incense appreciation) and chadō (tea and the tea ceremony)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ kor (Tibetan: བསྐོར་, kor; Wylie: bskor) = surrounded by, encircle, revolve, circumambulate (around a holy object e.g. stupa).
• see also: korwa (circumambulation, to be turned around)

kora (Tibetan) = redirects to korwa (Tibetan)

≫ korwa (Tibetan: བསྐོར་བ་, korwa; Wylie: bskor ba) = to be turned around, circumambulation, encircle, surround.
• see also: kor (circumambulate, surrounded by)
• note [easily confused]: khorwa (samsara) & korwa (circumambulation)

≫ Krishna (Sanskrit: कृष्ण, IAST: kṛṣṇa) = Krishna (Vishnu in his eighth incarnation), the most celebrated hero of Indian mythology and the most popular of all the Hindu deities; wicked, evil; black, dark, dark-blue; the black antelope; a crow; the (Indian) cuckoo; the dark half of a lunar month (from full to new moon); the Kali age.

≫ kshanti (Sanskrit: क्षान्ति, IAST: kṣānti; Pali: खन्ति, IAST: khanti: Tib. བཟོད་པ་, zöpa; Wylie: bzod pa) = patience, forbearance, restraint, endurance, indulgence; defined as the ability not to be perturbed by anything. The third of the 6 paramitas.
• see also: satparamita (6 paramitas): (1) dana (generosity), (2) shila (discipline), (3) kshanti (patience), (4) virya (diligence), (5) dhyana (meditative concentration), (6) prajña (wisdom).
• Buddhist terms: 6 paramitas: (1) generosity, (2) discipline, (3) patience, (4) diligence, (5) meditative concentration, (6) wisdom.
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

≫ kündzop denpa (Tibetan: ཀུན་རྫོབ་བདེན་པ་; Wylie: kun rdzob bden pa; literally "all-concealing truth"; Sanskrit: समावृतसत्य, IAST: samāvṛta + satya; also shortened to Sanskrit: समावृत, IAST: samāvṛta; literally "veiled, hidden, concealed") = relative truth; conventional truth. [Note: many online sources have the Sanskrit as "saṁvṛiti-satya", which does not appear in the Sanskrit dictionary).
• see also: denpa nyi (2 truths) = (1) döndam denpa (absolute or ultimate truth), (2) kündzop denpa (relative truth)
• Buddhist terms: 2 truths = (1) ultimate truth, (2) relative truth
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / RYwiki

≫ kusulu (Tibetan: ཀུ་སུ་ལུ་; Wylie: ku su lu) = beggar, bum; natural, uncontrived; type of yogin who does what comes naturally; shaman; one who gives up all work and frequents mountain retreats; DJKR: renunciant, wanderer, yogi; "usually found in the bar or prostitutes' house".


L

(Tibetan: ལས་, lé; Wylie: las) = karma, action, law of cause and effect - see karma.
(other languages): karma (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ len (Tibetan: ལེན་, Wylie: len) = receive, accept, absorb, take hold, grasp, study.
• see also: panglen (accepting and rejecting)

≫ lhak (Tibetan: ལྷག་, lhak; Wylie: lhag) = special, supreme, beyond; DJKR: "something extra", "the real deal", "the true colour".
(other languages): vi- (Sanskrit, Pāli)
• see also: lhaktong (vipassana)

lhaktong (Tibetan: ལྷག་མཐོང་, lhaktong; Wylie: lhag mthong) = vipassana.
(other languages): vipassana (Pāli ≫ main entry)
• see also: lhak (special)

≫ lung (Tibetan: ལུང་, lung; Wylie: rlung) = scriptural transmission, reading transmission, scriptural authority.


M

≫ madhyamaka (Sanskrit: माध्यमक, IAST: mādhyamaka; Tibetan: དབུ་མ་པ་, umapa; Wylie: dbu ma pa) = madhyamaka, the middle way free from all extremes (including the extreme views of eternalism and nihilism). May be used to refer to: (1) the Madhyamaka school, a tradition of Buddhist philosophy founded by the Indian philosopher Nagarjuna; (2) the ultimate nature of mind and nature of phenomena; and (3) the realisation of the ultimate nature of mind and nature of phenomena (e.g. in meditative equipoise).
• see also: Nagarjuna (Indian Buddhist philosopher)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ magga (Pāli: मग्ग, IAST: magga; Sanskrit: मार्ग, IAST: mārga; Tibetan: Tibetan: ལམ་, lam; Wylie: lam) = path; the fourth of the 4 noble truths.
• see also: cattari ariyasaccani (4 noble truths): (1) dukkha (suffering), (2) samudaya (origin of suffering), (3) nirodha (cessation of suffering), (4) magga (path).
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

≫ maha (Sanskrit: महा, IAST: mahā) = great.

≫ mahakaruna (Sanskrit: महाकरुण, IAST: mahākaruṇa) = great compassion.
• see also: karuna (compassion)

≫ Mahakashyapa (Sanskrit: महाकाश्यप; IAST: mahākāśyapa; Pāli: महाकस्सप, IAST: mahākassapa; Tibetan: འོད་སྲུང་ཆེན་པོ་, ösung chenpo; Wylie: 'od srung chen po) = one of the Buddha's principal disciples, regarded as the foremost in ascetic practice.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

Mahasandhi (Sanskrit: महासन्धि , IAST: mahā ("great") + sandhi ("meeting, gathering, joint"), i.e. "great gathering") = Dzogchen; (rigpawiki gives the meaning as "the gathering of all or the quintessence", however, it has the Sanskrit as saṅdhi सङ्धि, rather than sandhi सन्धि. RYwiki does not include diacritics in its entry for "mahasandhi").
(other names): Atiyoga, Dzogchen
• see also: mahasiddha (great accomplished one); Padmasambhava, Nyingma
• external links: RYwiki (Mahasandhi) / rigpawiki (Dzogchen)

≫ mahasiddha (Sanskrit: महासिद्ध, IAST: mahāsiddha; Tibetan: གྲུབ་ཐོབ་ཆེན་པོ, druptop chenpo; Wylie: grub thob chen po; also (short form): གྲུབ་ཆེན་, drupchen; Wylie: grub chen) = great accomplished one; highly realised practitioner; someone who embodies and cultivates the "siddhi of perfection"; a yogi who has attained the supreme siddhi or accomplishment (i.e. enlightenment). The Mahasiddhas are the founders of Vajrayana traditions and lineages such as Dzogchen and Mahamudra, and most lived between 750 CE and 1150 CE. By convention, there are eighty-four Mahasiddhas in both Hindu and Tibetan Buddhist traditions, with some overlap between the two lists.
• see also: Dzogchensiddhi (accomplishment, attainment)
• external links (list of the 84 mahasiddhas): wikipedia / rigpawiki / RYwiki

≫ Mahayana (Sanskrit: महायान, IAST: mahāyāna; Tibetan: ཐེག་པ་ཆེན་པོ་, tekpa chenpo; Wylie: theg pa chen po) = the great or universal vehicle; one of the two main existing branches of Buddhism (the other being Theravada) and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice. The Mahayana is also called the Bodhisattvayana, referring to the path followed by the bodhisattva seeking complete enlightenment for the benefit of all sentient beings.
• see also: Hinayana (the lesser vehicle), Shravakayana (the vehicle of the shravakas), Theravada (the school of the elders), yana (vehicle or method)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ mala (Sanskrit: माला; IAST: mālā; literally "garland"; also Sanskrit: जपमाला, IAST japamālā; Tibetan: འཕྲེང་བ་, trengwa; Wylie: 'phreng ba) = a string of prayer beads commonly used while reciting a mantra (the spiritual practice known in Sanskrit as japa, literally "muttering, whispering"). Malas are similar to other forms of prayer beads used in various world religions and sometimes referred to in English as a "rosary". The main body of a mala is usually 108 beads, often with a 109th bead of a distinctive size or color.
• see also (external): wikipedia

≫ mana (Sanskrit: मान, IAST: māna; Tibetan: ང་རྒྱལ་, nga gyel; Wylie: nga rgyal) = pride, arrogance, self-conceit; fourth of the 6 destructive emotions (mulaklesha).
• see also: klesha (afflictive/destructive/disturbing/negative emotions); mulaklesha (6 destructive emotions): (1) raga (desire), (2) pratigha (anger), (3) avidya (ignorance), (4) mana (pride), (5) vicikitsa (doubt), (6) drishti (view); nyöndrip (emotional obscurations)

≫ manas (Sanskrit & Pāli: मनस्, IAST: manas; also: मनसा, IAST: manasā; Tibetan: ཡིད་, yi; Wylie: yid) = mind (in its widest sense as applied to all the mental powers); ideational consciousness, the intellect, mental functioning, thought, subjective mind, conceptual mind.
• external links: wikipedia

≫ manasapratyaksha (Sanskrit: मानसप्रत्यक्ष, IAST: manasāpratyakṣa = manasāpratyakṣa; Tibetan: ཡིད་ཀྱི་མངོན་སུམ་, yikyi ngönsum, Wylie: yid kyi mngon sum) = mental perception, direct mental perception, immediate referential awareness.
• see also (the 4 kinds of direct perception): (1) indriyapratyaksha (sense perception), (2) manasapratyaksha (mental perception), (3) svasamvedana (self-cognition), (4) yogipratyaksha (yogic direct perception)
• see also: manas (mind)

≫ Mara (Sanskrit: मार, IAST: māra; Tibetan: བདུད་, dü; Wylie: bdud) = killing, destroying; malevolent forces, demonic influences, obstructions, negative influences; the Destroyer who tempts men to indulge their passions; the demonic celestial king who attempted to prevent Prince Siddhartha from attaining enlightenment by threatening and tempting him when he was meditating under the bodhi tree.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ maya (Sanskrit: मय, IAST: maya; Tibetan: སྒྱུ་འཕྲུལ་, gyuntrül; Wylie: sgyu 'phrul) = illusion, magical display, magic, artifice.

≫ metta (Pāli: मेत्ता, IAST: mettā; Sanskrit: मैत्री, IAST: maitrī; Tibetan: བྱམས་པ་, jampa; Wylie: byams pa) = loving-kindness.
• see also: 4 brahmaviharas (4 sublime attitudes; 4 immeasurables): (1) metta (मेत्ता, loving-kindness), (2) karuna (करुणा, compassion), (3) mudita (मुदिता, sympathetic joy), (4) upekkha (उपेक्खाा, equanimity)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ mi gewa (Tibetan: མི་དགེ་བ་, mi gewa; Wylie: mi dge ba) = non-virtuous, unwholesome, bad, dharmas ripening with unpleasant fruition.
• see also: gewa (virtuous)

mi takpa (Tibetan: མི་རྟག་པ་, mi takpa; Wylie: mi rtag pa) = impermanent, impermanence - see anicca.
(other languages): anicca (Pāli ≫ main entry)

≫ mi tokpa (Tibetan: མི་རྟོག་པ་, mi tokpa; Wylie: mi rtog pa; Sanskrit: अविकल्प, IAST: avikalpa, literally "not distinguished or particularized") = nonconceptuality, nonthought, nondiscrimination; one of the three meditation experiences (bliss, clarity, nonconceptuality).
• see also: tokmé (nonconceptuality), mi tokpé nyam (nonconceptuality as a meditation experience)

≫  mi tokpé nyam (Tibetan: མི་རྟོག་པའི་ཉམས་, mi tokpé nyam; Wylie: mi rtog pa'i nyams) = the experience of nonconceptuality or nonthought (e.g. as a meditation experience).
• see also (three experiences): dewé nyam (bliss), selwé nyam (clarity), mi tokpé nyam (nonconceptuality)
• external links: rigpawiki (three experiences of bliss, clarity & nonconceptuality)

≫ mi tsimpa (Tibetan: མི་ཚིམ་པ་, mi tsimpa; Wylie: mi + tshim pa) = not satisfied, not contented; DJKR: "not enough, not complete, there's no sense of enough or contentment".
• see also: dukkha (suffering, unsatisfactoriness), tsimpa (satisfied, content)

≫ moha (Pāli: मोह; IAST moha) = bewilderment, confusion, delusion.

≫ moksha (Sanskrit: मोक्ष, IAST: mokṣa) = liberation, emancipation, release from.
• see also: nirvana (beyond suffering, state beyond sorrow)

≫ momo (Tibetan: མོག་མོག་, mok mok; Wylie: mog mog) = stuffed dumplings (Tibetan pasties), steamed bread.

≫ mönpa semkyé (Tibetan: སྨོན་པའི་བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་, mön pé jang chup kyi sem; Wylie: smon pa'i byang chub kyi sems; also shortened to Tibetan: སྨོན་པ་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་, mön pa sem kyé; Wylie: smon pa sems bskyed) = bodhichitta of aspiration (or aspiration bodhichitta), bodhichitta in aspiration; comprised chiefly of the practice of the 4 immeasurables.
• see also: 4 brahmaviharas (4 immeasurables); bodhichittajukpa semkyé (bodhichitta in action)
• external links: wikipedia (bodhichitta) / rigpawiki / RYwiki

≫ Mrigadava (Sanskrit: मृगदाव, mrigadava, IAST: mṛgadāva = mṛga + dāva, literally "deer park") = The "Deer Park" in Sarnath (about 10km northeast of present-day Varanasi). Mrigadava was the location of the vihara (monastery) named Rishipatana where Shakyamuni Buddha gave his first teaching, the Dharmachakrapravartana Sutra (on the Four Noble Truths), to the five monks that were his former companions. It is one of the four great pilgrimage places determined by the Buddha.
• see also: Buddhacattari ariyasaccani (4 noble truths); Dharmachakrapravartana Sutra (the first teaching given by Shakyamuni Buddha); Jetavana (Jeta's Grove, a vihara); vihara (monastery)
• Buddhist terms: 4 noble truths; Buddha; Deer Park
• external links: wikipedia (Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta) / wikipedia (Sarnath) / wisdom library (Mrigadava) / wisdom library (Rishipatana)

≫ mudita (Pāli & Sanskrit: मुदिता, IAST: muditā) ; Tibetan: དགའ་བ་, gawa; Wylie: dga' ba) = sympathetic joy.
• see also: 4 brahmaviharas (4 sublime attitudes; 4 immeasurables): (1) metta (मेत्ता, loving-kindness), (2) karuna (करुणा, compassion), (3) mudita (मुदिता, sympathetic joy), (4) upekkha (उपेक्खाा, equanimity)
• external links: wikipedia

mulaklesha (Sanskrit: मूलक्लेश, IAST: mūla + kleśa; Tibetan: རྩ་ཉོན་དྲུག་, tsa nyön druk; Wylie: rtsa nyon drug) = the (six) root (or primary) afflictive/destructive/disturbing emotions, presented by Vasubandhu in the Abhidharmakosha - see klesha.
• see also: klesha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)
• Buddhist terms: 6 destructive emotions: (1) desire or attachment, (2) anger, (3) ignorance, (4) pride or conceit, (5) doubt, (6) wrong view.

≫ Mulamadhyamakakarika (Sanskrit: मूलमाध्यमककारिका = mūlamadhyamakakārikā, IAST: mūla + mādhyamaka + kārikā; also known as: Sanskrit: प्रज्ञा-नाम-मूलमाध्यमककारिका = prajñā-nāma-mūlamadhyamakakārikā, IAST: prajñanāmamūla + mādhyamaka + kārikā; Tibetan: དབུ་མ་རྩ་བ་ཤེས་རབ་, uma tsawa shérap; Wylie: dbu ma rtsa ba shes rab) = The Root Verses on the Middle Way, the most famous and important treatise on madhyamaka philosophy, written by Nagarjuna in approximately the 2nd or 3rd century CE.
• see also: madhyamaka (middle way), Nagarjuna (Indian Buddhist philosopher)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki


N

≫ Nagananda (Sanskrit: नागानन्द; IAST: nāgānanda; Tibetan: ཀླུ་ཀུན་ཏུ་དགའ་བའི་ཟློས་གར་, lu kün tu gawé dö gar; Wylie: klu kun tu dga' ba'i zlos gar) = "Joy of the serpents" (DJKR: "The play that makes the nagas happy"), a Sanskrit play attributed to King Harshavardhana (c. 590-647 CE), translated into Tibetan by Shongton Dorje Gyaltsen, available online as TBRC work W21861.
• external links: wikipedia

≫ Nagarjuna (Sanskrit: नागार्जुन, IAST: nāgārjuna; Tibetan: ཀླུ་གྲུབ་, ludrup; Wylie: klu grub) = Nagarjuna (c. 150-250 CE), Indian Buddhist philosopher, founder of the Madhyamaka school of Mahayana Buddhism.
• see also: madhyamaka (middle way), Mulamadhyamakakarika (The Root Verses on the Middle Way by Nagarjuna)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ nakdzi (Tibetan: གནག་རྫི་, nakdzi; Wylie: gnag rdzi; Dzongkha: ཝ་དི་པ་, wadipa) = cowherd.

naljor (Tibetan: རྣལ་འབྱོར་, naljor / nenjor; Wylie: rnal 'byor) = yoga; DJKR: "the wealth of being natural".
(other languages): yoga (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

naljor ngönsum (Tibetan: རྣལ་འབྱོར་མངོན་སུམ་, naljor ngönsum / nenjor ngönsum; Wylie: rnal 'byor mngon sum; Sanskrit: योगिप्रत्यक्ष, yogipratyaksha; IAST: yogipratyakṣa) = yogic direct perception - see yogipratyaksha.
(other languages): yogipratyaksha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)
• see also (4 kinds of direct perception): (1) indriyapratyaksha (sense perception), (2) manasapratyaksha (mental perception), (3) svasamvedana (self-cognition), (4) yogipratyaksha (yogic direct perception); ngönsum (direct perception)

≫ Namu Myoho Renge Kyo (Japanese: 南無妙法蓮華經, Namu Myōhō Renge Kyō) = "Glory to the Dharma of the Lotus Sutra", a mantra chanted within Nichiren Buddhism. (Myōhō Renge Kyō is the Japanese name of the Lotus Sutra).
• see also: Pundarika Sutra (The Lotus Sutra)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ Nataraja (Sanskrit: नटराज, IAST: Naṭarāja = naṭa + rāja; Tamil: நடராஜர்; literally "Lord of the Dance") = Depiction of the Hindu god Shiva as the divine dancer. Every Shiva temple has a shrine dedicated to Shiva in the form of Naṭarāja performing the Ānanda Tāṇḍava, the “Dance of Bliss”, a vigorous dance that is the source of the cycle of creation, preservation and dissolution.
• external links: wikipedia (Nataraja) / wikipedia (Tandava) / wisdom library

nenjor ngönsum (Tibetan) = redirects to naljor ngönsum (Tibetan)

≫ ngéjung (Tibetan: ངེས་འབྱུང་, ngéjung; Wylie: nges ’byung) = renunciation, renunciation mind.

≫ ngöndro (Tibetan: སྔོན་འགྲོ་, ngön dro; Wylie: sngon 'gro; Sanskrit: पूर्वक, IAST: pūrvaka) = the preliminary, preparatory or foundational practices or disciplines (sādhanā) common to all four schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

ngönsum (Tibetan: མངོན་སུམ་, ngönsum; Wylie: mngon sum) = direct perception, direct cognition - see pratyaksha.
(other languages): pratyaksha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)
• see also (4 kinds of direct perception): (1) indriyapratyaksha (sense perception), (2) manasapratyaksha (mental perception), (3) svasamvedana (self-cognition), (4) yogipratyaksha (yogic direct perception)

≫ nirmana (Sanskrit (1): निर्माण, IAST: nirmāṇa; Sanskrit (2) निर्माणम्, IAST: nirmāṇam) = forming, making, creating, creation, created thing or form, transformation.

≫ nirmanakaya (Sanskrit: निर्माणकाय, IAST: nirmāṇakāya; Tibetan: སྤྲུལ་སྐུ་, trülku; Wylie: sprul sku) = the body of transformations; the physical manifestation of a buddha in time and space; one of the three bodies (trikaya) of a buddha in Mahayana Buddhism; one of the two aspects of the form body (rupakaya) along with the sambhogakaya.
• see also: dharmakaya ("truth body"); kaya (body, dimension); nirmana (creation, created thing or form, transformation);  rupakaya ("form body"); sambhogakaya ("body of enjoyment"); trikaya (three bodies of a buddha); tulku (emanation body)
• external links: wikipedia (nirmanakaya), wikipedia (trikaya) / rigpawiki / rywiki

≫ nirodha (Pāli & Sanskrit: निरोध, IAST: nirodha, Sanskrit, Pāli; Tibetan: འགོག་པ་, gokpa; Wylie: ‘gog pa; Burmese: နိေရာဓ) = cessation, suppression, annihilation, extinction; the third of the 4 noble truths.
• see also: cattari ariyasaccani (4 noble truths): (1) dukkha (suffering), (2) samudaya (origin of suffering), (3) nirodha (cessation of suffering), (4) magga (path).
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ nirvana (Sanskrit: निर्वाण, IAST: nirvāṇa; Tibetan: མྱང་འདས་, nyandé; Wylie: myang 'das) = beyond suffering, state beyond sorrow; blown or put out, extinguished (as a lamp or fire); liberated from existence; calmed, quieted; complete extinction of or liberation from individual or worldly existence.
(other languages): nyandé (Tibetan)
• see also: moksha (liberation, release), samsara (cyclic existence)

≫ nyamlen (Tibetan: ཉམས་ལེན་, nyamlen; Wylie: nyams len) = Dharma practice, spiritual practice, to put into practice (as opposed to theory), application.

≫ nyamsum (Tibetan: ཉམས་གསུམ་, nyam sum; Wylie: nyams gsum) = the three meditation experiences (or "moods") of bliss, clarity and nonthought (or nonconceptuality).
• external links: rigpawiki / RYwiki

≫ nyamzhak (Tibetan: མཉམ་བཞག་, nyam zhak; Wylie: mnyam bzhag; Sanskrit: समाहित, IAST: samāhita) = meditative equipoise; evenly resting; the state of even contemplation.
• see also: zhak (put, place, "leave it alone")

nyandé (Tibetan: མྱང་འདས་, nyandé; Wylie: myang 'das) = nirvana.
(other languages): nirvana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

nyéjung (Tibetan) = redirects to ngéjung (Tibetan)

≫ nyidzin (Tibetan: གཉིས་འཛིན་, nyidzin; Wylie: gnyis 'dzin) = dualism, dualistic perception; dualistic grasping, dualistic fixation; subject-object dualism; the ordinary perception of unenlightened beings; the apprehension of phenomena in terms of subject (consciousness) and object (mental images and the outer world), and the belief in their true existence.
• see also: yin-yang (dualism in Taoism)
• external links: wikipedia (dualism in Indian philosophy)

nyingjé (Tibetan: སྙིང་རྗེ་, nyingjé; Wylie: snying rje) = compassion, the wish to free all beings from suffering and the causes of suffering - see karuna.
Note: DJKR emphasises that the semantic range of the English word "compassion" does not at all do justice to the meaning of nyingjé/karuna/bodhichitta.
• dictionary definition ("compassion") = "sympathetic pity and concern for the sufferings or misfortunes of others" (Google dictionary).
(other languages): karuna (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ Nyingma (Tibetan: རྙིང་མ་, Wylie: rnying ma; literally "ancient") = the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism (the other three are the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug). Also often referred to as Ngangyur (Tibetan: སྔ་འགྱུར་རྙིང་མ་, ngagyur nyingma; Wylie: snga 'gyur rnying ma, literally "school of the ancient translations" or "old school") because it is founded on the first translations of Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit into Old Tibetan in the 8th century, for which the Tibetan alphabet and grammar were created. The Nyingma particularly believes in terma (hidden treasure teachings) and places an emphasis on Dzogchen.
• see also: DzogchenPadmasambhava
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ nyöndrip (Tibetan: ཉོན་སྒྲིབ་, nyöndrip; Wylie: nyon sgrib; Sanskrit: kleśāvaraṇa from क्लेश + आवरण, IAST: kleśa + āvaraṇa) = emotional obscurations, afflictive obstructions, obstructions to liberation.
• see also: drip (obscuration), nyönmong (negative emotion)
• glossary: 2 obscurations = emotional obscurations (nyöndrip) & cognitive obscurations (shédrip)

nyönmong (Tibetan (1): ཉོན་མོང་, nyönmong; Wylie: nyon mong; Tibetan (2): ཉོན་མོངས་, Wylie: nyon mongs) = kleshas, afflictive emotions - see klesha.
(other languages): klesha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)


O

≫ OM (Sanskrit: ॐ, IAST: Oṃ) = sacred sound and spiritual symbol in Indian religions. In Hinduism, it signifies the essence of the ultimate reality, consciousness or Atman; in Buddhism, it is the seed syllable for the body of all the buddhas.
• external links: wikipedia

≫ OM MANI PADME HUM (Sanskrit: ॐ मणिपद्मे हूँ, IAST: Oṃ Maṇi Padme Hūṃ; Tibetan: ཨོཾ་མ་ཎི་པ་དྨེ་ཧཱུ།, om mani pémé hung; Wylie: oM ma Ni pa d+me hU~M) = The six-syllable mantra of Avalokiteshvara (also known as the "Mani mantra").
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ oryoki (Japanese: 応量器, ōryōki; also called はったら, hattara, transliteration of Sanskrit: पात्र, IAST: pātra) = a set of nested bowls ("vessel that contains just enough") and other eating utensils for the personal use of Buddhist monks; the formal style of serving and eating meals practiced in Zen temples.
• external links: wikipedia


P

≫ paan (Hindi: पान, pān, lit. "betel vine"; from Sanskrit: पर्ण, IAST: parṇa, meaning “leaf”) = a stimulating, psychoactive preparation of betel leaf combined with areca nut and/or cured tobacco that is widely consumed in Southeast Asia, East Asia and the Indian subcontinent.

Padmakara (Sanskrit: पद्माकर, IAST: padmākara = padma + kara; Tibetan: པདྨཱ་ཀ་ར་, Wylie: pad+mA ka ra) = Padmasambhava
(other names): Guru Rinpoche; Padmasambhava

≫ Padmasambhava (Sanskrit: पद्मसम्भव, IAST: padmasambhava = padma + sambhava; literally "lotus-born", "born from a lotus"; Tibetan: པདྨ་འབྱུང་གནས་, Pemajungné; Wylie: pad+ma 'byung gnas) = Guru Rinpoche, the "Precious Master", the founder of Tibetan Buddhism in the 8th or 9th century (also known as Padmakara). According to tradition, Padmasambhava was incarnated as an eight-year-old child appearing in a lotus blossom floating in Lake Dhanakosha, in the kingdom of Oddiyana (located variously by scholars as being in the Swat Valley of modern-day Pakistan or the present-day state of Odisha in India). He helped to construct the first Buddhist monastery in Tibet at Samye, at the behest of King Trisong Detsen (who ruled c. 755–797/804 CE). While Buddha Shakyamuni exemplifies the buddha principle, the most important element in the sutrayana path, Padmasambhava personifies the guru principle, the heart of Vajrayana Buddhism, and he is therefore known as the ‘second Buddha’ (Tibetan: སངས་རྒྱས་གཉིས་པ་, sangyé nyipa; Wylie: sangs rgyas gnyis pa). The Nyingma school considers Padmasambhava to be a founder of the Nyingma lineage and tradition.
(other names): Guru Rinpoche; Padmakara
• see also: DzogchenNyingma; tertön
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

≫ pañchakula (Sanskrit: पञ्चकुल, IAST pañca- ("five") + kula ("race, family, tribe, caste"); Tibetan: རིགས་ལྔ་, rik nga'; Wylie: rigs lnga) = the five buddha families: buddha (centre/blue), vajra (east/white), ratna (or jewel) (south/yellow), padma (or lotus) (west/red), karma (or action) (north/green).
• Buddhist terms: 5 buddha families
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

panchashila (Sanskrit) = redirects to pañchashila (Sanskrit)

≫ pañchashila (Sanskrit: पञ्चशील, pañcaśīla; Pāli: pañcasīla) = the five precepts, the most important system of morality for Buddhist laypeople. They are: to abstain from killing, theft, sexual misconduct, falsehood and intoxication.
• external links: wikipedia

≫ pandita (Sanskrit: पण्डित, IAST: paṇḍita; Tibetan: མཁས་པ་, khepa; Wylie: mkhas pa) = learned master (lit. "learned one"), scholar; professor in Buddhist philosophy.
• external links: wikipedia

≫ panglen (Tibetan: སྤང་བླང་, panglen / panglang; Wylie: spang len / spang blang) = accept and reject, accepting and rejecting, adopt or abandon.
• see also: len (receive, accept, absorb, take hold, grasp, study)

≫ paramita (Pāli & Sanskrit: पारमिता, IAST: pāramitā; Tibetan: ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ་, parol tu chinpa; Wylie: pha rol tu phyin pa; also Pāli: पारमी, IAST: pāramī; Burmese: ပါရမီ) = perfection, transcendent perfection, transcendental perfection, transcendental virtue. Noble character qualities and virtues generally associated with enlightened beings and cultivated on the Buddhist path. Literally means "reaching the other shore" or "gone to the other shore". Particularly, it means transcending concepts of subject, object and action. The bodhisattva path comprises the cultivation of six paramitas: (1) generosity, (2) discipline, (3) patience, (4) diligence, (5) meditative concentration, (6) wisdom.
• see also: atparamita (6 paramitas): (1) dana (generosity), (2) shila (discipline), (3) kshanti (patience), (4) virya (diligence), (5) dhyana (meditative concentration), (6) prajña (wisdom); trishiksha (3-fold training) = discipline (shila), meditation (samadhi) & wisdom (prajña)
• Buddhist terms: 6 paramitas: (1) generosity, (2) discipline, (3) patience, (4) diligence, (5) meditative concentration, (6) wisdom.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

Pön (Tibetan) = redirects to Bon (Tibetan)

≫ prajña (Sanskrit: प्रज्ञ, IAST: prajña; Tibetan: ཤེས་རབ་, shérap; Wylie: shes rab) = precise discernment; wisdom; knowing correctly, clearly and fully, discriminating awareness; intelligence, knowledge; transcendent knowledge, sublime knowing; the sixth of the 6 paramitas and the third aspect of the 3-fold training.
(other languages): sherab (Tibetan)
• note [multiple translations]: prajña (precise discernment, transcendent knowledge) and jñana (primordial wisdom) are both translated into English as "wisdom"
• see also: satparamita (6 paramitas): (1) dana (generosity), (2) shila (discipline), (3) kshanti (patience), (4) virya (diligence), (5) dhyana (meditative concentration), (6) prajña (wisdom); trishiksha (3-fold training) = discipline (shila), meditation (samadhi) & wisdom (prajña)
• Buddhist terms: 6 paramitas: (1) generosity, (2) discipline, (3) patience, (4) diligence, (5) meditative concentration, (6) wisdom.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ pramana (Sanskrit: प्रमाण, IAST: pramāṇa; Tibetan: ཚད་མ་, tsema; Wylie: tshad ma) = valid cognition (lit. proof, means of knowledge); it refers to epistemology in Indian philosophies including Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism.
• external links: wikipedia (pramana) / wikipedia (Buddhist logic) / rigpawiki (pramana)

≫ pratigha (Sanskrit: प्रतिघ, IAST: pratigha; Pāli: दोस, IAST: dosa; Tibetan: ཁོང་ཁྲོ་, khongtro; Wylie: khong khro) = anger, aggression, wrath, enmity, malice; second of the 6 destructive emotions (mulaklesha).
• see also: klesha (afflictive/destructive/disturbing/negative emotions); mulaklesha (6 destructive emotions): (1) raga (desire), (2) pratigha (anger), (3) avidya (ignorance), (4) mana (pride), (5) vicikitsa (doubt), (6) drishti (view); nyöndrip (emotional obscurations)

≫ pratityasamutpada (Sanskrit: प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद, IAST: pratītyasamutpāda; Pāli: पटिच्चसमुप्पाद, IAST: paṭiccasamuppāda; Tibetan: རྟེན་ཅིང་འབྲེལ་བར་འབྱུང་བ་, ten ching drelwar jungwa, Wylie: rten cing 'brel bar 'byung ba; also shortened to: Tibetan: རྟེན་འབྲེལ་དུ་འབྱུང་བ་, tendrel du jungwa; Wylie: rten 'brel du 'byung ba) = dependent origination, dependent arising; chain of causation.
• see also: samudaya (origin)
• Buddhist terms: dependent origination, origin
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ pratyaksha (Sanskrit: प्रत्यक्ष, pratyaksha; IAST: pratyakṣa; Tibetan: མངོན་སུམ་, ngönsum; Wylie: mngon sum) = direct perception, direct cognition.
(other languages): ngönsum (Tibetan)
• see also (4 kinds of direct perception): (1) indriyapratyaksha (sense perception), (2) manasapratyaksha (mental perception), (3) svasamvedana (self-cognition), (4) yogipratyaksha (yogic direct perception)

≫ puja (Pāli & Sanskrit: पूजा, IAST: pūjā) = devotional practice; ritual prayer and practice; religious observance; worship, honour, respect, reverence, veneration, homage to the buddhas and bodhisattvas (in Buddhism) or adoration of the gods (in Hinduism).
• see also: pujari (priest who performs temple rituals and devotional practices such as puja)
• external links: (puja in Buddhism) wikipedia / (puja in Hinduism) wikipedia

≫ pujari (Sanskrit: पूजारी, IAST: pūjārī) = priest who performs temple rituals and devotional practices such as puja. (Although both Buddhism and Hinduism have puja, the word pujari is more strongly associated with Hindu temple priests).
• see also: puja (ritual prayer and practice)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ Pundarika Sutra (Sanskrit: सद्धर्मपुण्डरीक सूत्र, IAST: Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra; Chinese: 妙法蓮華經, pinyin: Miàofǎ Liánhuá jīng, shortened to 法華經, Fǎhuá jīng; Japanese: 妙法蓮華経, Myōhō Renge Kyō; Korean: 법화경, Myobeomnyeonhwagyeong) = The Lotus Sutra, one of the most popular and influential Mahayana sutras, and the basis on which the Tiantai, Tendai, Cheontae, and Nichiren schools of Buddhism were established.
• see also (DJKR teaching): Lotus Sutra, New Delhi (March 18, 2018)
• see also: Namu Myoho Renge Kyo (mantra chanted in Nichiren Buddhism)
• external links: wikipedia / New World Encyclopedia

≫ punya (Sanskrit: पुण्य, punya, IAST: puṇya; Pāli: पुञ्ञ, IAST: puñña; Tibetan: བསོད་ནམས་, sönam; Wylie: bsod nams) = merit, virtue, meritorious, meritorious karma.
(other languages): sönam (Tibetan)
• external links: wikipedia (merit in Buddhism) / wikipedia (punya in Hinduism) / rigpawiki (merit)

≫ purushartha (Sanskrit: पुरुषार्थ, IAST: puruṣārtha) = (one of) the four objects or aims of existence according to Hindu philosophy: (1) kāma (काम, the gratification of desire, pleasure, love, psychological values); (2) artha (अर्थ, acquiring wealth, prosperity, material values); (3) dharma (धर्म, discharging one's duty, righteousness, moral values); (4) moksha (मोक्ष, liberation, spiritual values).
• external links: wikipedia


R

≫ raga (Pāli & Sanskrit: राग, IAST: rāga, PāliSanskrit ("lust, attachment, excitement, passion"); also sometimes used synonymously with: Pāli: लोभ, IAST: lobha ("greed, covetousness"); Tibetan: འདོད་ཆགས་, döchak; Wylie: 'dod chags) = desire, attachment, passion, lust; a character affliction or poison referring to any form of greed, sensuality, lust, or attachment to a sensory object; first of the 6 destructive emotions (mulaklesha).
• see also: klesha (afflictive/destructive/disturbing/negative emotions); mulaklesha (6 destructive emotions): (1) raga (desire), (2) pratigha (anger), (3) avidya (ignorance), (4) mana (pride), (5) vicikitsa (doubt), (6) drishti (view); nyöndrip (emotional obscurations)
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

rangrik (Tibetan: རང་རིག་, rang rik; Wylie: rang rig) = self-cognition, self-cognizance, self-awareness, reflexive awareness, self-perception - svasamvedana.
(other languages): see svasamvedana (Sanskrit main entry)
• see also (4 kinds of direct perception): (1) indriyapratyaksha (sense perception), (2) manasapratyaksha (mental perception), (3) svasamvedana (self-cognition), (4) yogipratyaksha (yogic direct perception)
• external links: rigpawiki

≫ Rinpoche (Tibetan: རིན་པོ་ཆེ་, rinpoché; Wylie: rin po che) = "precious one", honorific title for incarnate lama or distinguished Dharma practitioner.

≫ rupakaya (Sanskrit: रूपकाय, rūpakāya = रूप rūpa (form) + काय kāya (body, dimension); Tibetan: གཟུགས་སྐུ་, zuk ku; Wylie: gzugs sku) = the "form body" or physical manifestation of a buddha; in the Mahayana, the rupakaya includes the two "form kayas" of nirmanakaya and sambhogakaya.
• see also: dharmakaya ("truth body"); kaya (body, dimension); nirmanakaya ("body of manifestations"); sambhogakaya ("body of enjoyment"); trikaya (three bodies of a buddha)
• external links: wikipedia (trikaya) / rigpawiki (rupakaya) / rywiki (rupakaya)


S

≫ sadhana (Sanskrit: साधना, IAST: sādhanā; Tibetan: སྒྲུབ་ཐབས་, druptap; Wylie: sgrub thabs) = means of accomplishment; Tantric liturgy and procedure for practice usually emphasizing the development stage.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

samatha (Pāli: समथ, IAST: samatha) = shamatha.
(other languages): see shamatha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ samadhi (Sanskrit: समाधि, IAST: samādhi; Tibetan: ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་, tingédzin; Wylie: ting nge 'dzin) = meditative absorption, stabilization, trance; the fourth and last stage of dhyāna (meditative concentration). Can refer both to the practice and the state of meditation.
• see also: dhyana (meditative concentration)
• see also (3-fold training or trishiksha) = discipline (shila), meditation (samadhi) & wisdom (prajña)
• external links: wikipedia (meditation), wikipedia (samadhi) / rigpawiki (meditation), rigpawiki (samadhi)

≫ sambhogakaya (Sanskrit: सम्भोगकाय, IAST: sambhogakāya; Tibetan: ལོངས་སྐུ་, longku; Wylie: longs sku) = "body of enjoyment", one of the three bodies (trikaya) of a buddha in Mahayana Buddhism; one of the two aspects of form (rupakaya) along with nirmanakaya.
• see also: dharmakaya ("truth body"); kaya (body, dimension); nirmanakaya ("body of manifestations"); rupakaya ("form body"); trikaya (three bodies of a buddha)
• external links: wikipedia (sambhogakaya), wikipedia (trikaya) / rigpawiki / rywiki

samma-ditthi (Pāli: सम्मादिट्ठि, IAST: sammā-diṭṭhi) = right view - see samyak-drishti.
(other languages): see samyak-drishti (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ samsara (Sanskrit: संसार, IAST: saṃsāra; Tibetan: འཁོར་བ་, khorwa; Wylie: 'khor ba) = cyclic existence, birth-and-death, worldly life, transmigration.
(other languages): khorwa (Tibetan)
• see also: nirvana (beyond suffering, liberation from worldly existence)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ samskara (Sanskrit: संस्कार, IAST: saṃskāra; Pāli: सङ्खार, IAST: saṅkhāra; Tibetan: འདུ་བྱེད་, dujé, Wylie: 'du byed) = mental formation, compounding, conditioned existence, formation, impulses; a mental creation (such as that of the external world, that is taken as real although actually non-existent), the second link in the 12-fold chain of causation or the fourth of the 5 skandhas).
(other languages): sankhara (Pāli)
• see also: skandha (aggregate)
• external links: wikipedia (saṅkhāra in Buddhist philosophy) / wikipedia (saṃskāra in Indian philosophy)

samten (Tibetan: བསམ་གཏན་, samten; Wylie: bsam gtan) = meditative concentration, mental focus - see dhyana.
(other languages): dhyana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry), jhana (Pāli), zen (Japanese)

≫ samudaya (Pāli: समुदय, IAST: samudaya; Sanskrit: समुत्पाद, IAST: samutpāda; Tibetan: ཀུན་འབྱུང་, kunjung; Wylie: kun 'byung; Burmese: သမုဒယ) = origin, production, cause, rise; source of all, all-pervasive origin; the second of the 4 noble truths.
• see also: cattari ariyasaccani (4 noble truths): (1) dukkha (suffering), (2) samudaya (origin of suffering), (3) nirodha (cessation of suffering), (4) magga (path); pratityasamutpada (dependent origination)
• Buddhist terms: dependent origination, origin
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ samyak-drishti (Sanskrit: सम्यक्‌ दृष्टि or सम्यक्दृष्टि, IAST: samyak-dṛṣṭi; Pāli: सम्मादिट्ठि, IAST: sammā-diṭṭhi) = right view; the first practice of the 8-fold noble path.
(other languages): samma-ditthi (Pāli)
• Buddhist terms: right view; view; wrong view

sangyé (Tibetan: སངས་རྒྱས་, sangyé; Wylie: sangs rgyas) = buddha, buddhahood, fully enlightened - see Buddha.
Note: DJKR emphasises that the semantic range of the English word "enlightenment" does not at all do justice to the meaning of buddha/sangyé or bodhi/jangchup - see notes for buddha.
(other languages): Buddha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)
• Buddhist terms: Buddha
• see also: bodhi (enlightenment)

sankhara (Pāli: सङ्खार, IAST: saṅkhāra) = samskara, mental formation - see samskara.
(other languages): samskara (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ sannyasa (Sanskrit: संन्यास, IAST: saṃnyāsa also saṃnyāsaḥ) = renunciant, ascetic; putting or throwing down, laying aside, resignation, abandonment; renunciation, the fourth and final life stage within the Hindu philosophy of four age-based life stages (ashramas), marked by renunciation of material desires and prejudices and disinterest and detachment from material life. An individual in sannyasa is known as sannyasi (male) or sannyasini (female).
• see also: ashrama (4 life stages)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ Saraha (Sanskrit: सरह, IAST: saraha; Tibetan: མདའ་བསྣུན་, danün; Wylie: mda' bsnun) = Saraha (c. 8th century CE), one of the 84 mahasiddhas; in Tibetan his name is translated as "archer" (he who has shot the arrow of nonduality into the heart of duality); in iconography he is depicted holding an arrow.
• see also: mahasiddha (great accomplished one)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ satparamita (Sanskrit: षट्पारमिता, IAST: ṣaṭ + pāramitā; Tibetan: ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ་དྲུག་, parol tu chinpa druk; Wylie: pha rol tu phyin pa drug; also shortened to: Tibetan: ཕར་ཕྱིན་དྲུག་, par chin druk; Wylie: phar phyin drug) = the 6 paramitas or 6 "transcendent perfections" that comprise the bodhisattva path: (1) generosity, (2) discipline, (3) patience, (4) diligence, (5) meditative concentration, (6) wisdom.
• see also: satparamita (6 paramitas): (1) dana (generosity), (2) shila (discipline), (3) kshanti (patience), (4) virya (diligence), (5) dhyana (meditative concentration), (6) prajña (wisdom).
• Buddhist terms: 6 paramitas: (1) generosity, (2) discipline, (3) patience, (4) diligence, (5) meditative concentration, (6) wisdom.

≫ sati (Pāli: सति, IAST: sati; Sanskrit: स्मृति, smriti, IAST: smṛti; Tibetan: དྲན་པ་, drenpa, Wylie: dran pa; Burmese: သတိ) = mindfulness, recollection, calling to mind, bearing in mind, remembrance, presence of mind, memory, awareness.
• other languages: drenpa (Tibetan), smriti (Sanskrit)
• see also: shamatha (calm abiding), vipassana (insight)
• external links: wikipedia (sati), wikipedia (smriti), wikipedia (mindfulness) / rigpawiki (mindfulness)

≫ selwa (Tibetan: གསལ་བ་, selwa; Wylie: gsal ba) = luminosity, radiance, clarity, vividness, cognizance.
• see also: selwé nyam (experience of clarity)

≫ selwé nyam (Tibetan: གསལ་བའི་ཉམས་, selwé nyam; Wylie: gsal ba'i nyams) = experience of clarity (e.g. as a meditation experience)
• see also (three experiences): dewé nyam (bliss), selwé nyam (clarity), mi tokpé nyam (nonconceptuality)
• external links: rigpawiki (three experiences of bliss, clarity and nonconceptuality)

≫ sem (Tibetan: སེམས་, sem; Wylie: sems; Sanskrit: चित्त, IAST: citta) = mind, 'cognitive act', thoughts, mentation, cognition, grasping mind; ordinary dualistic mind; the ordinary mind that comprises our ordinary perceptions, thoughts and emotions.
(other languages): chitta (Sanskrit)
• see also: semnyi (nature of mind)
• external links: rigpawiki

semngo (Tibetan: སེམས་ངོ་, semngo; Wylie: sems ngo; also Tibetan: སེམས་ཀྱི་ངོ་བོ་, semkyi ngowo; Wylie: sems kyi ngo bo) = nature of mind - see semnyi.
(other names): semnyi (nature of mind)

≫ semnyi (Tibetan: སེམས་ཉིད་, semnyi; Wylie: sems nyid; Sanskrit: चित्तता, IAST: cittatā) = nature of mind; mind-essence; defined in the tantras as the inseparable unity of awareness and emptiness (or clarity and emptiness), it is the basis for all the ordinary perceptions, thoughts and emotions of the ordinary dualistic mind (སེམས་, sem).
(other names): semngo (mind essence)
(other languages): chittata (Sanskrit)
• see also: Dzogchensem (mind, ordinary dualistic mind)
• external links: rigpawiki

≫ sernya (Tibetan: གསེར་ཉ་, sernya; Wylie: gser nya; Sanskrit: gaurmatsya from गौर + मत्स्य, IAST: gaura + matsya) = The Auspicious Golden Fishes, one of the 8 Auspicious Symbols. A pair of golden fish that symbolise fearlessness, freedom and liberation, as well as happiness, fertility and abundance.
• see also: Tashi Tagyé (8 Auspicious Symbols)

≫ shamatha (Sanskrit: शमथ, IAST: śamatha; Pāli: समथ, IAST: samatha; Tibetan: ཞི་གནས་, zhiné; Wylie: zhi gnas; Burmese: သမထ) = calm abiding, meditative equipoise, tranquility of the mind.
(other languages): samatha (Pāli), zhiné (Tibetan)
• see also: sati (mindfulness, recollection), vipassana (insight)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / study buddhism (Berzin)

≫ shastra (Sanskrit: शास्त्र, IAST: śāstra; Tibetan: བསྟན་བཅོས་, tenchö; Wylie: bstan bcos) = a treatise or commentary on the words of the Buddha.
• see also: sutra (discourse, words of the Buddha)
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

≫ shedra (Tibetan: བཤད་གྲྭ, Wylie: bshad grwa) = literally "place of teaching", refers specifically to the educational program in Tibetan Buddhist monasteries and nunneries. Many of the Tibetan shedras base their program on a set number of texts. In the Nyingma school, this has often meant the ‘thirteen great texts’ of India, together with their Tibetan commentaries. Together with the minor subjects such as grammar and history, the program may take twelve or thirteen years to complete
• see also: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ shédrip (Tibetan: ཤེས་སྒྲིབ་, shédrip; Wylie: shes sgrib; Sanskrit: jñeyāvaraṇa from ज्ञेय + आवरण, IAST: jñeya + āvaraṇa) = cognitive obscurations, obstructions to omniscience.
• see also: drip (obscuration)
• glossary: 2 obscurations = emotional obscurations (nyöndrip) & cognitive obscurations (shédrip)

≫ shekpa (Tibetan: གཤེགས་པ་, shekpa; Wylie: gshegs pa; Sanskrit: गत, IAST: gata) = to approach, proceed, depart, go away, dissolve into; DJKR "going and coming, together (i.e. at the same time)".
(other languages): gata (Sanskrit)
• see also: dézhin shekpa (tathagata)

sherab (Tibetan: ཤེས་རབ་, shérap; Wylie: shes rab) = prajña, transcendent knowledge - see prajña.
(other languages): prajña (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ shila (Sanskrit: शील, IAST: śīla, Pāli: सील, IAST: sīla; Tibetan: ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་, tsultrim; Wylie: tshul khrims, literally "acting appropriately") = virtue, discipline, moral conduct, moral discipline, morality, ethical conduct.
• see also: satparamita (6 paramitas): (1) dana (generosity), (2) shila (discipline), (3) kshanti (patience), (4) virya (diligence), (5) dhyana (meditative concentration), (6) prajña (wisdom); trishiksha (3-fold training) = discipline (shila), meditation (samadhi) & wisdom (prajña)
• Buddhist terms: 6 paramitas: (1) generosity, (2) discipline, (3) patience, (4) diligence, (5) meditative concentration, (6) wisdom.
• external links: wikipedia (Buddhist ethics), rigpawiki (discipline)

shiné (Tibetan) = redirects to zhiné (Tibetan)

≫ shloka (Sanskrit: श्लोक, IAST: śloka; Tibetan (1): ཚིག་བཅད་, tsikché; Wylie: tshig bcad; Tibetan (2): ཚིགས་བཅད་, Wylie: tshigs bcad) = stanza, verse.
(other languages): tsikché (Tibetan)

≫ shravaka (Sanskrit: श्रावक, IAST: śrāvaka; Pāli: सावक, IAST: sāvaka; literally "hearing, listening"; Burmese: သာဝက; Tibetan: ཉན་ཐོས་, nyentö; Wylie: nyan thos) = disciple of the Buddha; hearer or listener of the teachings; "one who hears and proclaims"; follower of the Shravakayana (basic vehicle) who strives to attain the level of an arhat.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ Shravakayana (Sanskrit: श्रावकयान, IAST: śrāvaka + yāna; Tibetan: ཉན་ཐོས་ཀྱི་ཐེག་པ་, nyentö kyi tekpa; Wylie: snyan thos kyi theg pa) = "the vehicle of the shravakas (listeners)", one of the three yanas known to Indian Buddhism (along with the Pratyekabuddhayana and Mahayana). The Shravakayana path leads to the goals of an arhat, an individual who achieves liberation as a result of listening to the teachings (or lineage) of a Samyaksambuddha (i.e. fully enlightened Buddha, such as Shakyamuni Buddha). The Theravada is the only surviving school of Buddhism based on the Shravakayana. Some Mahayana texts refer to the Shravakayana vehicle as the "Hinayana" (or "lesser vehicle" in contrast to the later Mahayana as the "great vehicle"), a pejorative term also in the past widely used by Western scholars. In 1950 the World Fellowship of Buddhists declared that the term "Hinayana" should not be used when referring to any form of Buddhism existing today, and modern Buddhist scholarship uses the term "Nikaya Buddhism" to refer to early Buddhist schools. Some contemporary Buddhist teachers (including DJKR) prefer to use the term "Shravakayana"; DJKR: "Hinayana is a Mahayana chauvinist term, so we don’t want to use this term”.
• see also: Hinayana (the lesser vehicle); Mahayana (the great vehicle); shravaka ("hearer", disciple of the Buddha); Theravada (the school of the elders); yana (vehicle or method)
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

≫ shunyata (Sanskrit: शून्यता, IAST: śūnyatā; Pāli: सुञ्ञता, IAST: suññatā; Tibetan: སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་, tongpa nyi; Wylie: stong pa nyid; Burmese: သုည-တာ) = emptiness; lack of true existence; illusory nature (of all worldly phenomena); the ultimate nature of phenomena, namely their lack of inherent existence.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ Siddhartha (Sanskrit: सिद्धार्थ, IAST: Siddhārtha; Pāli: सिद्धत्थ, IAST: Siddhattha; Tibetan: དོན་གྲུབ་, döndrub, Wylie: don grub) = Siddhartha (literally "one who has accomplished his aim"), the Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE).
• see also: Siddhartha Gautama
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

Siddhartha Gautama (Sanskrit: सिद्धार्थ + गौतम, IAST: Siddhārtha + Gautama; Pāli: सिद्धत्थ + गोतम, IAST: Siddhattha + Gotama) = see Siddhartha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)
• see also: Gautama (Sanskrit), Gotama (Pāli)

≫ siddhi (Sanskrit: सिद्धि, IAST: siddhi; Tibetan: དངོས་གྲུབ་, ngödrup; Wylie: dngos grub; also: བསྒྲུབ་, drup; Wylie: bsgrub) = accomplishment, complete attainment, success, performance, fulfilment, magical power; there are eight 'common' siddhis said to be developed by the practice of yoga. Among these are clairvoyance, clairaudiance, the ability to fly through the air, the ability to read thoughts, and control of the body and external world, enabling one to transform both at will. The supreme siddhi is enlightenment.
• see also: mahasiddha (great accomplished one)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ skandha (Sanskrit: स्कन्ध, IAST: skandha; Pāli: खन्ध, IAST: khandha; Tibetan: ཕུང་པོ་, pungpo; Wylie: phung po) = one of the 5 aggregates, the 5 constituent elements of being; psycho-physical constituents: (1) रूप (rūpa) form (or matter), (2) वेदना (vedanā) sensation (or feeling), (3) संज्ञा (saṃjñā) perception, (4) संस्कार (saṃskāra) mental formations, (5) विज्ञान (vijñāna) consciousness.
• see also: samskara (mental formations)
• external links: wikipedia (5 skandhas)

sloka (Sanskrit) = redirects to shloka (Sanskrit)

smriti (Sanskrit: स्मृति, IAST: smṛti) = mindfulness, recollection, calling to mind, bearing in mind, remembrance, presence of mind, memory, awareness - see sati.
(other languages): sati (Pāli ≫ main entry)

sönam (Tibetan: བསོད་ནམས་, sönam; Wylie: bsod nams) = merit - see punya.
(other languages): punya (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ stupa (Sanskrit: स्तूप, IAST: stūpa; Tibetan: མཆོད་རྟེན་, chörten; Wylie: mchod rten) = stupa.
(other languages): chörten (Tibetan)

≫ sugata (Sanskrit: सुगत, IAST: sugata) = going well, gone well, "one who has gone blissfully" (syn. the Buddha).
• see also: Buddha

≫ Sujata (Sanskrit: सुजाता, IAST: sujātā) = a milkmaid, who is said to have fed Gautama Buddha milk and rice, ending his six years of ascetism.
• external links: wikipedia

≫ sukha (Sanskrit: सुख, IAST: sukha; Tibetan: བདེ་བ་, dewa; Wylie: bde ba) = pleasure, bliss, happiness.
(other languages): dewa (Tibetan)
• see also: Sukhavati (the pure land of Amitabha)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ Sukhavati (Sanskrit: सुखावती, IAST: sukhāvatī; Tibetan: བདེ་བ་ཅན་, Dewachen; Wylie: bde ba can, literally: "Blissful [Land]") = Sukhavati, or the Western Paradise, refers to the western pure land of Amitabha in Mahayana Buddhism. The Sanskrit word sukhāvatī is the feminine form of sukhāvat ("full of joy; blissful").
• see also: Amitabha (buddha), sukha (pleasure, bliss)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ sutra (Sanskrit: सूत्र, IAST: sūtra also सूत्रम्, IAST: sūtram; Pāli: सुत्त, IAST: sutta; literally "string, thread"; Tibetan: མདོ་, do, Wylie: mdo) = discourse; canonical Buddhist scriptures, many of which are regarded as records of the oral teachings of Gautama Buddha. They were initially passed on orally by monks, then later written down and composed as manuscripts in various Indo-Aryan languages which were then translated into other local languages as Buddhism spread.
• see also: shastra (treatise or commentary on the words of the Buddha)
• external links: wikipedia (sutra), wikipedia (Buddhist texts) / rigpawiki (sutra)

≫ svasamvedana (Sanskrit: स्वसंवेदन, IAST: svasaṃvedana; Tibetan: རང་རིག་, rang rik; Wylie: rang rig) = self-cognition, self-cognisance, self-awareness.
(other languages): rangrik (Tibetan)
• see also (4 kinds of direct perception): (1) indriyapratyaksha (sense perception), (2) manasapratyaksha (mental perception), (3) svasamvedana (self-cognition), (4) yogipratyaksha (yogic direct perception)


T

≫ ta gom chöpa (Tibetan: ལྟ་སྒོམ་སྤྱོད་; Wylie: lta sgom spyod pa) = view, meditation and action (also translated as "view, meditation and conduct") [note: here "meditation" is bhavana = development, training, cultivation, practice]
• see also: chöpa (action, conduct), gompa (meditation, development, training), tawa (view)
• external links: rigpawiki

≫ taigi (Japanese: 大疑, taigi) = "great darkness" or "great doubt", an aim of koan (gong'an) study and practice in Zen (Chan). There is a well-known saying in Zen that "Great awakening (大悟, taigo) is only possible amid great doubt (大疑, taigi)”. (Also: "Great doubt, great awakening; no doubt, no awakening").
• see also: bodhi (enlightenment, awakening), koan (story or question used in Zen study and practice)
• external links: buddhism.org

≫ tajitu (simplified Chinese: 太极图; traditional Chinese: 太極圖; pinyin: tàijítú) = circular black and white symbol used to depict the concept of the "supreme ultimate" (太极, taiji) in Taoism, representing both its dualist (陰陽, yin-yang) and monist (无极, wuji) aspects.
• see also: nyidzin (dualism), yin-yang (literally "dark-bright", "negative-positive", a concept of dualism in Taoism)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ takta (Tibetan: རྟག་ལྟ་, tak ta; Wylie: rtag lta; also (long version): Tibetan: རྟག་པའི་ལྟ་བ་, takpé tawa; Wylie: rtag pa'i lta ba; Sanskrit: शाश्वतदृष्टि, IAST: śāśvata-dṛṣṭi; Pāli: सस्सतवाद, IAST: sassatavāda) = eternalism, view of permanence. The belief that there is a permanent and causeless creator of everything; in particular, that one's identity or consciousness has a concrete essence which is independent, everlasting and singular.
• see also: tanyi (2 extremes) = (1) takta (eternalism), (2) chéta (nihilism); tawa (view)
• Buddhist terms: eternalism, nihilism, view
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki

≫ tamel gyi shepa (Tibetan: ཐ་མལ་གྱི་ཤེས་པ་, tamel gyi shepa; Wylie: tha mal gyi shes pa) = ordinary mind.

≫ tantra (Sanskrit: तन्त्र, IAST: tantra; Tibetan: རྒྱུད་, gyü; Wylie: rgyud) = continuity, continuum; tantra is classified into the three aspects of (1) ground/nature, (2) path/method and (3) result.
(other languages): gyü (Tibetan)

≫ tanyi (Tibetan: མཐའ་གཉིས་, ta nyi, Wylie: mtha' gnyis) = the two extremes or two sides; usually refers to the two extremes of eternalism and nihilism, but may also refer to being and non-being, or subject and object.
see also: tanyi (2 extremes) = (1) takta (eternalism), (2) chéta (nihilism); tawa (view)

tarpa (Tibetan: ཐར་པ་, tarpa; Wylie: thar pa; Sanskrit: मोक्ष, IAST: mokṣa) = enlightenment, nirvana, liberation, release - see nirvana.
(other languages): nirvana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ tashi (Tibetan: བཀྲ་ཤིས་, trashi; Wylie: bkra shis) = auspicious, favourable, good fortune, good luck.

≫ Tashi Tagyé (Tibetan: བཀྲ་ཤིས་རྟགས་བརྒྱད་, trashi takgyé; Wylie: bkra shis rtags brgyad; Sanskrit: अष्टमङ्गल, IAST: aṣṭamaṅgala) = The Eight Auspicious Symbols.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpa wiki

≫ Tashi Tsekpa (Tibetan: བཀྲ་ཤིས་བརྩེགས་པ་, trashi tsekpa; Wylie: bkra shis brtsegs pa) = "Heap of Goodness", a dharani from the Collection of Dharanis (Tibetan: གཟུངས་འདུས་, zungdü; Wylie: gzungs 'dus). Also known as "The Noble Stack of Auspiciousness".
• see also: dharani (chant, incantation, recitation)
• external links: FPMT (translation by Gavin Kilty)

≫ tatha (Sanskrit: तथा, IAST: tathā; Tibetan: དེ་བཞིན་, dézhin; Wylie: de bzhin) = that itself, like that, in that manner, so, thus; DJKR: "whatever it is", "as it is", "what is", "here and now".
(other languages): dézhin (Tibetan)
• see also: tathata (suchness, thusness), tathagata ("thus come / thus gone", syn. the Buddha)

≫ tathata (Sanskrit: तथाता, IAST: tathātā; Tibetan: དེ་བཞིན་ཉིད་, dézhin nyi; Wylie: de bzhin nyid) = suchness, thusness, as it is, reality, state of being just as it is; true nature, true state of things.

≫ tathagata (Sanskrit: तथागत, IAST: tathāgata; Tibetan: དེ་བཞིན་གཤེགས་པ་, dézhin shekpa; Wylie: de bzhin gshegs pa) = thus gone, thus come, intrinsically inhering buddhahood, tathagata (syn. the Buddha); DJKR: "one who has gone beyond samsara and nirvana", "authentic presence", "authenticity".
(other languages): dézhin shekpa (Tibetan)
• see also: buddha

tathagatagarbha (Sanskrit: तथागतगर्भ, IAST: tathāgatagarbha; Tibetan: དེ་བཞིན་གཤེགས་པའི་སྙིང་པོ་, dézhin shekpé nyingpo; Wylie: de bzhin gshegs pa'i snying po) = buddhanature.

tawa (Tibetan: ལྟ་བ་, tawa; Wylie: lta ba) = view, orientation, perspective, belief - see drishti.
(other languages): drishti (Sanskrit main entry)
• see also: tanyi (2 extremes) = (1) takta (eternalism), (2) chéta (nihilism); tawa (view); ta gom chöpa (view, meditation & action)
• Buddhist terms: eternalism, nihilism, view

≫ tertön (Tibetan: གཏེར་སྟོན་, ter tön; Wylie: gter ston) = treasure-revealer; a discoverer of ancient hidden texts or spiritual treasures (terma) said to have been hidden mainly by Guru Rinpoche (Padmasambhava) and Yeshe Tsogyal for the benefit of future generations. Many tertöns are considered to be incarnations of the 25 main disciples of Guru Rinpoche.
• see also: Padmasambhava
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki (tertön) / rigpawiki (25 disciples of Guru Rinpoche)

tétsom (Tibetan: ཐེ་ཚོམ་, té tsom; Wylie: the tshom) = doubt, suspicion, indecision, hesitation - see vicikitsa.
(other languages): vicikitsa (Sanskrit main entry)
• see also: klesha (afflictive/disturbing emotions, negative emotions); mulaklesha (six root disturbing emotions): raga (राग, desire), pratigha (प्रतिघ, anger), avidya (अविद्या, ignorance), mana (मान, pride), vicikitsa (विचिकित्सा, doubt), drishti (दृष्टि, view); nyöndrip (emotional obscurations)
• see also (six root disturbing emotions): raga (desire), pratigha (anger), mana (pride), vicikitsa (doubt)

≫ thab ké (Tibetan: ཐབས་མཁས་, thab ké; Wylie: thabs mkhas; Sanskrit: उपायकौशल्य, IAST: upāyakauśalya, from उपाय + कुशल, IAST: upāya + kuśala) = skilful means, skill in means, excellence in means, resourceful, expedient.
• see also: upaya (means, approach)

≫ Theravada (Pāli: थेरवाद, IAST: theravāda; Burmese: ေထရဝါဒ) = "the school of the elders", the most commonly accepted name of Buddhism's oldest extant school. The word "thero" (commonly appearing in the masculine and feminine forms thera and therī respectively) is an honorific term in Pali for senior bhikkhus and bhikkhunis (Buddhist monks and nuns) in the Buddhist monastic order.
• see also: bhikshu (Buddhist monk); bhikshuni (Buddhist nun); Hinayana (the lesser vehicle); Mahayana (the great vehicle); Shravakayana (the vehicle of the shravakas); yana (vehicle or method)
• external links: wikipedia (Theravada), wikipedia (thero) / Access to Insight (What is Theravada Buddhism?)

≫ thün (Tibetan: ཐུན་, Wylie: thun) = session, period; meditation session, practice session.
• see also: dathün (month-long meditation session)

tingédzin (Tibetan: ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་, tingédzin or ting nge dzin; Wylie: ting nge 'dzin) = meditative concentration, stabilization, absorption - see samadhi.
(other languages): samadhi (Sanskrit main entry)

≫ tokmé (Tibetan: རྟོག་མེད་, tokmé; Wylie: rtog med) = nonconceptuality, nonconceptual, nonthought, free from conceptual thinking.
• see also: mi tokpa (nonconceptuality)
• external links: rigpawiki

≫ tong (Tibetan: མཐོང་, tong; Wylie: mthong) = seeing, noticing, experiencing; DJKR: "realising", "awakened with".

≫ trang (Tibetan: འཕྲང་, trang; Wylie: 'phrang) = narrow dangerous path (on a cliff or in a ravine); narrow defile; perilous journey; ambush.
• see also: gompé trang (the ravine of meditation)

trashi (Tibetan) = redirects to tashi (Tibetan)

≫ trikaya (Sanskrit: त्रिकाय, IAST: trikāya; Tibetan: སྐུ་གསུམ, ku sum; Wylie: sku gsum) = three kayas; having three bodies; in Mahayana Buddhism, refers to the three bodies or three aspects of a buddha (nirmanakaya, sambhogakaya and dharmakaya).
• see also: dharmakaya ("truth body"); kaya (body, dimension); nirmanakaya ("body of manifestations"); rupakaya (form body); sambhogakaya ("body of enjoyment")
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ trilakshana (Sanskrit: त्रिलक्षण, IAST: trilakṣaṇa = tri + lakṣaṇa; Pāli: तिलक्खण, IAST: tilakkhaṇa; Japanese: 三法印, sanbōin) = the three marks of existence: anicca (impermanence), dukkha (unsatisfactoriness) and anatta (non-self).
• see also (3 marks of existence): (1) anicca (impermanence), (2) dukkha (unsatisfactoriness) (3) anatta (nonself).
• glossary: 3 marks of existence
• external links: wikipedia

≫ trishiksha (Sanskrit: त्रिशिक्षा, IAST: triśikṣā = tri + śikṣā; Pāli: तिसिक्खा, IAST: tisikkhā; also known simply as Sanskrit: शिक्षा, IAST: śikṣā or Pali: सिक्खा, IAST: sikkhā) = the 3-fold training in higher virtue, higher mind and higher wisdom (part of the Theravada canonical teachings from the Pali Canon). Pursuing this training leads to the abandonment of the three poisons (passion, aggression and ignorance or lust, hatred, and delusion). One who is fully accomplished in this training attains nirvana. The threefold training is also part of the bodhisattva training in the Mahayana (e.g. as mentioned by Nagarjuna in his Letter to a Friend, verse 53).
• Buddhist terms: 3-fold training
• external links: wikipedia

≫ trülpa (Tibetan: སྤྲུལ་པ་, trülpa; Wylie: sprul pa) = magical appearance, magically created appearance, apparition, emanation, manifestation, incarnation
• see also: trülku (emanation body)

trülku (Tibetan) = redirects to tulku (Tibetan)

≫ tshechu (Dzongkha: ཚེས་བཅུ་, tséchu; Wylie: tshes bcu; literally "day ten") = annual religious Bhutanese festivals held in each district or dzongkhag of Bhutan on the tenth day of a month of the lunar Tibetan calendar.
• external links: wikipedia

tsikché (Tibetan (1): ཚིག་བཅད་, tsikché; Wylie: tshig bcad; Tibetan (2): ཚིགས་བཅད་, Wylie: tshigs bcad) = stanza, verse - see shloka.
(other languages): shloka (Sanskrit main entry)

≫ tsimpa (Tibetan: ཚིམ་པ་, tsimpa; Wylie: tshim pa) = satisfied, content, contented.
• see also : mi tsimpa (unsatisfied, not content)

≫ tulku (Tibetan: སྤྲུལ་སྐུ་, trülku; Wylie: sprul sku) = manifested body, emanation body, form body, nirmanakaya, incarnate lama
• see also: nirmanakaya (form body), trülpa (magical appearance)


U

≫ upaya (Sanskrit: उपाय, IAST: upāya) = means, approach, device, craft.
• see also: thab ké (skilful means)

≫ upekkha (Pāli: उपेक्खाा, IAST: upekkhā; Sanskrit: उपेक्षा, IAST: upekṣā; Tibetan: བཏང་སྙོམས་, tangnyom; Wylie: btang snyoms) = equanimity, one of the four sublime states (brahmavihara). (The Sanskrit has a semantic range more oriented towards overlooking, disregard, negligence, indifference, contempt, abandonment).
• see also: 4 brahmaviharas (4 sublime attitudes; 4 immeasurables): (1) metta (मेत्ता, loving-kindness), (2) karuna (करुणा, compassion), (3) mudita (मुदिता, sympathetic joy), (4) upekkha (उपेक्खाा, equanimity)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ ushnisha (Sanskrit: उष्णीष, IAST: uṣṇīṣa also uṣṇīṣaḥ) = the protuberance on the head of a buddha, one of the 32 major marks of the Buddha (the Sanskrit word also means anything wound round the head, hence also turban, diadem, crown). Later definitions of the 32 major marks elaborate that the ushnisha is covered with hairs that curl in the direction of the sun, and later still the ushnisha includes a flame that ascends from the middle of the protuberance.
• external links: wikipedia


V

≫ Vesak (Pāli: वेसाख, IAST: vesākha; Sanskrit: वैशाख, vaishaka; IAST: vaiśākha) = a holiday traditionally observed by Buddhists and some Hindus in South and Southeast Asia as well as Tibet and Mongolia. Also known as Buddha Jayanti, Buddha Purnima and Buddha Day, the festival commemorates the birth, enlightenment and parinirvana of Gautama Buddha in Theravada and Tibetan Buddhism.
• external links: wikipedia

≫ vi- (Sanskrit: वि; IAST: vi; Pāli: वि, IAST: vi; Burmese: ဝိ) = a prefix with multiple meanings, including: (1) it may give a meaning opposite to the idea contained in the simple root (e.g. krī-,"to buy"; vi-krī-,"to sell"); (2) it may intensify that idea (e.g. hiṃs-,"to injure"; vi-hiṃs-,"to injure severely"), hence "greater", "special", etc.; (3) it may connote expansion or spreading out. Added as a prefix to "passana" (seeing), it forms the word "vipassana" (special seeing, insight); DJKR: "special".
(other languages): lhak (Tibetan)
• see also: vipassana (special seeing)

vicikitsa (Sanskrit: विचिकित्सा, IAST: vicikitsā; Tibetan: ཐེ་ཚོམ་, té tsom; Wylie: the tshom) = doubt; fifth of the 6 destructive emotions (mulaklesha).
(other languages): tétsom (Tibetan)
• see also: klesha (afflictive/destructive/disturbing/negative emotions); mulaklesha (6 destructive emotions): (1) raga (desire), (2) pratigha (anger), (3) avidya (ignorance), (4) mana (pride), (5) vicikitsa (doubt), (6) drishti (view); nyöndrip (emotional obscurations)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ vihara (Sanskrit: विहार, IAST: vihāra, literally: "a place of recreation, pleasure ground") = monastery, temple, or convent; in early Sanskrit and Pali texts, it meant any arrangement of space or facilities for pleasure and entertainment. The term evolved into an architectural concept referring to living quarters for monks with an open shared space or courtyard. It also refers to temporary refuges for wandering monks or nuns during the annual Indian monsoons.
• see also: Jetavana (Jeta's Grove, a vihara); Mrigadava (Deer Park, a vihara)
• external links: wikipediawisdom library

≫ Vikramashila (Sanskrit: विक्रमशिला, IAST: vikramaśilā) = one of the two most important centers of learning in India during the Pala Empire, along with Nalanda. Vikramashila was established (in the 8th century CE) by the Pala emperor Dharmapala (783 to 820) in response to a supposed decline in the quality of scholarship at Nalanda. Atisha, the renowned pandita, is sometimes listed as a notable abbot. Vikramashila was also a centre for Vajrayana, and its Tantric preceptors included Jayabhadra, a monk from Sri Lanka, who was the first prominent commentator on the Chakrasamvara tantra (in the 9th century CE).
• see also: Dharmapala (emperor)
• external links: wikipedia

vipashyana (Sanskrit: विपश्यन, IAST: vipaśyana) = vipassana.
(other languages): vipassana (Pāli ≫ main entry)

≫ vipassana (Pāli: विपस्सना, IAST: vipassanā; Tibetan: ལྷག་མཐོང་, lhaktong; Wylie: lhag mthong; Sanskrit: विपश्यन, IAST: vipaśyanā) = special seeing, special insight, insight, greater seeing, clear seeing, vipassana.
(other languages): lhaktong (Tibetan), vipashyana (Sanskrit)
• see also: lhak (special), shamatha (calm abiding), sati (mindfulness, recollection), tong (seeing, noticing), vi- (special)

≫ virya (Sanskrit: वीर्य, IAST: vīrya; Pali: विरिय, IAST: viriya; Tibetan: བརྩོན་འགྲུས་, tsöndrü; Wylie: brtson 'grus) = energy, diligence, enthusiasm, effort, exertion, vigor, strength; the fourth of the 6 paramitas.
• see also: satparamita (6 paramitas): (1) dana (generosity), (2) shila (discipline), (3) kshanti (patience), (4) virya (diligence), (5) dhyana (meditative concentration), (6) prajña (wisdom).
• Buddhist terms: 6 paramitas: (1) generosity, (2) discipline, (3) patience, (4) diligence, (5) meditative concentration, (6) wisdom.
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki


W

≫ wabi-sabi (Japanese: 侘寂) = a world view centered on the acceptance of transience and imperfection in traditional Japanese aesthetics. It is derived from the Buddhist teaching on the 3 marks of existence (三法印, sanbōin).
• see also: trilakshana (3 marks of existence): (1) anicca (impermanence), (2) dukkha (unsatisfactoriness) (3) anatta (nonself).
• glossary: 3 marks of existence
• external links: wikipedia

wadipa (Dzongkha: ཝ་དི་པ་) = cowherd - see nakdzi.
(other languages): nakdzi (Tibetan ≫ main entry)

wang (Tibetan: དབང་, wang; Wylie: dbang) = initiation, empowerment - see abhisheka.
(other languages): abhisheka (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ wangpo nönpo (Tibetan: དབང་པོ་རྣོན་པོ་; Wylie: dbang po rnon po; Sanskrit: तीक्ष्णेन्द्रिय, tīkṣṇendriya; IAST: tīkṣṇaindriya) = sharp faculties, keen faculties; sharp minded, intelligent, perceptive; as in "superior disciples of keen faculties" or "superior faculties" (as contrasted with inferior disciples with relatively dull faculties, wangpo tülpo)
• see also: wangpo tülpo (dull faculties)

≫ wangpo tülpo (Tibetan: དབང་པོ་རྟུལ་པོ་; Wylie: dbang po rtul po; Sanskrit: मृद्विन्द्रिय, mṛdv-indriya; IAST: mṛdv + indriya) = dull faculties; insensitive; as in "inferior disciples of dull faculties" or "inferior faculties" (as contrasted with superior disciples with relatively sharp faculties, wangpo nönpo)
• see also: wangpo nönpo (sharp faculties)


Y

≫ yana (Sanskrit and Pāli: यान, IAST: yāna; Tibetan: ཐེག་པ་, tekpa; Wylie: theg pa) = vehicle or method; "that which carries"; a mode or method of spiritual practice in Buddhism, and in particular to divisions of various schools of Buddhism according to their type of practice.
• see also: Hinayana (the lesser vehicle), Mahayana (the great vehicle), Shravakayana (the vehicle of the shravakas), Theravada (the school of the elders)
• external links: wikipediarigpawiki (nine yanas in the Nyingma tradition)

yeshe (Tibetan: ཡེ་ཤེས་, yéshé; Wylie: ye shes) = wisdom, primordial wisdom - see jñana.
• other languages: jñana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ yin-yang (Chinese: 陰陽, pinyin: yīnyáng, literally "dark-bright", "negative-positive") = a concept of dualism in Taoist philosophy that describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another. It is often depicted using the tajitu, a circular black and white symbol or diagram.
• see also: nyidzin (dualism), tajitu (circular black and white symbol used to depict yin-yang)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ yoga (Sanskrit: योग, IAST: yoga also yogaḥ; Tibetan: རྣལ་འབྱོར་, naljor / nenjor; Wylie: rnal 'byor) = joining, uniting, union (in tantra: "union in fundamental reality"); attaching, harnessing (of horses); application or concentration of the thoughts, abstract contemplation, meditation.
• see also: yogi (practitioner of yoga)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ yogi (Sanskrit: योगि, IAST: yogi; also: योगिन्, IAST: yogin; Tibetan: རྣལ་འབྱོར་པ་, naljorpa / nenjorpa; Wylie: rnal 'byor pa) = a contemplative, devotee or ascetic; practitioner of yoga; endowed with, possession. A female practitioner of yoga is called a yogini.
• see also: yoga (joining, uniting)
• external links: wikipedia

yogin (Sanskrit) redirects to yogi (Sanskrit)

≫ yogipratyaksha (Sanskrit: योगिप्रत्यक्ष, yogipratyaksha; IAST: yogipratyakṣa; Tibetan: རྣལ་འབྱོར་མངོན་སུམ་, naljor ngönsum / nenjor ngönsum; Wylie: rnal 'byor mngon sum) = yogic direct perception.
(other languages): naljor ngönsum (Tibetan)
• see also (4 kinds of direct perception): (1) indriyapratyaksha (sense perception), (2) manasapratyaksha (mental perception), (3) svasamvedana (self-cognition), (4) yogipratyaksha (yogic direct perception)
• see also: yogi (practitioner of yoga)


Z

≫ zafu (Japanese: 座蒲, pronounced [d͡zaɸɯ]) = round meditation cushion, best known for its use in zazen Zen meditation.

zen (Japanese: 禅, zen) = meditative concentration, meditation, concentration - see dhyana.
(other languages): dhyana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry);  jhana (Pāli), samten (Tibetan)

≫ zhak (Tibetan: བཞག་, Wylie: bzhag) = put, place, stay, remain, leave behind, leave alone; DJKR: zhak has the connotation of "leave it”, “leave it alone”, “just leave it as it is”.
• see also: nyamzhak (meditative equipoise)

≫ zheljé (Tibetan: ཞལ་འབྱེད་; Wylie: zhal ‘byed) = open, unveil, inaugurate.

zhiné (Tibetan: ཞི་གནས་, zhiné; Wylie: zhi gnas) = shamatha, calm abiding - see shamatha.
(other languages): shamatha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ zungjuk (Tibetan: ཟུང་འཇུག་, zun juk; Wylie: zung 'jug; Sanskrit: yuganaddha = युग + नद्ध, IAST: yuga + naddha) = union, indivisibility, primordial unity that resolves dualities.


Sources:

Note on capitalisation:

Capitalisation is used for proper names and names of schools (e.g. Mahayana) or religions (e.g. Buddhism), and also for followers of a religion (e.g. Buddhist). The historical Buddha is capitalised, also when he is referred to by other names such as Tathagata. The word buddha is in lower case when used to refer to buddhas or enlightened beings in general. 


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Page last updated May 17, 2020