Buddha by Tara di Gesu (square)

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This page gives the Tibetan, Sanskrit or Pali translations for some common Buddhist terms that appear on this website. It has links to the corresponding Tibetan, Sanskrit or Pali terms on the "Tibetan + Sanskrit" page, where additional references and translations into other languages are available. Please note that full diacritics are not generally used for Sanskrit and Pali words on this website; if you would like to find them, they are included for the entries on the "Tibetan + Sanskrit" page.

Many English translations of Buddhist terms do not correspond exactly to their meaning in the source languages. Links to English dictionary definitions are provided to aid with etymological comparison, and links to explanations of Buddhist terms are included where appropriate. Where the same English word is used to translate multiple different Tibetan, Sanskrit or Pali words, this is indicated by "[translation of multiple words]".

Links in blue are to other topics on this page; links in orange are to entries on the "Tibetan + Sanskrit" page; links in dark blue are to external references. Where multiple different English words are used as alternative translations for a particular word from the Tibetan, Sanskrit or Pali, the main entry is indicated by "≫".

[page under construction July 2020]


#

≫ 2 chariots: see uma shing tanyi (Tibetan: དབུ་མ་ཤིང་རྟ་གཉིས་) = "the two chariots of Madhyamaka", the traditions of Nagarjuna and Asanga.

≫ 2 extremes: see tanyi (Tibetan: མཐའ་གཉིས་) = the two extreme views, usually refers to eternalism and nihilism
• see also: 2 extremes: (1) eternalism, (2) nihilismview

≫ 2 obscurations: (1) emotional obscurations: see nyöndrip (Tibetan: ཉོན་སྒྲིབ་) and (2) cognitive obscurations: see shédrip (Tibetan: ཤེས་སྒྲིབ་)

≫ 2 truths: see denpa nyi (Tibetan: བདེན་པ་གཉིས་) = the two aspects of all phenomena: (1) the way things exist inherently (ultimate truth or absolute truth), (2) the way they appear (relative truth).
• see also: 4 noble truths, truth
• external links: dictionary definition of "truth": Google; meaning of 2 truths in Buddhism: wikipediarigpawiki

≫ 3 experiences: see nyamlen (Tibetan: ཉམས་གསུམ་) = the three meditation experiences (or "moods") of (1) bliss, (2) clarity, (3) nonconceptuality.
• external links: dictionary definition of "experience": Google; meaning of 3 experiences in Buddhism: rigpawiki / Karma Chagme (from "Naked Awareness")

≫ 3-fold training: see trishiksha (Sanskrit: त्रिशिक्षा), lap pa sum (Tibetan: བསླབ་པ་གསུམ་) = the threefold training (also "the three higher trainings") in (1) higher discipline (or virtue), (2) higher meditation [here "meditation" is samadhi], and (3) higher wisdom [note: here "wisdom" is prajña] (the trainings are called "higher" because they lead to liberation). One of the canonical Theravada teachings from the Pali Canon.
• see also: 8-fold noble path (the eight practices of the Noble Eightfold Path may be summarized in terms of the 3-fold training)
• external links: dictionary definition of "training": Google; meaning of 3-fold training in Buddhism: wikipedia

≫ 3 marks of existence: see trilakshana (Sanskrit: त्रिलक्षण), chak gya sum (Tibetan: ཕྱག་རྒྱ་གསུམ་) = the three marks of existence, characteristics that are common to all phenomena: (1) impermanence, (2) unsatisfactoriness, (3) nonself. The 3 marks of existence are taught as the foundation of right view in all Buddhist traditions. In later Mahayana Buddhist teachings, they were expanded into the 4 seals.
• see also: 4 seals; impermanence; unsatisfactoriness; nonself.
• external links: (dictionary definition of "mark": Google; meaning of 3 marks of existence in Buddhism: wikipedia

≫ 3 poisons: see trivisha (Sanskrit: त्रिविष), dug sum (Tibetan: དུག་གསུམ་) = the three root afflictions that keep sentient beings trapped in samsara. They are: (1) ignorance or delusion [note: here the Pāli word is moha], (2) greed or attachment [note: here the Pāli word is lobha], (3) hatred or aversion [note: here the Pāli word is dosa]. The three poisons are symbolically drawn at the center of Buddhist depictions of the "Wheel of Life" (Bhavachakra), with pig, rooster and snake representing ignorance, attachment and aversion respectively.
• see also: 6 destructive emotions
• external links: dictionary definitions of "affliction": Google, "poison": Google; meaning of 3 poisons in Buddhism: wikipedia

≫ 4 immeasurables: see brahmavihara (Pāli & Sanskrit: ब्रह्मविहार), tsémé shyi (Tibetan: ཚད་མེད་བཞི་) = the four sublime attitudes that comprise aspiration bodhichitta: (1) loving-kindness, (2) compassion [here "compassion" is karuna], (3) sympathetic joy, (4) equanimity.
• external links: dictionary definition of "immeasurable": Google; meaning of 4 immeasurables in Buddhism: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ 4 noble truths: see cattari ariyasaccani (Pāli: चत्तारि अरियसच्चानि), pakpé denpa shyi (Tibetan: འཕགས་པའི་བདེན་པ་བཞི་) = the four truths of the Noble Ones (aryas): (1) suffering, (2) the origin of suffering, (3) the cessation of suffering, (4) the path which brings the cessation of suffering (the path has eight practices, and is known as the eightfold noble path). The teaching on the four noble truths is traditionally considered to be the first teaching given by the Buddha, given at the Deer Park at Sarnath.
• see also: 2 truths8-fold noble path (the Noble Eightfold Path corresponds to the fourth noble truth); Deer Parktruth
• external links: dictionary definition of "truth": Google; meaning of 4 noble truths in Buddhism: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ 4 pilgrimage places: see catusamvejaniyathana (Pali: चतुसंवेजनीयठान) = the 4 principal Buddhist pilgrimage sites in India described by the Buddha in the Theravada Mahaparinibbana Sutta: (1) Lumbini (Nepal): birthplace of the Buddha; (2) Bodh Gaya (Bihar, India): where Prince Siddhartha attained enlightenment (under the bodhi tree at the Mahabodhi Temple); (3) Sarnath (also known as Isipathana, Uttar Pradesh, India): where Buddha gave his first teaching at Deer Park; (4) Kushinagara (now Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India): where Buddha died and attained parinirvana.
• see also: Deer Park
• external links: dictionary definition of "pilgrimage": GoogleBuddhist pilgrimage sites: wikipedia

≫ 4 seals: see chökyi domzhi (Tibetan: ཆོས་ཀྱི་སྡོམ་བཞི་) = the four seals that mark a doctrine as Buddhist, a Mahayana Buddhist elaboration of the 3 marks of existence; the principal subject of Dzongsar Khyentse Rinpoche's first book "What Makes You Not a Buddhist". The 4 seals are: (1) All compounded/conditioned things are impermanent; (2) all contaminated/defiling things (defiled with ego-clinging) are suffering (dukkha); (3) all phenomena are empty and devoid of self; (4) nirvana is peace / nirvana is beyond description.
• see also: 3 marks of existenceview.

≫ 5 buddha families: see pañchakula (Sanskrit: पञ्चकुल), rik nga' (Tibetan: རིགས་ལྔ་) = the five buddha families: buddha (centre/blue), vajra (east/white), ratna (or jewel) (south/yellow), padma (or lotus) (west/red), karma (or action) (north/green).
• external links: dictionary definition of "family": Google; meaning of 5 buddha families in Buddhism: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ 5 precepts: see pañchashila (Sanskrit: पञ्चशील), gényen gyi dompa (Tibetan: དགེ་བསྙེན་གྱི་སྡོམ་པ་) = the five precepts, the most important system of morality for Buddhist laypeople. They are to abstain from (1) killing, (2) theft, (3) sexual misconduct, (4) falsehood, (5) intoxication.
• external links: dictionary definition of "precept": Google; meaning of 5 precepts in Buddhism: wikipedia

≫ 6 destructive emotions: see mulaklesha (Sanskrit: मूलक्लेश), tsa nyön druk (Tibetan: རྩ་ཉོན་དྲུག་) = the six destructive or disturbing emotions, mental states that cloud the mind and manifest in unwholesome actions. According to the Abhidharmakosha, they are: (1) desire or attachment [note: here the Sanskrit word is raga], (2) anger [note: here the Sanskrit word is pratigha], (3) ignorance [note: here the Sanskrit word is avidya], (4) pride or conceit, (5) doubt, (6) wrong view.
(alternative translations): 6 afflictive emotions, 6 destructive emotions, 6 disturbing emotions
• see also: 3 poisons
• external links: dictionary definitions of "destructive": Google, "emotion": Google; meaning of 6 destructive emotions in Buddhism: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ 6 paramitas: see satparamita (Sanskrit: षट्पारमिता), parol tu chinpa druk (Tibetan: ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ་དྲུག་) = the six paramitas or six "transcendent perfections" that comprise the bodhisattva path: (1) generosity, (2) discipline, (3) patience, (4) diligence, (5) meditative concentration [note: here "meditative concentration" is dhyana], (6) wisdom [note: here "wisdom" is prajña].
• external links: dictionary definition of "perfection": Google; meaning of 6 paramitas in Buddhism: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ 8-fold noble path: see ariya atthangika magga (Pali: अरिय अट्ठङ्गिक मग्ग), pakpé lam yenlak gyépa (Tibetan: འཕགས་པའི་ལམ་ཡན་ལག་བརྒྱད་པ་) = the eight practices of the Buddhist path, one of the principal teachings of Theravada Buddhism (also known as "The Noble Eightfold Path"): (1) right view, (2) right intention or resolve, (3) right speech, (4) right action or conduct, (5) right livelihood, (6) right effort, (7) right mindfulness [here "right mindfulness" is smriti], (8) right concentration [here "right concentration" is samadhi]. When related to the 3-fold training: (1) the first training in discipline (or virtue) includes the practices of right speech, right action and right livelihood, (2) the second training in meditation [here "meditation" is samadhi] includes the practices of right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration, (3) the third training in wisdom includes the practices of right view and right intention.
• see also: 3-fold training: (1) discipline, (2) meditation, (3) wisdom [note: here "meditation" is samadhi]; 4 noble truths (the 8-fold noble path corresponds to the fourth noble truth)
• external links: dictionary definition of "path": Google; meaning of 8-fold noble path in Buddhism: wikipedia / rigpawiki

8 samsaric dharmas: see 8 worldly concerns (main entry)
(alternative translations): 8 mundane concerns, 8 samsaric dharmas, 8 worldly concerns, 8 worldly dharmas, 8 worldly preoccupations

≫ 8 worldly concerns: see jikten chögyé (Tibetan: འཇིག་རྟེན་ཆོས་བརྒྱད་) = the eight underlying motivations or attachments that drive ordinary worldly samsaric actions. They are listed in verse 29 of Nagarjuna's "Letter to a Friend" as four pairs in the following order: (1 & 2) gain / loss; (3 & 4) pleasure / pain and unhappiness; (5 & 6) kind words / insult and abuse; (7 & 8) praise / blame and slander (for each pair, we are motivated by hope or attachment to the first and fear or aversion to the second, e.g. hope for gain and fear of loss etc.).
(alternative translations): 8 mundane concerns, 8 samsaric dharmas, 8 worldly concerns, 8 worldly dharmas, 8 worldly preoccupations
• external links: rigpawiki / RYwiki

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A

absolute truth: see ultimate truth (main entry)
(alternative translations): absolute truth, ultimate truth
• see also: 2 truths = (1) ultimate truth, (2) relative truth
• external links: dictionary definition of "absolute": Google

aggression: see anger (main entry)
(alternative translations): aggression, anger.
• external links: dictionary definition of "aggression": Google

≫ anger: see pratigha (Sanskrit: प्रतिघ), khongtro (Tibetan: ཁོང་ཁྲོ་) = the second of the 6 destructive emotions listed in the Abhidharmakosha.
(alternative translations): aggression, anger.
(easily confused): anger (pratigha) is different from aversion (dvesha)
• see also: 6 destructive emotions: (1) desire or attachment [note: here the Sanskrit word is raga], (2) anger [note: here the Sanskrit word is pratigha], (3) ignorance [note: here the Sanskrit word is avidya], (4) pride or conceit, (5) doubt, (6) wrong view.
• external links: dictionary definition of "anger": Google

arising: see origin (main entry)
(alternative translations): origin
• see also: dependent origination
• external links: dictionary definition of "arising": Google

≫ attachment [translation of multiple words]:
(1) lobha (Pāli: लोभ) = greed, covetousness; the second of the 3 poisons (in the Theravada teachings).
(2) raga (Pāli & Sanskrit: राग), döchak (Tibetan: འདོད་ཆགས་) = attachment, desire, lust, passion, sensual attachment; the second of the 3 poisons.
(easily confused): desire (raga) is different from greed (lobha). Although several sources treat lobha and raga as synonymous, the word for "attachment" as one the 3 poisons in the original Pāli texts is lobha.
• see also: 3 poisons: (1) ignorance or delusion [note: here the Pāli word is moha], (2) greed or attachment [note: here the Pāli word is lobha], (3) hatred or aversion [note: here the Pāli word is dosa].
• external links: dictionary definition of "attachment": Google; meaning of attachment in Buddhism: wikipediarigpawiki

≫ aversion: see dosa (Pāli: दोस), dvesha (Sanskrit: द्वेष), zhédang (Tibetan: ཞེ་སྡང་) = one of the 3 poisons (in the Theravada teachings).
(alternative translations): aversion, dislike, enmity, hatred, hostility, ill-will.
(easily confused): anger (pratigha) is different from aversion (dvesha)
• see also: 3 poisons: (1) ignorance or delusion [note: here the Pāli word is moha], (2) greed or attachment [note: here the Pāli word is lobha], (3) hatred or aversion [note: here the Pāli word is dosa].
• external links: dictionary definition of "aversion": Google; meaning of aversion in Buddhism: wikipedia/ rigpawiki

awakening: see enlightenment (main entry)
(alternative translations): awakening, enlightenment
• external links: dictionary definition of "awakening": Google

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B

belief: see view (main entry)
(alternative translations): belief, perspective, philosophical position, orientation, view.
• external links: dictionary definition of "belief": Google

≫ bliss: see sukha (Sanskrit: सुख), dewa (Tibetan: བདེ་བ་); more specifically, bliss as a meditation experience is dewé nyam (Tibetan: བདེ་བའི་ཉམས་).
• see also: 3 experiences: (1) bliss, (2) clarity, (3) nonconceptuality.
• external links: dictionary definition of "bliss": Google; meaning of bliss in Buddhism: wikipedia / rigpawiki

bodhichitta: see compassion (main entry)

≫ Buddha: see Buddha (Pāli & Sanskrit: बुद्ध)
• external links: dictionary definition of "Buddha": Google

≫ Buddhism: see dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म)
• external links: dictionary definition of "Buddhism": Google

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C

≫ cessation: see nirodha (Pāli & Sanskrit: निरोध) = cessation, suppression; the third of the 4 noble truths.
• see also: 4 noble truths: (1) suffering, (2) origin of suffering, (3) cessation of suffering, (4) path which brings cessation of suffering.
• external links: dictionary definition of "cessation": Google; meaning of cessation in Buddhism: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ clarity: see selwa (Tibetan: གསལ་བ་); more specifically, clarity as a meditation experience is selwé nyam (Tibetan: གསལ་བའི་ཉམས་)
• see also: 3 experiences: (1) bliss, (2) clarity, (3) nonconceptuality.
• external links: dictionary definition of "clarity": Google

≫ cognitive obscurations: see shédrip (Tibetan: ཤེས་སྒྲིབ་)
• see also: 2 obscurations: (1) emotional obscurations, (2) cognitive obscurations
• external links: dictionary definition of "obscuration": Google

≫ compassion [translation of multiple words]:
(1) karuna (Pāli & Sanskrit: करुणा, "compassion") = the second of the 4 immeasurables.
(2) bodhichitta (Sanskrit: बोधिचित्त, "the mind of enlightenment, awakened state of mind, enlightened attitude, altruistic aspiration to enlightenment, the compassionate wish to attain enlightenment for the benefit of all beings and also to bring them to that state").
• see also: 4 immeasurables: (1) loving-kindness, (2) compassion [note: here "compassion" is karuna], (3) sympathetic joy, (4) equanimity.
• external links: dictionary definition of "compassion": Google; meaning of compassion in Buddhism: wikipedia / rigpawiki

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D

≫ Deer Park: see Mrigadava (Sanskrit: मृगदाव) = The Deer Park at Sarnath where Shakyamuni Buddha gave his first teaching (on the 4 noble truths); Sarnath is one of the 4 principal Buddhist pilgrimage sites in India.
• see also: 4 pilgrimage places4 noble truths; Buddha
• external links: "Deer Park" in Buddhism: wisdom library

delusion: see ignorance (main entry)
(alternative translations): delusion, ignorance
• see also: 3 poisons: (1) ignorance or delusion [note: here the Pāli word is moha], (2) greed or attachment [note: here the Pāli word is lobha], (3) hatred or aversion [note: here the Pāli word is dosa].

dependent arising: see dependent origination (main entry)
(alternative translations): dependent arising, dependent origination
• external links: dictionary definition of "arising": Google; dictionary definition of "dependent": Google

≫ dependent origination: see pratityasamutpada (Sanskrit: प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद)
(alternative translations): dependent arising, dependent origination
• see also: origin
• external links: dictionary definition of "dependent": Google; dictionary definition of "origination": Google; meaning of dependent origination in Buddhism: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ desire: see raga (Pāli & Sanskrit: राग), döchak (Tibetan: འདོད་ཆགས་) = the first of the 6 destructive emotions listed in the Abhidharmakosha.
(alternative translations): attachment, desire, lust, passion, sensual attachment.
(easily confused): desire (raga) is different from greed (lobha). Although several sources treat lobha and raga as synonymous, the word for "attachment" as one the 3 poisons in the original Pāli texts is lobha.
• see also: 6 destructive emotions: (1) desire or attachment [note: here the Sanskrit word is raga], (2) anger [note: here the Sanskrit word is pratigha], (3) ignorance [note: here the Sanskrit word is avidya], (4) pride or conceit, (5) doubt, (6) wrong view.
• external links: dictionary definition of "desire": Google; meaning of desire in Buddhism: wikipediarigpawiki

destructive emotion: see 6 destructive emotions (main entry)
(alternative translations): destructive emotion, negative emotion

≫ diligence: see virya (Sanskrit: वीर्य) = energy, diligence, enthusiasm, effort; the fourth of the 6 paramitas.
• see also: 6 paramitas: (1) generosity, (2) discipline, (3) patience, (4) diligence, (5) meditative concentration [note: here "meditative concentration" is dhyana], (6) wisdom [note: here "wisdom" is prajña].
• external links: dictionary definition of "diligence": Google; meaning of diligence in Buddhism: wikipediarigpawiki

≫ discipline: see shila (Sanskrit: शील) = the first aspect of the 3-fold training and the second of the 6 paramitas.
• see also: 3-fold training: (1) discipline, (2) meditation [note: here "meditation" is samadhi], (3) wisdom [note: here "wisdom" is prajña]; 6 paramitas: (1) generosity, (2) discipline, (3) patience, (4) diligence, (5) meditative concentration [note: here "meditative concentration" is dhyana], (6) wisdom [note: here "wisdom" is prajña].
• external links: dictionary definition of "discipline": Google; meaning of discipline in Buddhism: wikipedia (Buddhist ethics), rigpawiki (discipline)

≫ doubt: see vicikitsa (Sanskrit: विचिकित्सा)= the fifth of the 6 destructive emotions listed in the Abhidharmakosha.
• see also: 6 destructive emotions: (1) desire or attachment [note: here the Sanskrit word is raga], (2) anger [note: here the Sanskrit word is pratigha], (3) ignorance [note: here the Sanskrit word is avidya], (4) pride or conceit, (5) doubt, (6) wrong view.
• external links: dictionary definition of "doubt": Google

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E

egolessness: see nonself (main entry)
(alternative translations): egolessness, identitylessness, no-self, nonself
• see also: emptiness
• external links: dictionary definition of "egolessness": Google

≫ emotional obscurations: see nyöndrip (Tibetan: ཉོན་སྒྲིབ་)
• see also: 2 obscurations: (1) emotional obscurations, (2) cognitive obscurations
• external links: dictionary definition of "obscuration": Google

≫ empowerment: see abhisheka (Sanskrit: अभिषेक)
• external links: dictionary definition of "empowerment": Google; meaning of "empowerment" in Buddhism: wikipedia / rigpawiki; meaning of "empowerment" in Vajrayana: wikipedia; meaning of "4 empowerments" in Vajrayana: rigpawiki

≫ emptiness: see shunyata (Sanskrit: शून्यता)
• see also: middle waynonselfview
• external links: dictionary definition of "emptiness": Google; meaning of "emptiness" in Buddhism: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ enlightenment: see bodhi (Pāli & Sanskrit: बोधि)
(alternative translations): awakening, enlightenment
• see also: Buddha
• external links: dictionary definition of "enlightenment": Google; meaning of "enlightenment" in Buddhism: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ equanimity: see upekkha (Pāli: उपेक्खाा) = the fourth of the 4 immeasurables.
• see also: 4 immeasurables: (1) loving-kindness, (2) compassion [note: here "compassion" is karuna], (3) sympathetic joy, (4) equanimity.
• external links: dictionary definition of "equanimity": Google; meaning of "equanimity" in Buddhism: wikipedia

≫ eternalism: see takta (Tibetan: རྟག་ལྟ་)
• see also: 2 extremes: (1) eternalism, (2) nihilismview; wrong view
• external links: dictionary definition of "eternalism": Google; meaning of "eternalism" in Buddhism: wikipediarigpawiki

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G

≫ generosity: see dana (Sanskrit: दान) = the first of the 6 paramitas.
• see also: 6 paramitas: (1) generosity, (2) discipline, (3) patience, (4) diligence, (5) meditative concentration [note: here "meditative concentration" is dhyana], (6) wisdom [note: here "wisdom" is prajña].
• external links: dictionary definition of "generosity": Google; meaning of "generosity" in Buddhism: wikipediarigpawiki

≫ greed: see lobha (Pāli: लोभ) = first of the 3 poisons (in the Theravada teachings).
(alternative translations): attachment, covetousness.
(easily confused): desire (raga) is different from greed (lobha). Although several sources treat lobha and raga as synonymous, the word for "attachment" as one the 3 poisons in the original Pāli texts is lobha.
• see also: 3 poisons: (1) ignorance or delusion [note: here the Pāli word is moha], (2) greed or attachment [note: here the Pāli word is lobha], (3) hatred or aversion [note: here the Pāli word is dosa].

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H

≫ hatred: see dosa (Pāli: दोस), dvesha (Sanskrit: द्वेष) = one of the 3 poisons (in the Theravada teachings).
(alternative translations): aversion, dislike, enmity, hatred, hostility, ill-will.
• see also: 3 poisons: (1) ignorance or delusion [note: here the Pāli word is moha], (2) greed or attachment [note: here the Pāli word is lobha], (3) hatred or aversion [note: here the Pāli word is dosa].
• external links: dictionary definition of "hatred": Google; meaning of "hatred" in Buddhism: wikipedia / rigpawiki

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I

identitylessness: see nonself (main entry)
(alternative translations): egolessness, identitylessness, no-self, nonself
• external links: dictionary definition of "identitylessness": Google

≫ ignorance [translation of multiple words]:
(1) moha (Pāli & Sanskrit: मोह), timuk (Tibetan: གཏི་མུག་) = bewilderment, confusion, delusion; third of the 3 poisons (in the Theravada teachings).
(2) avidya (Sanskrit: अविद्या), avijja (Pāli: अविज्जा), ma rigpa (Tibetan: མ་རིག་པ་) = ignorance; misconceptions about the nature of reality (in particular, not understanding or accepting the 3 marks of existence); the third of the 6 destructive emotions listed in the Abhidharmakosha (in the Mahayana teachings); the first of the 12 links of dependent origination.
(alternative translations): bewilderment, confusion, delusion, ignorance.
(easily confused): bewilderment/confusion (moha) is different from ignorance (avidya)
• see also: 3 marks of existence: (1) impermanence, (2) nonself, (3) unsatisfactoriness3 poisons: (1) ignorance or delusion [note: here the Pāli word is moha], (2) greed or attachment [note: here the Pāli word is lobha], (3) hatred or aversion [note: here the Pāli word is dosa]; 6 destructive emotions: (1) desire or attachment [note: here the Sanskrit word is raga], (2) anger [note: here the Sanskrit word is pratigha], (3) ignorance [note: here the Sanskrit word is avidya], (4) pride or conceit, (5) doubt, (6) wrong view.
• external links: dictionary definition of "ignorance": Google; meaning of "ignorance" in Buddhism: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ impermanence: see anicca (Pāli: अनिच्चा)
• see also: 3 marks of existence: (1) impermanence, (2) nonself, (3) unsatisfactoriness.
• external links: dictionary definition of "impermanence": Google; meaning of "impermanence" in Buddhism: wikipedia / rigpawiki

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J

joy: see sympathetic joy (main entry)
(alternative translations): joy, sympathetic joy
• external links: dictionary definition of "joy": Google

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L

love: see loving-kindness (≫ main entry)
(alternative translations): love, loving-kindness. The Pāli word "metta" is translated as both "love" and "loving-kindness". It means wishing for another person to have happiness and the sources of happiness rather than the western meanings of romantic attachment and dependence or sexual attraction. In other words it is closer to the ancient Greek agápē (ἀγάπη) than érōs (ἔρως).
• external links: dictionary definition of "love": Google; meaning of "love" in Buddhism: wikipedia; Greek words for "love": wikipedia

≫ loving-kindness: see metta (Pāli: मेत्ता) = the first of the 4 immeasurables.
(alternative translations): love, loving-kindness. The Pāli word "metta" is translated as both "love" and "loving-kindness". It means wishing for another person to have happiness and the sources of happiness rather than the western meanings of romantic attachment and dependence or sexual attraction. In other words it is closer to the ancient Greek agápē (ἀγάπη) than érōs (ἔρως).
• see also: 4 immeasurables: (1) loving-kindness, (2) compassion [note: here "compassion" is karuna], (3) sympathetic joy, (4) equanimity.
• external links: dictionary definition of "loving-kindness": Google; meaning of "loving-kindness" in Buddhism: wikipedia; Greek words for "love": wikipedia

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M

≫ meditation [translation of multiple words]:
(1) dhyana (Sanskrit: ध्यान), jhana (Pāli: झान), samten (Tibetan: བསམ་གཏན་) = meditative concentration, attention, reflection, non-distraction; the fifth of the 6 paramitas.
(2) samadhi (Sanskrit: समाधि), tingédzin (Tibetan: ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་) = meditative absorption, unification of mind, stabilization, trance, deep concentration (the Sanskrit word includes the connotations of "union" and "joining together"); the fourth and last stage of dhyana (meditative concentration); the second aspect of the 3-fold training.
(3) bhavana (Sanskrit: भावन), gom (Tibetan: སྒོམ་, Wylie: sgom) = development, training, cultivation, practice.
(4) abhyasa (Sanskrit: अभ्यास), gom (Tibetan: གོམས་, Wylie: goms) = familiarization (through repetition), becoming accustomed to, conditioning.
• see also: 3-fold training: (1) discipline, (2) meditation [note: here "meditation" is samadhi], (3) wisdom [note: here "wisdom" is prajña]; meditative concentration [note: here "meditative concentration" is dhyana]; mindfulness; view, meditation & action [note: here "meditation" is bhavana]
• external links: (dictionary definition of "meditation"): Google, (meaning in Buddhism): wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ meditative concentration: see dhyana (Sanskrit: ध्यान), jhana (Pāli: झान) = meditative concentration, attention, reflection, non-distraction; the fifth of the 6 paramitas. Refers to both the practice and the state.
• see also: 6 paramitas: (1) generosity, (2) discipline, (3) patience, (4) diligence, (5) meditative concentration [note: here "meditative concentration" is dhyana], (6) wisdom [note: here "wisdom" is prajña].
• external links: (dictionary definition of "concentration"): Google, (meaning in Buddhism): wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ mind: see sem (Tibetan: སེམས་), chitta (Sanskrit: चित्त) = ordinary dualistic mind.
• see also: nature of mind
• external links: (dictionary definition of "mind"): Google, (meaning in Buddhism): rigpawiki

≫ mindfulness: see sati (Pāli: सति), smriti (Sanskrit: स्मृति)
• see also: meditationmeditative concentration [dhyana]
• external links: (dictionary definition of "mindfulness"): Google, (meaning in Buddhism): wikipedia (sati), wikipedia (smriti), wikipedia (mindfulness) / rigpawiki (mindfulness)

≫ middle way: see madhyamaka (Sanskrit: माध्यमक)
• external links: (dictionary definition of "middle way"): Google, (meaning in Buddhism): wikipedia / rigpawiki

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N

≫ nature of mind: see semnyi (Tibetan: སེམས་ཉིད་)
• see also: mind
• external links: (dictionary definition of "mind"): Google, (meaning in Buddhism): rigpawiki

negative emotion: see 6 destructive emotions (main entry)
(alternative translations): destructive emotion, negative emotion

≫ nihilism: see chéta (Tibetan: ཆད་ལྟ་)
• see also: 2 extremes: (1) eternalism, (2) nihilismview; wrong view
• external links: (dictionary definition of "nihilism"): Google, (meaning in Buddhism): wikipediarigpawiki

no-self: see nonself (main entry)
(alternative translations): egolessness, identitylessness, no-self, nonself
• external links: (dictionary definition of "egolessness"): Google

nonconceptuality: see mi tokpa (Tibetan: མི་རྟོག་པ་), tokmé (Tibetan: རྟོག་མེད་); more specifically, nonconceptuality as a meditation experience is mi tokpé nyam (Tibetan: མི་རྟོག་པའི་ཉམས་).
(alternative translations): nonconceptualitynonthought
• see also: 3 experiences: (1) bliss, (2) clarity, (3) nonconceptuality.
• external links: (dictionary definition of "conceptuality"): Google

≫ nonself: see anatta (Pāli: अनत्ता)
(alternative translations): egolessness, identitylessness, no-self, nonself
• see also: 3 marks of existence: (1) impermanence, (2) nonself, (3) unsatisfactoriness.
• external links: (dictionary definition of "nonself"): Google, (meaning in Buddhism): wikipediarigpawiki

nonthought: see nonconceptuality (≫ main entry)
(alternative translations): nonconceptualitynonthought
• external links: (dictionary definition of "thought"): Google

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O

≫ origin: see samudaya (Pāli: समुदय) = the second of the 4 noble truths.
• see also: 4 noble truths: (1) suffering, (2) origin of suffering, (3) cessation of suffering, (4) path which brings cessation of suffering; dependent origination.
• external links: (dictionary definition of "origin"): Google, (meaning in Buddhism): wikipedia / rigpawiki

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P

paramita (Sanskrit) = see 6 paramitas

≫ path: see magga (Pāli: मग्ग) = the fourth of the 4 noble truths.
• see also: 4 noble truths: (1) suffering, (2) origin of suffering, (3) cessation of suffering, (4) path which brings cessation of suffering.
• external links: (dictionary definition of "path"): Google, (meaning in Buddhism): wikipediarigpawiki

≫ patience: see kshanti (Sanskrit: क्षान्ति) = the third of the 6 paramitas.
• see also: 6 paramitas: (1) generosity, (2) discipline, (3) patience, (4) diligence, (5) meditative concentration [note: here "meditative concentration" is dhyana], (6) wisdom [note: here "wisdom" is prajña].
• external links: (dictionary definition of "patience"): Google, (meaning in Buddhism): wikipediarigpawiki

≫ pride: see mana (Sanskrit: मान) = the fourth of the 6 destructive emotions listed in the Abhidharmakosha.
(alternative translations) conceit, pride
• see also: 6 destructive emotions: (1) desire or attachment [note: here the Sanskrit word is raga], (2) anger [note: here the Sanskrit word is pratigha], (3) ignorance [note: here the Sanskrit word is avidya], (4) pride or conceit, (5) doubt, (6) wrong view.
• external links: (dictionary definition of "pride"): Google

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R

≫ relative truth: see kündzop denpa (Tibetan: ཀུན་རྫོབ་བདེན་པ་)
• see also: 2 truths = (1) ultimate truth or absolute truth, (2) relative truth
• external links: (dictionary definition of "relative"): Google

≫ renunciant: see sannyasa (Sanskrit: संन्यास)
• external links: (dictionary definition of "renunciant"): Google

≫ right view: see samyak-drishti (Sanskrit: सम्यक्दृष्टि) = the first practice of the 8-fold noble path.
• see also: 8-fold noble path; view; wrong view

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S

≫ suchness: see tathata (Sanskrit: तथाता)
• external links: (dictionary definition of "suchness"): Google

≫ suffering: see dukkha (Pāli: दुक्ख) = the first of the 4 noble truths; the second of the 3 marks of existence.
(alternative translations): sufferingunsatisfactoriness
• see also: 3 marks of existence: (1) impermanence, (2) nonself, (3) unsatisfactoriness; 4 noble truths: (1) suffering, (2) origin of suffering, (3) cessation of suffering, (4) path which brings cessation of suffering.
• external links: (dictionary definition of "suffering"): Google, (meaning in Buddhism): wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ sympathetic joy: see mudita (Pāli & Sanskrit: मुदिता) = the third of the 4 immeasurables.
(alternative translations): joy, sympathetic joy
• see also: 4 immeasurables: (1) loving-kindness, (2) compassion [note: here "compassion" is karuna], (3) sympathetic joy, (4) equanimity.
• external links: (dictionary definition of "joy"): Google, (meaning in Buddhism): wikipedia

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T

≫ truth: see denpa (Tibetan: བདེན་པ་)
• see also: 2 truths, 4 noble truths
• external links: (dictionary definition of "truth"): Google

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U

≫ ultimate truth: see döndam denpa (Tibetan: དོན་དམ་བདེན་པ་)
(alternative translations): absolute truth, ultimate truth
• see also: 2 truths = (1) ultimate truth, (2) relative truth
• external links: (dictionary definition of "ultimate"): Google

unsatisfactoriness: see suffering (≫ main entry)
(alternative translations): sufferingunsatisfactoriness
• see also: 3 marks of existence: (1) impermanence, (2) nonself, (3) unsatisfactoriness.
• external links: (dictionary definition of "unsatisfactoriness"): Google

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V

≫ view: see tawa (Tibetan: ལྟ་བ་), drishti (Sanskrit: दृष्टि)
(alternative translations): belief, perspective, philosophical position, orientation, view.
(note): unless qualified as "samyak drishti" (i.e. "right view"), the Sanskrit "drishti" mostly refers to wrong views and only in a few instances to right view. The Tibetan word "tawa" has a more neutral valence; (wikipedia: "In Buddhist thought, a view is not a simple, abstract collection of propositions, but a charged interpretation of experience which intensely shapes and affects thought, sensation, and action. Having the proper mental attitude toward views is therefore considered an integral part of the Buddhist path, as sometimes correct views need to be put into practice and incorrect views abandoned, and sometimes all views are seen as obstacles to enlightenment").
• see also: 4 seals; right viewview, meditation & action; wrong view
• external links: dictionary definition of "view": Google; meaning of "view" in Buddhism: wikipediarigpawiki

≫ view, meditation & action: see ta gom chöpa (Tibetan: ལྟ་སྒོམ་སྤྱོད་) [note: here "meditation" is bhavana = development, training, cultivation, practice]
• see also: 4 seals; right viewview

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W

≫ wisdom [translation of multiple words]:
(1) prajña (Sanskrit: प्रज्ञ) = precise discernment; knowing correctly, clearly and fully; insight; the third aspect of the 3-fold training and the sixth of the 6 paramitas.
(2) jñana (Sanskrit: ज्ञान) = wisdom, primordial wisdom.
• note [easily confused]: jhana (Pāli: meditative concentration) is the same as dhyana (Sanskrit: meditative concentration) and different from jñana (Sanskrit: wisdom)
• see also: 3-fold training: (1) discipline, (2) meditation [note: here "meditation" is samadhi], (3) wisdom [note: here "wisdom" is prajña]; 6 paramitas: (1) generosity, (2) discipline, (3) patience, (4) diligence, (5) meditative concentration [note: here "meditative concentration" is dhyana], (6) wisdom [note: here "wisdom" is prajña].
• external links: (dictionary definition of "wisdom"): Google, (meaning in Buddhism): wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ wrong view: see drishti (Sanskrit: दृष्टि) = the sixth of the 6 destructive emotions listed in the Abhidharmakosha.
(alternative translations): wrong view, false view, defiled view, afflicted view, opinionatedness.
(note): unless qualified as "samyak drishti" (i.e. "right view"), the Sanskrit "drishti" mostly refers to wrong views and only in a few instances to right view. The Tibetan word "tawa" has a more neutral valence.
• see also: 2 extremes: (1) eternalism, (2) nihilism6 destructive emotions: (1) desire or attachment [note: here the Sanskrit word is raga], (2) anger [note: here the Sanskrit word is pratigha], (3) ignorance [note: here the Sanskrit word is avidya], (4) pride or conceit, (5) doubt, (6) wrong view; right viewview
• external links: (dictionary definition of "view"): Google, (meaning in Buddhism): wikipediarigpawiki

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Artwork: "Buddha" by Tara di Gesu

Page last updated: July 30, 2020