# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Ref


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C

 caritta (Pāli: चारित्त, IAST: cāritta) = conduct, custom, practice; “caritta-shila” means “morality consisting in performance” (as opposed to varitta-shila = morality consisting in avoidance).
• see also: varitta (avoidance)
• external links: (Buddhist ethics): wikipedia

≫ cattari ariyasaccani (Pāli: चत्तारि अरियसच्चानि, IAST: cattāri + ariya + saccāni ; Sanskrit: चत्वारि आर्यसत्यानि, IAST: catvāri + ārya + satyāni ; Tibetan: འཕགས་པའི་བདེན་པ་བཞི་, pakpé denpa shyi; Wylie: ‘phags pa’i bden pa bzhi) = the 4 Noble Truths, literally “four truths of the noble beings”, i.e. it is not that the truths are noble, rather that they are truths understood by the Noble Ones (aryas). They form part of the Dharmachakrapravartana Sutra (SN 56.11), the Buddha’s first teaching, which was given at Deer Park in Sarnath.
The 4 Noble Truths are:
(1) dukkha = suffering;
(2) samudaya = the origin of suffering;
(3) nirodha = the cessation of suffering;
(4) magga = the path which, if followed, brings the cessation of suffering.
• see also: ariya atthangika magga (the 8-fold noble path, which corresponds to the fourth noble truth) ; ariya sacca ([four] noble truths); cattari ariyasaccani (4 noble truths): (1) dukkha (suffering), (2) samudaya (origin of suffering), (3) nirodha (cessation of suffering), (4) magga (path) ; Dharmachakrapravartana Sutra (the first teaching given by Shakyamuni Buddha) ; Mrigadava (Deer Park)
• external links: (4 Noble Truths): wikipedia / rigpawiki ; (16 aspects of 4 Noble Truths): Study Buddhism ; (Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta): Access to Insight

≫ cattaro iddhipada (Pali: चत्तारो इद्धिपादा, IAST: cattāro + iddhipādā ; Sanskrit: चतुःऋद्धिपाद, IAST: catuḥ-ṛddhipāda = चतु catuḥ “four” + ऋद्धिपाद ṛddhipāda “supernatural power” ; Tibetan: རྫུ་འཕྲུལ་གྱི་རྐང་པ་བཞི་, dzutrul gyi kangpa shyi; Wylie: rdzu ‘phrul gyi rkang pa bzhi ; Chinese: 四神足, pinyin: sì shénzú) = the 4 bases of magical power (also the 4 bases of mental/supernatural power). These are:
(1) chanda (Sanskrit: chanda; Pali: chanda; Tibetan: འདུན་པ་, dünpa; Wylie: ‘dun pa) = intention, aspiration, purpose
(2) virya (Sanskrit: vīrya; Pali: viriya; Tibetan: བརྩོན་འགྲུས་, tsön drü; Wylie: brtson ‘grus) = diligence, energy, effort
(3) chitta (Sanskrit: citta; Pali: citta; Tibetan: སེམས་པ་, sempa; Wylie: sems pa) = thought, attention, reflection, consciousness
(4) mimamsa (Sanskrit: mīmāṃsā; Pali: vīmaṁsa or vīmaŋsā; Tibetan: དཔྱོད་པ་, chöpa; Wylie: dpyod pa) = discernment, skill of analysis, investigation
These form part of the 37 factors of enlightenment (Pali: sattatimsa bodhipakkhiya dhamma)
• see also: sattatimsa bodhipakkhiya dhamma (37 qualities conducive to awakening, 37 factors of enlightenment)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ cattaro satipatthana (Pāli: चत्तारो सतिपट्ठाना, IAST: cattāro satipaṭṭhānā ; Sanskrit: चतुःस्मृत्युपस्थान, IAST: catuḥ-smṛtyupasthāna = चतु catuḥ “four” + स्मृति smṛti“remembrance, calling to mind” + उपस्थान upasthāna “the act of placing one’s self near to, going near, approach, coming into the presence of” ; Tibetan: དྲན་པ་ཉེ་བར་བཞག་པ་བཞི་, dren pa nyewar zhak pa zhi; Wylie: dran pa nye bar bzhag pa bzhi ; Chinese: 四念處, pinyin: sìniànchù also 四念住, pinyin: sìniànzhù) = the 4 establishments of mindfulness (also “4 applications of mindfulness” and “4 foundations of mindfulness”). These are:
(1) mindfulness of the body (Sanskrit: कायस्मृत्युपस्थान, IAST: kāya-smṛtyupasthāna ; Tibetan: ལུས་དྲན་པ་ཉེ་བར་བཞག་, Wylie: lus dran pa nye bar bzhag ; Chinese: 身念住, pinyin: shēnniànzhù).
(2) mindfulness of feelings (Sanskrit: वेदनास्मृत्युपस्थान, IAST: vedanā-smṛtyupasthāna ; Tibetan: ཚོར་བ་དྲན་པ་ཉེ་བར་བཞག་, Wylie: tshor dran pa nye bar bzhag ; Chinese: 受念住, pinyin: shòuniànzhù)
(3) mindfulness of the mind (Sanskrit: चित्तस्मृत्युपस्थान, IAST: citta-smṛtyupasthāna ; Tibetan: སེམས་དྲན་པ་ཉེ་བར་བཞག་, Wylie: sems dran pa nye bar bzhag ; Chinese: 心念住, pinyin: xīn niànzhù)
(4) mindfulness of dharmas/phenomena (Sanskrit: धर्मस्मृत्युपस्थान, IAST: dharma-smṛtyupasthāna ; Tibetan: ཆོས་དྲན་པ་ཉེ་བར་བཞག་, Wylie: chos dran pa nye bar bzhag ; Chinese: 法念住, pinyin: fǎniànzhù)
These form part of the 37 factors of enlightenment (Pali: sattatimsa bodhipakkhiya dhamma)
• see also: sattatimsa bodhipakkhiya dhamma (37 qualities conducive to awakening, 37 factors of enlightenment)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki / Digital Dictionary of Buddhism

 caturapramana (Sanskrit: चतुर्अप्रमाण, IAST: caturapramāṇa = catur “four” + apramāṇa“immeasurable, unlimited, boundless”, also Sanskrit: चत्वारिअप्रमानाणि, IAST: catvāriapramānāṇi ; Pāli: चतस्सो अप्पमञ्ञायो, IAST: catasso appamaññāyo ; Tibetan: ཚད་མེད་བཞི་, tsémé shyi; Wylie: tshad med bzhi ; Chinese: 四無量心 / 四无量心, pinyin: sì wúliàng xīn) = the 4 immeasurables, or 4 boundless thoughts: a series of four Buddhist virtues and the meditation practices to cultivate them, which comprise “aspiration bodhichitta”. Also known as the 4 brahmaviharas (“sublime attitude”, literally “abode of Brahma”). The 4 immeasurables are:
(1) metta (Pāli: मेत्ता; Chinese: 慈 / 慈, pinyin: , literally “kindness”) = loving-kindness.
(2) karuna (Pāli: करुणा; Chinese: 悲 / 悲, pinyin: bēi, literally “pity, sympathy, compassion, mercy”) = compassion (note: karuna is also translated into Chinese as: 慈悲 / 慈悲, Pinyin: cíbēi; the single logographs of 慈 and 悲 are sometimes understood as being synonymous, but they are also sometimes separated into the meanings of 慈 = “kindness” i.e. metta/maitrī and 悲 = “pity, sympathy, compassion, mercy” i.e. karuṇā).
(3) mudita (Pāli: मुदिता; Chinese: 喜 / 喜, pinyin: , literally “delight”) = sympathetic joy, appreciative joy.
(4) upekkha (Pāli: उपेक्खाा; Chinese: 捨 / 舍, pinyin: shě, literally “to abandon”) = equanimity.
• see also: brahmavihara (sublime attitude) ; bodhichitta (the compassionate wish to attain enlightenment for the benefit of all beings and also to bring them to that state)
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ catusamvejaniyathana (Pali: चतुसंवेजनीयठान, IAST: catusaṃvejanīyaṭhāna “the four inspiring places” = चतु catu “four” + संवेजनीय saṃvejanīya “to be remembered with reverence” + ठान ṭhāna “place”) = the 4 principal Buddhist pilgrimage sites in India described by the Buddha in the Theravada Mahaparinibbana Sutta; literally “the four inspiring places”.
The 4 principal Buddhist pilgrimage sites are:
(1) Lumbini (Nepal): birthplace of the Buddha;
(2) Bodh Gaya (Bihar, India): where Prince Siddhartha attained enlightenment (under the bodhi tree at the Mahabodhi Temple);
(3) Sarnath (also known as Isipathana, Uttar Pradesh, India): where Buddha gave his first teaching at Deer Park;
(4) Kushinagara (now Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India): where Buddha died and attained parinirvana.
• see also: Mrigadava (Deer Park)
• external links: (Mahāparinibbāṇa Sutta, DN 16): (English): Access to Insight / (Pāli-English): Audtip (Audio Tales in Pāli) / wikipedia ; (Buddhist pilgrimage sites): wikipedia

≫ chado (Japanese: 茶道, chadō, “the way of tea”) = the Japanese tea ceremony, which includes the preparation and presentation of matcha, powdered green tea.
• see also (the three classical Japanese arts of refinement): kadō (flower arrangement), kōdō (incense appreciation) and chadō (tea and the tea ceremony)
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia

≫ chaitashika (Sanskrit: चैतसिक, IAST: caitasika or चित्त सम्स्कर, citta samskara ; Pāli: चेतसिक, IAST: cetasika ; Tibetan: སེམས་བྱུང་, sem jung; Wylie: sems byung ; Chinese: 心所, pinyin: xīnsuǒ) = mental factors or mental states or as described within the teachings of the Abhidharma (Buddhist psychology). They are defined as aspects of the mind that apprehend the quality of an object, and that have the ability to color the mind. Alternate translations for mental factors include “mental states”, “mental events”, and “concomitants of consciousness”. There are many different lists of mental factors in different Buddhist traditions. For example, the Theravada commentaries Abhidhammattha-sangaha by Acariya Anuruddha and Atthasālinī by Buddhaghosa both list 52 mental factors, while the Mahayana Yogachara commentary Abhidharma-samuccaya by Asanga lists 51 mental factors.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Digital Dictionary of Buddhism / Study Buddhism (Berzin)

≫ chakravartin (Sanskrit: चक्रवर्तिन्, IAST: cakravartin, “a ruler the wheels of whose chariot roll everywhere without obstruction” ; Pāli: चक्कवत्ति, IAST: cakkavatti ; Tibetan: ཁོར་ལོས་སྒྱུར་བའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་, khorlö gyurwé gyelpo; Wylie: ‘khor los sgyur ba’i rgyal po, “monarch who controls by means of a wheel”) = universal emperor; universal ruler; sovereign of the world, especially in the sense of an imperial ruler of the entire Indian sub-continent (as in the case of the Maurya Empire).
• see also: mahapurisa lakkhana (the 32 major marks of a buddha or enlightened being)
• external links: wikipedia / Encyclopedia of Buddhism

≫ cham (Tibetan: འཆམ་, Wylie: ‘cham) = sacred dance, ritual dance, masked dance. 

≫ Chan (Chinese: 禪, chán, abbreviation of 禪那, chánnà, a transliteration of the Sanskrit ध्यान, dhyāna “meditation”) = meditation; Chan also refers to a school of Mahayana Buddhism that developed in China from the 6th century CE onwards, becoming dominant during the Tang and Song dynasties. After the Yuan dynasty, Chan more or less fused with Pure Land Buddhism. Chan spread from China south to Vietnam as Thiền (the Sino-Vietnamese pronunciation of 禪), north to Korea as Seon (Korean: 선, the Korean pronunciation of 禪), and east to Japan (in 13th century CE) to become Zen Buddhism (the Japanese pronunciation of 禅).
• easily confused (terms related to meditation): bhavana / gom (Tibetan: སྒོམ་, Wylie: sgom) (development, training, cultivation) is different from dhyana / samten / jhana / chan / zen (meditative concentration, mental focus, attention), which is different from abhyasa / gom (Tibetan: གོམས་, Wylie: goms) (familiarisation, becoming accustomed to, conditioning)
• other languages: dhyana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia

≫ Chandrakirti (Sanskrit: चन्द्रकीर्ति, IAST: Candrakīrti ; Tibetan: ཟླ་བ་གྲགས་པ་, dawa drakpa ; Wylie: zla ba grags pa ; Chinese: 月稱; pinyin: Yuèchēng ; Japanese: Gesshō) (c. 600-650) = a renowned 7th Indian Mahayana Buddhist master and Madhyamaka scholarand a noted commentator on the works of Nagarjuna and those of his main disciple Aryadeva. Author of the Prasannapada (“Clear Words”), a rich, profound, detailed, and yet playful commentary on Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika, and the Madhyamakavatara (“Entering the Middle Way”) is used as the main sourcebook by most of the Tibetan monastic colleges in their studies of shunyata (“emptiness”) and the philosophy of the Madhyamaka school. In his works, he is critical of Bhavivekaʼs interpretation of Nagarjuna, especially Bhavivekaʼs acceptance of syllogistic argumentation, preferring Buddhapalitaʼs earlier interpretation. This difference of opinion developed many centuries later into two opposing Madhyamaka schools in Tibet, with the Tibetans labeling Bhaviveka’s position the Svatantrika school (since syllogistic proofs provide ‘independent’ [svatantrika] validation of claims) and Chandrakirti’s position the Prasangika school (since it demonstrates the absurdities to which an opponents’ position could be reduced [prasanga]). Very little is known about Chandrakirti’s life. Tibetan sources state that he was born in Samanta, South India, and was a student of Kamalabuddhi. He is traditionally associated with Nalanda Mahavihara (Nalanda University) where he may have been a monk.
• note: Chandrakirti is regarded as a follower of Madhyamaka who accepts what is accepted by ordinary people (jigten drakdé umapa)
• external sources: wikipedia / rigpawiki / TBRC / Digital Dictionary of Buddhism / Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy / Lotsawa House / Himalayan Art

changchup (Tibetan) = redirects to jangchup (Tibetan) 

≫ Changlo Chen (Tibetan: ལྕང་ལོ་ཅན, Wylie: lcang lo can, where lcang lo = “braid, long braided or matted strands of hair, yogic hair” ; Sanskrit: अटकावती, IAST: aṭakāvatī) = buddhafield of Vajrapani and/or buddhafield of Vajradhara (Dorje Chang) (translation into English may be difficult due to the various meanings of aṭakā/alakā/lcang lo).
• see also: zhing kham (buddhafield, pure land)
• external links: rigpawiki

≫ charya (Sanskrit: चर्या, IAST: caryā, charya ; from Sanskrit: car चर्, car, char = to move, roam about, wander (as of men, animals, water) ; to spread (as of fire) ; to behave, conduct one’s self, act, live ; to be engaged in, occupied or busy with) = (1) action, conduct, routine ; (2) wandering, moving, walking or roaming about, visiting, driving. DJKR: “action, the way you live, the way you function”
• see also: bhadracharya (good/virtuous action) ; bodhicharya (actions or conduct of a bodhisattva) ; Bodhicharyavatara (Shantideva’s text “The Way of the Bodhisattva”)
• external links: wiktionary

≫ chégom (Tibetan: དཔྱད་སྒོམ་, ché gom ; Wylie: dpyad sgom) = analytical meditation, meditation through analysis, meditation involving mental analysis and investigation, analytical investigation. 

 chen (Tibetan: ཅན་, chen ; Wylie: can) = endowed with, having, imbued with, possessing.
• see also: semchen (sentient being, literally “having mind” or “endowed with mind”) 

≫ chéta (Tibetan: ཆད་ལྟ་, ché ta ; Wylie: chad lta ; Sanskrit: उच्छेददृष्टि, IAST: uccheda + dṛṣṭi ; Sanskrit & Pāli: उच्छेदवाद, IAST: ucchedavāda) = nihilism, annihilationism (lit. “the view of discontinuance”). The extreme view of nothingness: no rebirth or karmic effects, and the nonexistence of a mind after death.
• see also: madhyamaka (the middle way free from all extremes) ; tanyi (2 extremes) = (1) takta (eternalism), (2) chéta (nihilism) ; tawa (view)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ chi nang zhen sum (Tibetan: ཕྱི་ནང་གཞན་གསུམ ; Wylie: phyi nang gzhan gsum) = outer, inner & other (divisions of Kalachakra doctrine) (also “outer, inner & alternative”). Alexander Berzin notes “The word kalachakra means cycles of time, and the Kalachakra system presents three such cycles – external, internal and alternative. The external and internal cycles deal with time as we normally know it, while the alternative cycles are practices for gaining liberation from these two […] The possibility of gaining liberation from time, however, does not imply that time does not actually exist or that someone can live and benefit others outside of time. Time, as a measurement of change, also occurs as a measure of the cycles of actions of a Buddha.”
• see also: zhen (other)
• external links: (Kalachakra): wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki / Berzin Study Buddhism

 chitta (Pāli: चित्त, IAST: citta ; Sanskrit: चित्त, IAST: citta ; Chinese: 心, pinyin: xīn, also written as transliteration of Sanskrit, Chinese: 質多, pinyin: zhíduō) = (1) mindheart, heart-mind; feeling, emotion; sympathy, compassion; (2) ordinary dualistic mind , thinking, reflecting, imagining, thought, memory, intelligence, reason – see sem (Tibetan ≫ main entry for “ordinary dualistic mind”).
• note on meaning: chitta (and the Chinese equivalent xin) have a broader semantic range than the English word “mind”, including “thought, intellect, mentality, the mind as the seat of intelligence” but also “heart, spirit, motive”, “wholeheartedness, sincerity, attention, interest, care, intention” and even “essence, core, marrow”. As DJKR frequently notes, these differing semantic ranges create challenges when these words are translated into English simply as “mind”. See for example, DJKR teaching “Vipassana for beginners“, Taipei, December 12, 2020.
• note on etymology: wiktionary notes the etymology of chitta is ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *kʷeyt- (“to notice”). While chitta includes both meanings of “mind” and “heart”, the synonyms manas (Sanskrit मनस्, IAST: mánas, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *mánas, cognate with English “mind”) and hridaya (Sanskrit हृदय, IAST: hṛ́daya, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *ȷ́ʰŕ̥dayam, cognate with English “heart”) have narrower semantic ranges centred on “mind” and “heart” respectively.
• other languages: xin (Chinese for “heart/mind”) ; sem (Tibetan ≫ main entry for “ordinary dualistic mind”).
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia

≫ Chittamatra (Sanskrit: चित्तमात्र, IAST: cittamātra = citta चित्त “mind” + mātra मात्र “nothing but, simply, merely, only” ; Tibetan: སེམས་ཙམ་པ་, Semtsampa; Wylie: sems tsam pa) = the “Mind Only” school, a Mahayana school founded by Asanga in the 4th century CE. It holds that all phenomena are merely mind – the all-ground consciousness manifesting as environment, objects and the physical body, as a result of habitual tendencies stored within the all-ground. The Chittamatra school is also known as Yogachara and Vijñānavāda, and its followers are usually known as Chittamatrins. See also Yogachara (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).
• see also: Yogachara (the “Mind Only” school)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Study Buddhism

chittata (Pāli: चित्तता, IAST: cittatā ; Sanskrit: चित्तता, IAST: cittatā) = nature of mind – see semnyi (Tibetan ≫main entry). 

chö (Tibetan: ཆོས་, chö; Wylie: chos) = (a) reality, true nature, character; (b) phenomenon, property, mark, peculiar condition or essential quality, peculiarity; (c) practice, way, usage, customary observance, prescribed conduct, duty, law, doctrine; (d) Dharma, the Buddhist path, the spiritual path, spirituality – see dharma (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).
• external links: wiktionary

≫ chö namla mig dulmé (Tibetan: ཆོས་རྣམས་ལ་མིག་རྡུལ་མེད་; Wylie: chos rnams la mig rdul med = chos rnams la “phenomena” + mig “eye, gaze, vision” + rdul “dust, motes” + med “does not exist”) = seeing the truthDJKR: “there is no dust, veil or obstruction between you and phenomena”, i.e. “seeing the truth, basically”.
• note (on meaning): DJKR suggests that “chö namla mig dulmé” (“there is no dust, veil or obstruction between you and phenomena”, i.e. “seeing the truth, basically”) captures an important part of the intended meaning that may not be indicated by the English word “enlightenment”. See discussion on meaning in the entry on Buddha.
• see also: denpa tong (seeing the truth) 

≫ choga (Tibetan: ཆོ་ག་, choga; Wylie: cho ga) = ritual, method, sadhana practice, ceremony. 

 chok (Tibetan: མཆོག་, chok; Wylie: mchog) = supreme, superior, most excellent.

≫ chökyi domzhi (Tibetan: ཆོས་ཀྱི་སྡོམ་བཞི་, chö kyi dom zhi, Wylie: chos kyi sdom bzhi; also shortened to Tibetan: སྡོམ་བཞི་, domzhi, Wylie: sdom bzhi = སྡོམ་, sdom “(1) bind, fasten, tie; (2) add up, add together, bring together, collect; (3) summary, synopsis” + བཞི་, bzhi “four”; often seen in the expanded form bka’ rtags kyi phyag rgya bzhi (“the four seals of the [Buddha’s] teaching”) ; Sanskrit: चतुर्मुद्रा, IAST: caturmudrā = चतुर् catur “four” + मुद्रा mudrā “seal, stamp, authorization”; also: चतुर्लक्षण, caturlakshana; IAST: caturlakṣaṇa = चतुर् catur “four” + लक्षण lakṣaṇa “mark, sign, characteristic”) = the 4 seals; the 4 Dharma emblems or 4 “aphorisms of the Dharma”1; the four main principles marking a doctrine as Buddhist. The first three seals are the same as the 3 marks of existence (trilakshana) described in the Pali Canon (i.e. aniccadukkha and anatta). The fourth seal (“nirvana is peace”) is a later addition in Mahayana Buddhism. The Tibetan and Chinese version of the four seals are set out in the Mahayana sutra Sāgara­nāga­rāja­paripṛcchā (“The Questions of the Naga King Sagara”), and the Sanskrit version can be extracted from Vasubandhu’s commentary on verse XVIII.80 of Asanga’s Mahā­yāna­sūtrālaṃkāra (“Ornament of the Mahayana Sutras”, 5th century CE)2.
The 4 seals are:
1) impermanence: (Tibetan: འདུ་བྱས་ཐམས་ཅད་མི་རྟག་པ་, dujé tamché mi takpa; Wylie: ‘du byas thams cad mi rtag pa) = All compounded/conditioned things are impermanent (anicca);
2) unsatisfactoriness: (Tibetan: ཟག་བཅས་ཐམས་ཅད་སྡུག་བསྔལ་, zakché tamché dukngel; Wylie: zag bcas thams cad sdug bsngal) = all contaminated/defiling things (defiled with ego-clinging) are suffering (dukkha)3;
3) nonself: (Tibetan: ཆོས་ཐམས་ཅད་སྟོང་ཞིང་བདག་མེད་པའོ་, chö tamché tongzhing dakmé pao; Wylie: chos thams cad stong zhing bdag med pa’o) = all phenomena are devoid of a self-entity / all phenomena are without self / all phenomena are without inherent existence (anatta);
4) peace: (Tibetan: མྱ་ངན་ལས་འདས་པ་ནི་ཞི་བ་, nya ngenlé dépa ni zhiwa; Wylie: mya ngan las ‘das pa ni zhi ba) = nirvana is peace / nirvana is beyond description (zhiwa).
• see also: Sagaranagarajaparipraccha (“The Questions of the Naga King Sagara”, a Mahayana sutra) ; trilakshana (3 marks of existence)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki

≫ chöpa [homophone of four different Tibetan words]:
(1) (Tibetan: ཆོས་པ་, chöpa; Wylie: chos pa) = Dharma practitioner, Buddhist, religious practitioner.
(2) (Tibetan: སྤྱོད་པ་, chöpa; Wylie: spyod pa) = action, behavior, conduct.
• see also (for Tibetan: སྤྱོད་པ་, chöpa; Wylie: spyod pa): ta gom chöpa (view, meditation & action); tawa gompa chöpa drébu (view, meditation, action & result) [note: here “meditation” is bhavana = development, training, cultivation, practice.] 
(3) (Tibetan: བཅོས་པ་, chöpa; Wylie: bcos pa) = fabrication, contriving, distortion.
• see also (for Tibetan: བཅོས་པ་, chöpa; Wylie: bcos pa): ma chö (uncontrived, unfabricated)
(4) (Tibetan: དཔྱོད་པ་, chöpa; Wylie: dpyod pa ; Sanskrit: मीमांसा, IAST: mīmāṃsā) = discernment, skill of analysis, investigation, profound thought or reflection, consideration.

chörten (Tibetan: མཆོད་རྟེན་, chörten; Wylie: mchod rten) = stupa (Sanskrit ≫ main entry). 

≫ chösham (Tibetan: མཆོད་བཤམ་, chösham; Wylie: mchod bsham) = shrine, altar, shrine room. 

Chuang-Tzu (Chinese) = redirects to Zhuangzi

chülen (Tibetan: བཅུད་ལེན་, bcud lan ; Sanskrit: रसायन, IAST: rasāyana) = essence extraction; elixir, alchemy, art of extracting essences for prolonging health and longevity, rasayana, the preparation and use of the long life elixirs, extraction of nutrients.
• see also: drébu sum gyi chülen (extracting the essence of the three myrobalan fruits)

citta (Pāli & Sanskrit) = redirects to chitta

≫ Cundi (Sanskrit: चुन्दी, IAST: cundī, literally “procuress, bawd” ; Chinese: 準提, pinyin: Zhǔntí) = an 18-armed form of Avalokiteshvara popular in Chinese and East Asian tantric Buddhism. Her 18 arms each wield implements that symbolize upaya (skillful means), and they also represent the eighteen merits of attaining Buddhahood as described in an appendix to the Cundī Dhāraṇī Sūtra.
• see also: Avalokiteshvara
• external links: wikipedia

curura (Tibetan) = redirects to kyurura.


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