#     A     B     C     D     E     F     G     H     I     J     K     L     M     N     O     P     Q     R     S     T     U     V     W     X     Y     Z     Ref

Link colours: external dictionaries in green, internal website links in light blue, external website links in dark blue


Abhidharma (Sanskrit: अभिधर्म, IAST: abhidharma; literally “special (or further) Dharma” or “meta-teaching about dharmas (phenomena)” = abhi “superior, special, higher” + Dharma ; Pāli: अभिधम्म, IAST: abhidhamma ; Tibetan: ཆོས་མངོན་པ་, chö ngönpa; Wylie: chos mngon pa, also shortened to Tibetan: མངོན་པ་, ngönpa; Wylie: mngon pa ; Chinese: 阿毘達磨, pinyin: āpídámó) (3rd century BCE and later) = philosophical and psychological analysis and interpretation of Buddhist doctrine that comprises the Abhidharma Pitaka, the third of the Tripitaka, the Three Baskets of the Buddha’s teachings that are found in the Pali Canon, alongside the Vinaya Pitaka (“Basket of Discipline”) and Sutra Pitaka (“Basket of Discourse”). The Abhidharma Pitaka is part of a later tradition of scholastic analysis and systematization of the contents of the Sutra Pitaka originating at least two centuries after the two other parts of the canon. It was defined by Buddhaghosha as the law or truth (dharma), which goes beyond (abhi) or behind the law. Bhikkhu Bodhi describes it as “an abstract and highly technical systemization of the [Buddhist] doctrine,” which is “simultaneously a philosophy, a psychology and an ethics, all integrated into the framework of a program for liberation.” According to Peter Harvey, the Abhidharma seeks “to avoid the inexactitudes of colloquial conventional language, as is sometimes found in the sutras, and state everything in psycho-philosophically exact language.” In this sense, it is an attempt to best express the Buddhist view of “ultimate reality” (paramartha-satya).
• see also: Abhidharmakosha (“The Treasury of Abhidharma” by Vasubandhu) ; chaitashika (mental factors or states) ; Tripitaka (the Three Baskets of the Buddha’s teachings)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy / 84000 glossary

Abhidharmakosha (Sanskrit: अभिधर्मकोश, abhidharmakosha; IAST: abhidharmakośa ; Tibetan: མངོན་པ་མཛོད་, ngönpa dzö; Wylie: mngon pa mdzod. Also: अभिधर्मकोशकारिका, abhidharmakoshakarika; IAST: abhidharmakośakārikā ; Tibetan: ཆོས་མངོན་པའི་མཛོད་ཀྱི་ཚིག་ལེའུར་བྱས་པ་, chö ngön pé dzö kyi tsik leur jé pa; Wylie: chos mngon pa’i mdzod kyi tshig le’ur byas pa ; Chinese: 倶舍論 / 倶舍论, pinyin: Jùshè lùn) = The Treasury of Abhidharma, a complete and systematic account of the Abhidharma composed by the Indian pandita Vasubandhu in the 4th or 5th century CE. It is considered the peak of scholarship in the Fundamental Vehicle (Shravakayana / Theravada).
• see also: AbhidharmaShravakayanaTheravada
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

abhisheka (Sanskrit: अभिषेक, IAST: abhiṣeka, “anointing, inaugurating or consecrating by sprinkling water; bathing of the divinity to whom worship is offered” ; Tibetan: དབང་, wang; Wylie: dbang ; Chinese: 灌頂 / 灌顶, pinyin: guàndǐng) = initiation or empowerment.
• other languages: wang (Tibetan)
• external links: (abhisheka): wiktionary / 84000 glossary ; (empowerment in Vajrayana): wikipedia ; (empowerment): wikipedia  / rigpawiki ; (four empowerments): rigpawiki

abhyasa (Sanskrit: अभ्यास, IAST: abhyāsa ; Tibetan: གོམས་, gom; Wylie: goms ; Chinese: 修習 / 修习, pinyin: xiūxi) = familiarize, become accustomed to, condition to; to be habituated, trained, made familiar with; adept, practiced, mastered, skilled, accustomed.
• easily confused (terms related to meditation): bhavana / gom (Tibetan: སྒོམ་, Wylie: sgom) (development, training, cultivation) is different from dhyanasamten / jhana / chan / zen (meditative concentration, mental focus, attention), which is different from abhyasa / gom (Tibetan: གོམས་, Wylie: goms) (familiarization, becoming accustomed to, conditioning)
• other languages: gom (Tibetan)
• external links: (abhyasa): wiktionarywikipedia ; (meditation): rigpawiki

Achala (Sanskrit: अचल, “The Immovable”, IAST: acala, also known as अचलनाथ, Acalanātha “Immovable Lord” ; Chinese: 不動明王 / 不动明王, pinyin: Bùdòng Míngwáng ; Japanese: 不動明王, Fudō Myōō, also 大日大聖不動明王, Dainichi Daishō Fudō Myōō ; Tibetan: མི་གཡོ་བ་, Miyowa ; Wylie: mi g.yo ba) = a wrathful deity and dharmapala (protector of the Dharma) prominent in Vajrayana Buddhism and East Asian Buddhism.
• other languages: Fudo Myo-o (Japanese)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ advaya (Sanskrit: अद्वय, IAST: advaya ; Tibetan: གཉིས་མེད་, nyi mé; Wylie: gnyis med ; Chinese: 無二, pinyin: wúèr) = nonduality, nondualism
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / 84000 glossary

Amida (Japanese: 阿弥陀仏, Amida Butsu) = Japanese name for Amitabha Buddha – see Amitabha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

Amitabha (Sanskrit: अमिताभ, IAST: amitābha ; Tibetan: འོད་དཔག་མེད་, öpakmé or öpamé; Wylie: ‘od dpag med “boundless/infinite light” ; Japanese: 阿弥陀仏, Amida Butsu ; Chinese: 阿彌陀佛 / 阿弥陀佛, pinyin: Ēmítuó fó) = the Buddha of Boundless Light (also known as Amida or Amitayus), belonging to the padma or lotus family (one of the five buddha families). Amitabha is the principal buddha in Pure Land Buddhism, a branch of East Asian Buddhism. In Vajrayana Buddhism, Amitabha is known for his longevity attribute, magnetising red fire element, the aggregate of discernment, pure perception and the deep awareness of emptiness of phenomena.
• other languages: Amida (Japanese)
• see also: Amitayus (alternate name for Amitabha) ; Jodo bukkyo (Pure Land Buddhism) ; pañchakula (five buddha families) ; Sitatapatra (White Umbrella) ; Sukhavati (pure land of Amitabha) ; tariki (other-power, reliance on Amitabha in Japanese Pure Land Buddhism)
• external links: wiktionarywikipedia / rigpawiki / Himalayan Art / 84000 glossary

Amitayus (Sanskrit: अमितायुस्, IAST: amitāyus) = alternate name for Amitabha Buddha. (Amitabha means “Infinite Light”, and Amitayus means “Infinite Life” so Amitabha is also called “The Buddha of Immeasurable Light and Life”). One of the three deities associated with longevity (along with White Tara and Ushnishavijaya).
• see also: Amitabha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)
• external links: 84000 glossary

≫ amra (Sanskrit: आम्र, IAST: āmra ; Tibetan: ཨ་མྲ ; Wylie: a mra) = mango. The simile of the mango fruit containing the seed that will grow into the king of trees is the 6th simile/example of Buddhanature and temporary/adventitious defilements in Maitreya’s Uttaratantra-shastra.
• see also: Uttaratantra-shastra
• external links: (आम्र, āmra = mango): wiktionary / (आमड़ा, amra = the hog plum, a sour tangy mango-like fruit): wiktionary / JhaJi

Ananda (Sanskrit: आनन्द, IAST: Ānanda, literally “joy, bliss” ; Tibetan: ཀུན་དགའ་བོ་, kün ga wo; Wylie: kun dga’ bo) (5th-4th century BCE) = the Buddha’s cousin, who later became his primary attendant and one of his ten principal disciples. Among the Buddha’s many disciples, Ananda was known for having the best memory. Most of the texts of the early Buddhist Sutta-Pitaka are attributed to his recollection of the Buddha’s teachings during the First Buddhist Council.
• external links: wiktionarywikipedia / rigpawiki / 84000 glossary

anapanasati (Pāli: आनापानसति, IAST: ānāpānasati = आनापान ānāpāna “inhalation and exhalation” + सति sati “memory, recognition, consciousness” ; Sanskrit: आनापानस्मृति, IAST: ānāpānasmṛti, literally “keeping remembrance of breathing” = āna “breathing, exhalation, inhalation” + पान pāna “observing, keeping” + स्मृति smṛti “remembrance, thinking of or upon, calling to mind” (some sources suggest: आनापान ānāpāna “inhalation and exhalation” + स्मृति smṛti “remembrance, thinking of or upon, calling to mind”) ; Chinese: 數息觀, pinyin: shǔxí guān) = mindfulness of breathing, a form of Buddhist meditation originally taught by Gautama Buddha in several suttas including the Ānāpānasati Sutta (MN 118). Anapanasati is now common to Tibetan, Zen, Tiantai and Theravada Buddhism, as well as contemporary Western mindfulness programs.
• other languages: anapanasmirti (Sanskrit)
• see also: sati (mindfulness)
• external links: wikipedia / 84000 glossary ; (Ānāpānasati Sutta MN 118): Access to Insight

anapanasmirti (Sanskrit: आनापानस्मृति, IAST: ānāpānasmṛti) = mindfulness of breathing – see anapanasati (Pāli ≫ main entry).

anatta (Pāli: अनत्ता, IAST: anattā ; Sanskrit: अनात्मन्, IAST: anātman, “not self”, “devoid of self”, “something different from self”, “another” ; Tibetan: བདག་མེད་, dakmé; Wylie: bdag med ; Japanese: 無我, muga, “selfless” ; Chinese: 無我 / 无我, pinyin: wúwǒ, “without self”) = no-self, non-self, without self, egoless, ownerless. DJKR: “nothing is how it appears”. Third of the 3 marks of existence.
• other languages: dakmé (Tibetan)
• see also: trilakshana (3 marks of existence): (1) anicca (impermanence), (2) dukkha (unsatisfactoriness) (3) anatta (nonself).
• glossary: 3 marks of existence
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / Merriam-Webster / tricycle / 84000 glossary

Angushtha (Sanskrit: अण्गुष्ठ, IAST: Aṇguṣṭha ; Tibetan: མཐེ་བོ་ཅན་, té bo chen; Wylie: mthe bo can) = the Buddha realm “Thumb-sized”, which is presided over by the Buddha Sangyé Karmala Gawa (Jyotīrāma).
• source: The realm is described in “The Flower Bank World”, Book 5 of the Avatamsaka Sutra (the Flower Ornament Sutra). Jamgön Kongtrül Lodrö Thayé also cites the Avatamsaka Sutra as a source for his description of the Buddha realms in Section II.A.2 in “Treasury of Knowledge, Book 1: Myriad Worlds”.
• see also: Sangyé Karmala Gawa (Jyotīrāma, The Buddha ‘Delight in Stars’)
• external references: Jamgön Kongtrül Lodrö Thayé, translated by Kalu Rinpoche Translation Group (2013) “Treasury of Knowledge, Book 1: Myriad Worlds”, Snow Lion: Boston and London.
• external links: (aṅguṣṭha): 84000 glossary ; (Avatamsaka Sutra): wikipedia ; (Buddhist cosmology): wikipedia

anicca (Pāli: अनिच्चा, IAST: anicca ; Sanskrit: अनित्य, IAST: anitya ; Tibetan: མི་རྟག་པ་, mi takpa; Wylie: mi rtag pa ; Japanese: 無常, mujō ; Chinese: 無常 / 无常, pinyin: wúcháng) = impermanence, impermanent. DJKR: “nothing is certain”. First of the 3 marks of existence.
• see also: mono no aware (appreciation of the fleeting nature of beauty) ; trilakshana (3 marks of existence): (1) anicca (impermanence), (2) dukkha (unsatisfactoriness) (3) anatta (nonself).
• glossary: 3 marks of existence
• external links: wiktionary / 84000 glossary

anumana (Sanskrit: अनुमान, IAST: anumāna; also: अनुमानम्, IAST: anumānam) = inference, inferential cognition – see jépak (Tibetan ≫ main entry).
• external links: wiktionary / 84000 glossary

≫ anumodana (Pāli: अनुमोदन, IAST: anumodana ; Tibetan: རྗེས་སུ་ཡི་རང་བ ; Wylie: rjes su yi rang ba) = rejoicing in the virtue ; thanksgiving; appreciation; transference of merit. Monks in the Thai Forest tradition often chant or recite the anumodana after meal-offerings, which is an expression of rejoicing in the merit generated by the donors, rather than a direct form of saying “Thank you”
• external links: Princeton / Wisdom Library / Dhamma Wheel

 arhat (Sanskrit: अर्हत्, IAST: arhat, from the verbal root √arh “to deserve” ; Tibetan: དགྲ་བཅོམ་པ་, drachompa; Wylie: dgra bcom pa “foe-destroyer” ; Pāli: अरहन्त्, IAST: arahant ; Burmese: ရဟန္တာ ; Chinese: 阿羅漢 / 阿罗汉, pinyin: āluóhàn, often shortened to Chinese: 羅漢 / 罗汉, Pinyin: luóhàn) = one who has attained nirvana by gaining insight into the true nature of existence; name given to the ultimate result of the Shravakayana and Pratyekabuddhayana paths.
• see also: bodhisattva ; buddha ; pratyekabuddha.
• external links: wiktionarywikipedia / rigpawiki / Himalayan Art / 84000 glossary

ariya (Pali: अरिय, IAST: ariya; also shortened to Pāli: अय्य, IAST: ayya) = noble being or sublime being – see arya (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

 ariya atthangika magga (Pāli: अरिय अट्ठङ्गिक मग्ग, IAST: ariya + aṭṭhaṅgika + magga ; Sanskrit: आर्याष्टाङ्गमार्ग, IAST: āryāṣṭāṅgamārga ; Tibetan: འཕགས་པའི་ལམ་ཡན་ལག་བརྒྱད་པ་, pakpé lam yenlak gyépa ; Wylie: ‘phags pa’i lam yan lag brgyad pa, also: Tibetan: འཕགས་ལམ་གྱི་ཡན་ལག་བརྒྱད་, paklam gyi yenlak gyé; Wylie: ‘phags lam gyi yan lag brgyad) = The Noble Eightfold Path, literally “eightfold path of the noble ones”. The Noble Eightfold Path was part of the Buddha’s first teaching (along with the Four Noble Truths) following his enlightenment in Bodh Gaya, which he gave at the Deer Park in Sarnath. It comprises eight practices:
(1) right view or understanding (Sanskrit: सम्यक्दृष्टि, IAST: samyagdṛṣṭi; Pāli: sammādiṭṭhi; Tibetan: ཡང་དག་པའི་ལྟ་བ, Wylie: yang dag pa’i lta ba)
(2) right intention or resolve (Sanskrit: सम्यक्संकल्प, IAST: samyaksaṃkalpa; Pāli: sammāsaṅkappa; Tibetan: ཡང་དག་པའི་རྟོག་པ་, Wylie: yang dag pa’i rtog pa)
(3) right speech (Sanskrit: सम्यग्वाच्s, IAST: samyagvāc; Pāli: sammāvācā; Tibetan: ཡང་དག་པའི་ངག་, Wylie: yang dag pa’i ngag)
(4) right action or conduct (Sanskrit: सम्यक्कर्मान्त, IAST: samyakkarmānta; Pāli: sammākammanta; Tibetan: ཡང་དག་པའི་ལས་ཀྱི་མཐའ་, Wylie: yang dag pa’i las kyi mtha’)
(5) right livelihood (Sanskrit: सम्यगाजीव, IAST: samyagājīva; Pāli: sammāājīva; Tibetan: ཡང་དག་པའི་འཚོ་བ་, Wylie: yang dag pa’i ‘tsho ba)
(6) right effort (Sanskrit: सम्यग्व्यायाम, IAST: samyagvyāyāma; Pāli: sammāvāyāma; Tibetan: ཡང་དག་པའི་རྩོལ་བ་, Wylie: yang dag pa’i rtsol ba)
(7) right mindfulness (Sanskrit: सम्यक्स्मृति, IAST: samyaksmṛti; Pāli: sammāsati; Tibetan: ཡང་དག་པའི་དྲན་པ་, Wylie: yang dag pa’i dran pa)
(8) right concentration or samadhi (Sanskrit: सम्यक्समाधि, IAST: samyaksamādhi; Pāli: sammāsamādhi; Tibetan: ཡང་དག་པའི་ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་, Wylie: yang dag pa’i ting nge ‘dzin)
Note: the word “right” (Sanskrit: samyak- / samyag-, from सम्यञ्च्, IAST: samyañc; Tibetan: ཡང་དག ; Wylie: yang dag) has the connotation of “authentic, real, genuine; perfect, excellent, correct, proper, in the right way; whole, entire, total, complete” rather than any moral/ethical connotation of right vs wrong. For example, we might talk of the “right” way to build the wall of a house so that it is vertical and straight. The eight practices of the Noble Eightfold Path are often categorised in terms of the trishiksha (three-fold training), the three trainings that purify the three poisons. The three-fold training is:
prajña: (training in wisdom) = (1) right view and (2) right intention;
shila: (training in moral discipline/virtue, or skilful means: see note on Mahayana) = (3) right speech, (4) right action and (5) right livelihood;
samadhi: (training in meditation or contemplation) = (6) right effort, (7) right mindfulness and (8) right concentration.
Note on Mahayana: the trishiksha is a Theravada categorisation; in the Mahayana, the way we relate and behave towards others is understood in terms of bodhichitta rather than shila, so e.g. in his 2024 teachings on the Mahayana King of Aspiration Prayers, DJKR expressed the three-fold training as “wisdom, skilful means and samadhi”.
The Noble Eightfold Path also forms part of the 37 factors of enlightenment (sattatimsa bodhipakkhiya dhamma).
• see also: cattari ariyasaccani (The Four Noble Truths: the Noble Eightfold Path corresponds to the fourth noble truth) ; sattatimsa bodhipakkhiya dhamma (37 qualities conducive to awakening, 37 factors of enlightenment) ; trishiksha (3-fold training) ; yangdak (right)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / 84000 glossary

ariya sacca (Pāli: अरिय सच्च, IAST: ariya “noble” + sacca “true”) = [Four] Noble Truths, literally “truths of the noble ones”, i.e. it is not that the truths are noble, rather that they are truths of the noble ones (aryas) – see cattari ariyasaccani (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)
• see also: arya (noble or sublime being) ; cattari ariyasaccani (Four Noble Truths ≫ main entry)

≫ arura (Tibetan: ཨ་རུ་ར།, Wylie: a ru ra ; Sanskrit: हरीतकी, IAST: harītakī ; Chinese: 呵利勒, pinyin: hēlìlè) = myrobalan, specifically the black myrobalan or Chebulic Myrobalan (Terminalia chebula), a plant native to the Indian Subcontinent, West Yunnan, and Indo-China that is believed to possess extraordinary healing properties and contribute to longevity. It is also believed to be very conducive to meditation practice. The Medicine Buddha is often depicted with a fruit or sprig of this plant. One of the “three precious jewels of Tibetan medicine” or the three myrobalan fruits (drébu sum), also known as aru-baru-kyuru.
• see also: drébu sum (the three medicinal fruits): arura (Terminalia chebula) ; barura (Terminalia bellirica) ; kyurura (Phyllanthus emblica)
• external links: wikipedia / 84000 glossary

≫ arya (Sanskrit: आर्य, IAST: ārya “honourable, noble, high” ; Pāli: अरिय, IAST: ariya ; also shortened to Pāli: अय्य, IAST: ayya ; Tibetan: འཕགས་པ་, pakpa; Wylie: ‘phags pa ; Burmese: အယ် ; Chinese: 勝人 / 胜人, pinyin: shèngrén) = noble being or sublime being, i.e. no longer an ordinary samsaric being. Refers to a being that has attained the path of seeing, whether as a shravaka, pratyekabuddha or bodhisattva.
• other languages: ariya (Pāli) ; ayya (Pāli)
• see also: cattari ariyasaccani (Four Noble Truths, i.e. four truths of the aryas) ; sheng (sage)
• external links: wiktionarywikipediarigpawiki / 84000 glossary

≫ Aryadeva (Sanskrit: आर्यदेव, IAST: Āryadeva ; Tibetan འཕགས་པ་ལྷ་, Pakpa Lha; Wylie: ‘phags pa lha ; Chinese: 聖提婆, pinyin: Shèng típó) (2nd-3rd century CE) = a 2nd/3rd century Mahayana Buddhist master and Madhyamaka scholar, a disciple of Nagarjuna and author of several important Madhyamaka Buddhist texts, including the Catuhsataka-shastra-nama-karika (the Four Hundred Verses on the Middle Way, Sanskrit: चतुःशतकशास्त्रकारिका, IAST: Catuḥśataka-śāstra-kārikā; Chinese: 廣百論, pinyin: Guǎngbǎi lùn). He is included as one of the 84 mahasiddhas, and is also known as Kanadeva (Chinese: 迦那提婆, pinyin: Jiānàtípó), who is recognised as the 15th patriarch in Chan Buddhism.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy / Study Buddhism / Nichiren Buddhism Library 

Arya-Bhadracharya-Pranidhana-Raja (Sanskrit: Ārya-Bhadracaryā-Praṇidhāna-Rāja, commonly shortened to Praṇidhāna-Rāja / Tibetan: བཟང་པོ་སྤྱོད་པའི་སྨོན་ལམ་གྱི་རྒྱལ་པོ, Wylie: bzang po spyod pa’i smon lam gyi rgyal po, also commonly shortened to Tibetan: བཟང་སྤྱོད་སྨོན་ལམ, Zangchö Mönlam, Wylie: bzang spyod smon lam ; Chinese: 普賢行願品, pinyin: Pǔxián xíngyuàn pǐn) = Samantabhadra’s King of Aspiration Prayers (also known as “Samantabhadra’s Aspiration for Exalted Conduct, the King of Prayers”) found in the Gandavyuha chapter of the Avatamsaka Sutra. It is also known as the “Bhadracharya Prayer”.
• see also (DJKR teaching): Aspiration is the King (Vancouver, January 6-7. 2024)
• see also: Aspiration: 9-week program (March-May, 2024)
• see also: Avatamsaka Sutra ; bhadracharya (good/virtuous action) ; Gandavyuha Sutra ; Samantabhadra (bodhisattva) ; yenlak dün (The Seven Branch Offering, which comprises verses 1 – 12 of the Pranidhana-Raja)
• external links: (English translations): Lotsawa House / 84000 / Kagyu Shenpen Ösel Choling (Thrangu Rinpoche) / Thubten Chödrön / Samye Translations (with Tibetan root text) / 84000 glossary ; (Chinese-English): 普贤行愿品偈颂 (Amitabha Buddhist Center) / Purelanders / 普賢行願品 (Taishō 293 by Prajñā, from Avatamsaka Sutra in 40 chapters) ; (method of recitation, by Jamyang Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö): Lotsawa House

≫ asana (Pāli: आसन, IAST: āsana ; Sanskrit: आसन, IAST: āsana ; Tibetan: འདུག་སྟངས་, duk tang ; Wylie: ‘dug stangs) = physical posture; general term for a sitting meditation pose, later extended in hatha yoga and modern yoga to include any type of pose or position.
• other languages: duktang (Tibetan)
• external links: wiktionarywikipedia

≫ Asanga (Sanskrit: असङ्ग, IAST: Asaṅga, literally “having no attachment” ; Tibetan: ཐོགས་མེད།, tokmé ; Wylie: thogs med ; Chinese: 無著, pinyin: Wúzhuó) (fl. 4th century CE) = a 4th century Mahayana Buddhist master and founder of the Yogachara school of Buddhist philosophy, one of the most important figures of Mahayana Buddhism. Traditionally, he and his half-brother Vasubandhu are regarded as the major classical Indian Sanskrit exponents of Mahayana Abhidharma, Vijñanavada (awareness only) thought, and Mahayana teachings on the bodhisattva path.
• see also: Yogachara
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / TBRC / Himalayan Art / 84000 glossary

≫ Ashoka (Sanskrit: अशोक, IAST: Aśoka ; Tibetan: མྱ་ངན་མེད་, nyangen mé ; Wylie: mya ngan med, literally ‘free from misery”) = King Ashoka (c. 304 – 232 BCE), popularly known as Ashoka the Great, the third Mauryan Emperor of Magadha in the Indian subcontinent during c. 268 to 232 BCE. His empire spanned from present-day Afghanistan in the west to present-day Bangladesh in the east, with its capital at Pataliputra. He was a great patron of Buddhism, and is credited with playing an important role in the spread of Buddhism across ancient Asia.
• see also: Magadha (kingdom in ancient India)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ ashrama (Sanskrit: आश्रम, ashrama; IAST: āśrama) = the four age-based stages of life according to Hindu philosophy. Traditionally, each stage was considered to last 25 years:
(1) brahmacharya (Sanskrit: ब्रह्मचारिन्, IAST: brahmacārin) = student; a young Brahman who is a student of the vedas (under a preceptor) or who practises chastity; a young Brahman before marriage (i.e. in the first period of his life).
(2) grihastha (Sanskrit: गृहस्थ, IAST: gṛha “domestic or family life” + stha “occupied with, engaged in, devoted to performing, practising”) = householder
(3) vanaprastha (Sanskrit: वानप्रस्थ, IAST: vānaprastha) = retired; a Brahman in the third stage of life, who has passed through the stages of student and householder and has abandoned his house and family for an ascetic life in the woods, “forest-dweller”; hermit, anchorite.
(4) sannyasa (Sanskrit: संन्यासिन्, IAST: saṃnyāsin) = renunciant; one who abandons or resigns worldly affairs; ascetic, devotee who has renounced all earthly concerns and devotes himself to study and meditation.
• see also: purushartha (4 purposes of life according to Hindu philosophy) ; sannyasa (renunciant)
• external links: wiktionarywikipedia

≫ ashtavijñanakaya (Sanskrit: अष्ट विज्ञानकायाः, IAST: aṣṭa + vijñāna + kāyāḥ ; Tibetan: རྣམ་ཤེས་ཚོགས་བརྒྱད་, namshé tsok gyé; Wylie: rnam shes tshogs brgyad, literally “eight collections or gatherings of consciousness”) = the eight consciousnesses, a classification developed in the tradition of the Yogachara school of Mahayana Buddhism.
• see also: kushiki (nine consciousnesses in Nichiren Buddhism)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

Ashtasahasrika Prajñaparamita Sutra (Sanskrit: अष्टसाहस्रिका प्रज्ञापारमिता सूत्र, IAST: Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra = अष्ट aṣṭa “eight” + साहस्रक sāhasraka “thousand” + प्रज्ञापारमिता prajñāpāramitā, “perfection in/of wisdom” + सूत्र sūtra “discourse (literally: string, thread)” ; Tibetan: ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ་བརྒྱད་སྟོང་པ་, Wylie: pha rol tu phyin pa brgyad stong pa) (c. 50 CE) = The Prajñaparamita Sutra in 8000 Lines (or “Perfection of Wisdom in 8000 Lines”), an important text for Mahayana Buddhism. It is not only the oldest surviving Buddhist manuscript; it is also the first of the Prajñaparamita sutras and is therefore foundational to the development of the Madhyamaka. According to wikipedia: “The sūtra’s manuscript witnesses date to at least ca. 50 CE, making it the oldest Buddhist manuscript in existence. The sūtra forms the basis for the expansion and development of the Prajñāpāramitā sūtra literature. In terms of its influence in the development of Buddhist philosophical thought, P.L. Vaidya writes that “all Buddhist writers from Nāgārjuna, Āryadeva, Maitreyanātha, Asaṅga, Vasubandhu, Dignāga, down to Haribhadra concentrated their energies in interpreting Aṣṭasāhasrikā only,” making it of great significance in the development of Madhyāmaka and Yogācāra thought.”
• Quotes: “Mind; there is no mind; mind is luminous
• see also: Prajñaparamitahridayasutra (Heart Sutra)
• external links: (Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra): wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki ; (Sanskrit original): Gretil Archive ; (Tibetan translation): rywiki ; (English translations): Edward Conze 1973 translation available at Huntington Archive

Atiyoga (Sanskrit: अतियोग, IAST: atiyoga = ati “beyond; surpassing”+ yoga “joining; uniting; union” ; Tibetan:  ཤིན་ཏུ་རྣལ་འབྱོར་, shintu naljor or shintu nenjor; Wylie: shin tu rnal ‘byor “yoga of the innermost essence”) = Dzogchen; the highest yana within the classification of nine yanas of the Nyingma school. “Ati” indicates the topmost, summit or zenith. It has the sense of scaling a mountain, reaching the peak and having a view over everything.
• other names: Dzogchen (Tibetan ≫ main entry) ; Mahasandhi
• external links: rigpawiki

≫ atman (Sanskrit: आत्मन्, IAST: ātman) = true or eternal Self or the self-existent essence of each individual, which persists across multiple bodies and lifetimes; Supreme Self ; soul ; principle of life and sensation ; essence, nature, character, peculiarity ; the breath. Mahayana Buddhist philosophy places great emphasis on distinguishing atman from Buddhanature (tathagatagarbha).
• see also: tathagatagarbha
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / 84000 glossary

≫ Avalokiteshvara (Sanskrit: अवलोकितेश्वर, IAST: Avalokiteśvara “lord who gazes down (at the world)”, also known as Padmapāṇi “holder of the lotus” or Lokeśvara “lord of the world” ; Tibetan: སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་, Chenrezig or Chenrézik; Wylie: spyan ras gzigs ; Japanese: 観音, Kannon, also 観世音, Kanzeon ; Chinese: 觀音, pinyin: Guānyīn, also 觀世音, pinyin: Guānshìyīn “one who observes the sounds of the world” or “observer of all existence”) = the bodhisattva of compassion; a bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all the buddhas, usually depicted as white in color and holding a lotus, and who is portrayed in many different forms and in different cultures as either male or female (all bodhisattvas embody compassion, however Avalokiteshvara has become the most popular archetype and example). In Tibet, he is known as Chenrezig and is said to emanate as the Dalai Lama, the Karmapa and other high lamas, whereas in Chinese Buddhism, Avalokiteshvara has evolved into the female bodhisattva Guanyin. There are practices for many different forms of Avalokiteshvara, including 2-armed, 4-armed and 1000-armed forms. In Chinese and East Asian tantric Buddhism, practices for the 18-armed form of Avalokiteshvara called Cundi are very popular. The original Sanskrit form of the name was Avalokitasvara, “who looks down upon sound” (i.e. the cries of sentient beings who need help), which was supplanted by the form containing the ending -īśvara “lord” (the name Avalokiteśvara does not occur in Sanskrit before the 7th century). As a result, some later interpretations of Avalokiteshvara, especially in Vajrayana Buddhism, portray him with the lordly, regal and price-like or king-like aspects and attributes of Ishvara (Sanskrit: ईश्वर, IAST: Īśvara).
• see also: OM MANI PADME HUM (The six-syllable mantra of Avalokiteshvara)
• external links: wiktionarywikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki / Himalayan Art

avarana (Sanskrit: आवरण, IAST: āvaraṇa “covering, veil”) = defilement, obscuration – see drib (Tibetan ≫ main entry).
• external links: wiktionary / 84000 glossary

avarana-dvaya (Sanskrit: आवरणद्वय, IAST: āvaraṇadvaya) = the two obscurations – see dribpa nyi (Tibetan ≫ main entry).

≫ Avatamsaka Sutra (Sanskrit: आवतंसक सूत्र, IAST: Avataṃsaka Sūtra = avataṃsaka + sūtra ; Tibetan: མདོ་ཕལ་པོ་ཆེ་, do palpo ché; Wylie: mdo phal po che ; Chinese: 華嚴經, Pinyin: Huáyán jīng) = The Flower Ornament Sutra (also known as the Flower Garland Sutra, Flower Adornment Sutra, or Flower Ornament Scripture), one of the most important and largest of all Mahayana sutras. The translator Thomas Cleary has called it “the most grandiose, the most comprehensive, and the most beautifully arrayed of the Buddhist scriptures.” The Avatamsaka Sutra describes a cosmos of infinite realms upon realms, mutually containing one another. This sutra has been especially influential in East Asian Buddhism and Chan Buddhism, and its view of mutual interpenetration is the foundation of the Huayan school of Chinese Buddhism. The Avatamsaka Sutra includes the Dashabhumika Sutra (The Ten Bhumi Sutra) and the Gandavyuha Sutra (The Stem Array or Excellent Manifestation Sutra), which in turn includes Samantabhadra’s Aspiration to Good Actions (the Pranidhana-Raja).
• see also: Angushtha (The Buddha realm “Thumb-sized”) ; Arya-Bhadracharya-Pranidhana-Raja (Samantabhadra’s King of Aspiration Prayers) ; Dashabhumika Sutra (The Ten Bhumi Sutra) ; Gandavyuha Sutra (The Stem Array)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / 84000 ; (interview with translator Peter Alan Roberts): 84000

≫ avidya (Sanskrit: अविद्या, IAST: avidyā ; Pali: अविज्जा, IAST: avijjā ; Tibetan: མ་རིག་པ་, ma rigpa; Wylie: ma rig pa ; Chinese: 無明 / 无明, pinyin: wúmíng) = ignorance, nescience, confusion, delusion, folly; the fundamental misunderstanding of reality that underlies all of the suffering of unenlightened people; the first of the 12 links of dependent origination; misconceptions about the nature of reality, in particular not understanding or acceptance the 3 marks of existence; third of the 6 destructive emotions.
• easily confused: moha (bewilderment/confusion) is different from avidya / ma rigpa (ignorance)
• see also: dvadasha pratityasamutpada (12 links of dependent origination) ; klesha (destructive emotions) ; mulaklesha (6 destructive emotions): (1) raga (desire), (2) pratigha (anger), (3) avidya (ignorance), (4) mana (pride), (5) vichikitsa (doubt), (6) drishti (view) ; trilakshana (3 marks of existence)
• external links: wiktionary / 84000 glossary

avijja (Pali: अविज्जा, IAST: avijjā) = ignorance, confusion, delusion – see avidya (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

ayya (Pāli: अय्य, IAST: ayya) = noble being or sublime being; used as honorific to refer to ordained Buddhist monks and nuns (bhikkhus and bhikkunis) in the Theravada tradition – see arya (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).
• see also: bhikshu (Buddhist monk) ; bhikshuni (Buddhist nun) ; Theravada (the school of the elders)
• external links: wiktionary / 84000 glossary

[Back to Top of A ↑]