# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Link colours: external dictionaries in green, internal website links in light blue, external website links in dark blue


 paan (Hindi: पान, pān, lit. “betel vine”; from Sanskrit: पर्ण, IAST: parṇa, meaning “leaf”) = a stimulating, psychoactive preparation of betel leaf combined with areca nut and/or cured tobacco that is widely consumed in Southeast Asia, East Asia and the Indian subcontinent.
• see also: binglang (Taiwanese equivalent of paan)
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia

Padmakara (Sanskrit: पद्माकर, IAST: padmākara = padma “lotus” + kara “made, produced”; Tibetan: པདྨཱ་ཀ་ར་, Wylie: pad+mA ka ra) – see Padmasambhava (Sanskrit ≫main entry).
• other names: Guru Rinpoche; Padmasambhava (Sanskrit ≫main entry) 

 Padmasambhava (Sanskrit: पद्मसम्भव, IAST: padmasambhava = padma “lotus” + sambhava “born, arisen from”; literally “lotus-born”, “born from a lotus”; Tibetan: པདྨ་འབྱུང་གནས་, Pemajungné; Wylie: pad+ma ‘byung gnas) = Guru Rinpoche, the “Precious Master”, the founder of Tibetan Buddhism in the 8th or 9th century (also known as Padmakara). According to tradition, Padmasambhava was incarnated as an eight-year-old child appearing in a lotus blossom floating in Lake Dhanakosha, in the kingdom of Oddiyana (located variously by scholars as being in the Swat Valley of modern-day Pakistan or the present-day state of Odisha in India). He helped to construct the first Buddhist monastery in Tibet at Samye, at the behest of King Trisong Deutsen (who ruled c. 755-797/804 CE). While Buddha Shakyamuni exemplifies the buddha principle, the most important element in the sutrayana path, Padmasambhava personifies the guru principle, the heart of Vajrayana Buddhism, and he is therefore known as the ‘second Buddha’ (Tibetan: སངས་རྒྱས་གཉིས་པ་, sangyé nyipa; Wylie: sangs rgyas gnyis pa). The Nyingma school considers Padmasambhava to be a founder of the Nyingma lineage and tradition.
• other names: Guru RinpochePadmakara
• see also: DzogchenNyingmatertön
• external links: (Padmasambhava): wikipedia / rigpawiki / Himalayan Art; (8 manifestations of Guru Rinpoche): wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki / Himalayan Art; (25 disciples of Guru Rinpoche): rigpawiki / Himalayan Art

 pañchabuddha (Sanskrit: पञ्चबुद्ध, IAST pañca “five” + buddha; Tibetan: སྐུ་ལྔ་རྒྱལ་པོ་, Wylie: sku lnga rgyal po; Chinese: 五佛, pinyin: wǔfó) = the five dhyani-buddhas (also known as the five tathagatas) of the five buddha families, which correspond to the five wisdoms. In the vajradhātu mandala (Chinese: 金剛界曼荼羅, pinyin: jīngāng jiè màntúluó) the five are:
• Mahavairocana (Chinese: 毘盧遮那, pinyin: Pílúzhēnà) (white)
• Akshobhya (Chinese: 阿閦, pinyin: Āchù) (blue)
• Ratnasambhava (Chinese: 寶生, pinyin: Bǎoshēng) (yellow)
• Amitabha (Chinese: 阿彌陀, pinyin: Āmítuó) (red)
• Amoghasiddhi (Chinese: 不空成就, pinyin: Bùkōng chéngjiù) (green)
• see also: pañchakula (five buddha families); pañchatathagata (five tathagatas)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki / Britannica / Digital Dictionary of Buddhism / Himalayan Art

 pañchakula (Sanskrit: पञ्चकुल, IAST pañca “five” + kula “race, family, tribe, caste”; Tibetan: རིགས་ལྔ་, rik nga’; Wylie: rigs lnga; Chinese: 五族如來, pinyin: wǔzú rúlái) = the five buddha families, which correspond to the five poisons and the five wisdoms (or five aspects of timeless awareness) as follows:
• buddha (centre/white) | delusion/ignorance | wisdom of dharmadhatu (Sanskrit: dharmadhātujñāna; Tibetan: ཆོས་ཀྱི་དབྱིངས་ཀྱི་ཡེ་ཤེས་, chökyi yingkyi yeshe; Wylie: chos kyi dbyings kyi ye shes; Chinese: 法界體性智, pinyin: fǎjiè tǐxìng zhì)
• vajra (east/blue) | anger | mirror-like wisdom (Sanskrit: ādarśajñāna; Tibetan: མེ་ལོང་ལྟ་བུའི་ཡེ་ཤེས་, melong tabü yeshe; Wylie: me long lta bu’i ye shes; Chinese: 大圓鏡智, pinyin: dà yuánjing zhì)
• ratna (or jewel) (south/yellow) | pride | wisdom of equality (Sanskrit: samatājñāna; Tibetan: མཉམ་ཉིད་ཡེ་ཤེས་, nyam nyi yeshe; Wylie: mnyam nyid ye shes; Chinese: 平等性智, pinyin: píngděng xìng zhì)
• padma (or lotus) (west/red) | desire | wisdom of discernment (Sanskrit: pratyavekṣanājñāna; Tibetan: སོ་སོར་རྟོག་པའི་ཡེ་ཤེས་, sosor tokpé yeshe; Wylie: so sor rtog pa’i ye shes; Chinese: 妙觀察智, pinyin: miào guānchá zhì)
• karma (or action) (north/green) | jealousy | all-accomplishing wisdom (Sanskrit: kṛtyānuṣṭhānajñāna; Tibetan: བྱ་བ་གྲུབ་པའི་ཡེ་ཤེས་, jawa drubpé yeshe; Wylie: bya ba grub pa’i ye shes; Chinese: 成所作智, pinyin: chéng suǒzuò zhì)
• see also: pañchabuddha (five dhyani-buddhas); pañchakleshavisha (five poisons); yeshe nga (five wisdoms)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

 pañchakleshavisha (Sanskrit: पञ्चक्लेशविष, pañcha kleshavisha; IAST: pañca kleśaviṣa = पञ्च pañca “five” + क्लेश kleśa “pain, affliction, trouble”+ विष viṣa “poison, anything actively pernicious”; Tibetan: དུག་ལྔ་, duk nga; Wylie: dug lnga) = the five poisons in the Mahayana tradition. The five poisons consist of the three poisons (trivisha) of delusion/ignorance, attachment and aversion, together with two additional poisons: pride and jealousy. When their nature is realized, they manifest as the five wisdoms, which correspond to the five buddha families.
• see also: trivisha (three poisons)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki

panchashila (Sanskrit) = redirects to pañchashila

 pañchashila (Sanskrit: पञ्चशील, pañcaśīla; Pāli: pañcasīla; Tibetan: དགེ་བསྙེན་གྱི་སྡོམ་པ་, gé nyen gyi dom pa; Wylie: dge bsnyen gyi sdom pa) = the five precepts or five vows, the most important system of morality for Buddhist laypeople. To follow the five precepts is to vow to abstain from: killing, theft, sexual misconduct, falsehood and intoxication.
• see also: bhikshu (male monastic); bhikshuni (female monastic); upasaka (male lay practitioner); upasika (female lay practitioner)
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia

pañchatathagata (Sanskrit: पञ्चतथागत, IAST: pañca-tathāgata; Tibetan: སྐུ་ལྔ་རྒྱལ་པོ་, ku nga gyel po; Wylie: sku lnga rgyal po; Chinese: 五如來, pinyin: wǔ rúlái) = the five tathagatas or five dhyāni-buddhas of the five buddha families, which correspond to the five wisdoms – see pañchabuddha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki / Britannica / Digital Dictionary of Buddhism / Himalayan Art

 pandita (Sanskrit: पण्डित, IAST: paṇḍita; Tibetan: མཁས་པ་, khepa; Wylie: mkhas pa) = learned master, scholar (lit. “learned one”); professor in Buddhist philosophy.
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia

 panglen (Tibetan: སྤང་བླང་, panglen / panglang; Wylie: spang len / spang blang) = accept and reject, accepting and rejecting, adopt or abandon.
• see also: len (receive, accept, absorb, take hold, grasp, study) 

paramartha-satya (Sanskrit) = ultimate truth, ultimate reality – see döndam denpa(Tibetan ≫ main entry). 

 paramita (Pāli & Sanskrit: पारमिता, IAST: pāramitā = पार, pāra, “the further bank or shore or boundary, the opposite side, the end or limit, the utmost reach or fullest extent” + √मी, root word , “going, moving”; Tibetan: ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ་, parol tu chinpa; Wylie: pha rol tu phyin pa; also Pāli: पारमी, IAST: pāramī; Burmese: ပါရမီ; Chinese: 波羅蜜 / 波罗蜜, pinyin: bōluómì) = perfection, transcendent perfection, transcendental perfection, transcendental virtue. Noble character qualities and virtues generally associated with enlightened beings and cultivated on the Buddhist path. Literally means “reaching the other shore” or “gone to the other shore”. Particularly, it means transcending concepts of subject, object and action. The bodhisattva path comprises the cultivation of six paramitas (generosity, discipline, patience, diligence, meditative concentration, and wisdom) – see shatparamita.
• see also: paramita (transcendent perfection); shatparamita (6 paramitas): (1) dana(generosity), (2) shila (discipline), (3) kshanti (patience), (4) virya (diligence), (5) dhyana(meditative concentration), (6) prajña (wisdom); trishiksha (3-fold training) = discipline (shila), meditation (samadhi) & wisdom (prajña)
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki

 parinirvana (Sanskrit: परिनिर्वाण, IAST: parinirvāṇa = परि pari “fully” + निर्वाण nirvāṇa “extinguished”; Tibetan: ཡོངས་སུ་མྱ་ངན་ལས་འདས་པ་, yong su nya ngen lé dé pa; Wylie: yongs su mya ngan las ‘das pa, also shortened to ཡོངས་སུ་མྱང་འདས་, yongsu nyangdé; Wylie: yongs su myang ‘das) = completely extinguished; refers to final enlightenment or passing beyond suffering manifested by buddhas and highly realized masters at the end of their lives.
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki

 parishuddhi (Sanskrit: परिशुद्धि, IAST: pariśuddhi = परि pari “fully” + शुद्धि śuddhi“cleansing, purification, purity, holiness, freedom from defilement, purificatory rite”) = complete purification.
• external links: wisdom library

 Parnashavari ((Hindi: पार्णशबरी, Parṇaśavarī; Chinese: 葉衣菩薩, pinyin: Yèyī púsà; Tibetan: ལོ་མ་གྱོན་མ་, Loma Gyönma; Wylie: lo ma gyon ma, “leaf-clad goddess”) = a Hindu deity adopted as the Buddhist deity of diseases, who offers protection against outbreaks of epidemics.
• external links: wikipedia / Himalayan Art

 passana (Pāli: पस्सना, IAST: passanā; Sanskrit: पश्यन, IAST: paśyana, from Sanskrit: पश्य, IAST: paśya, “seeing, beholding, rightly understanding”, from root word √पश्, IAST: paś, “binding, fastening” as in बन्धन, bandhana; Tibetan: མཐོང་, tong; Wylie: mthong) = seeing.
• other languages: tong (Tibetan)
• see also: vipassana (special seeing, special insight) 

 Patrul Rinpoche (Tibetan: དཔལ་སྤྲུལ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ།; Wylie: dpal sprul rin po che; also Patrul Orgyen Jigme Chökyi Wangpo དཔལ་སྤྲུལ་ཨོ་རྒྱན་འཇིགས་མེད་ཆོས་ཀྱི་དབང་པོ།, Wylie: rdza dpal sprul o rgyan ‘jigs med chos kyi dbang po) (1808-1887) = a great 19th century Rimé (nonsectarian) master from the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism. One of the foremost masters and scholars of his time, known not only for his scholarship and learning but also for his example of renunciation and compassion. He is regarded as the speech emanation of Jigme Lingpa, and his principal teacher was Jigme Gyalwé Nyugu, a great master who was one of the foremost students of Jigme Lingpa. From Jigme Gyalwé Nyugu he received the teachings on the preliminary practices of the Longchen Nyingtik at least 25 times. His most famous works include “The Words of My Perfect Teacher” (Tibetan: ཀུན་བཟང་བླ་མའི་ཞལ་ལུང་, Kunzang Lamé Shyalung; Wylie: kun bzang bla ma’i zhal lung), an explanation of the Longchen Nyingtik ngöndro, and “Special Teaching of the Wise and Glorious King” (Tibetan: མཁས་པ་ཤྲཱི་རྒྱལ་པོའི་ཁྱད་ཆོས་, khépa shri gyalpö khyé chö; Wylie: mkhas pa shrI rgyal po’i khyad chos), his profound commentary on Garab Dorje’s seminal Dzogchen text “Three Words That Strike The Vital Point” (Tibetan: ཚིག་གསུམ་གནད་བརྡེགས་, tsik sum né dek, Wylie: tshig gsum gnad brdegs, “Hitting the Essence in Three Words”). One of the most famous and most beautiful quotes from the Dzogchen tradition captures the essence of the moment when Patrul Rinpoche gave a pointing-out instruction and introduced the nature of mind to his student Nyoshul Lungtok.
• quotes: “Do you see the stars up there in the sky?” (when Patrul Rinpoche introduced the nature of mind to Nyoshul Lungtok)
• external links: (Patrul Rinpoche): wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki / Treasury of Lives / Lotsawa House / TBRC; (“Enlightened Vagabond: The Life and Teachings of Patrul Rinpoche” by Matthieu Ricard): rywiki

Pön (Tibetan) = redirects to Bon

 poppa (Tibetan: སྤོབས་པ་. pop pa; Wylie: spobs pa) = self-confidence, courage, fearlessness. 

 prajña (Sanskrit: प्रज्ञा, IAST: prajña; Tibetan: ཤེས་རབ་, shérab / shérap; Wylie: shes rab; Chinese: 智慧 / 智慧, pinyin: zhìhuì) = precise discernment; wisdom; knowing correctly, clearly and fully, discriminating awareness; intelligence, knowledge; transcendent knowledge, sublime knowing; the sixth of the 6 paramitas (in the Mahayana path) and the third aspect of the 3-fold training (in the Theravada path). DJKR: “Discipline to become acquainted with and actually realize the truth. Basically, wisdom.”
• other languages: sherab (Tibetan)
• note (multiple translations): prajña (precise discernment, transcendent knowledge) and jñana (primordial wisdom) are both translated into English as “wisdom”
• see also: paramita (transcendent perfection); shatparamita (6 paramitas): (1) dana(generosity), (2) shila (discipline), (3) kshanti (patience), (4) virya (diligence), (5) dhyana(meditative concentration), (6) prajña (wisdom); trishiksha (3-fold training) = shila(ethical discipline/virtue), samadhi (meditative concentration/one-pointedness) & prajña (discriminative awareness/wisdom)
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki

 prajñaparamita (Sanskrit: प्रज्ञपारमिता, IAST: prajñapāramitā = प्रज्ञा prajña “wisdom” + पारमिता pāramitā “perfection”; Tibetan:  ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱི་ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ་, sherab kyi paröltu chin pa; Wylie: shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa, also shortened to Tibetan:  ཤེར་ཕྱིན་, sherchin; Wylie: sher phyin; Chinese: 般若波羅蜜, pinyin: bōrě bōluómì) = “The Perfection of (Transcendent) Wisdom”, the sixth of the 6 paramitas, the perfection of nondual or nonconceptual wisdom. In Mahayana Buddhism, Prajñaparamita refers to: (1) seeing the nature of reality as it is(2) the Prajñaparamita sutras that emerged in the 2nd century CE; (3) the personification of Prajñaparamita in the form of the bodhisattva known as the “Great Mother” (Yum Chenmo). Prajñaparamita is a central concept in Mahayana Buddhism and is generally associated with the Madhyamaka doctrine of shunyata (emptiness) and the works of Nagarjuna. Its practice and understanding are taken to be indispensable elements of the Bodhisattva path.
• see also: Ashtasahasrika Prajñaparamita Sutra (Prajñaparamita Sutra in 8000 lines); paramita (transcendent perfection); prajña (wisdom); Prajñaparamitahridayasutra (Heart Sutra)
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki / Himalayan Art

 Prajñaparamitahridayasutra (Sanskrit: प्रज्ञापारमिताहृदयसूत्र, IAST: Prajñāpāramitāhṛdaya-sūtra = प्रज्ञापारमिता, prajñāpāramitā, “perfection in/of wisdom” + हृदय, hṛdaya, “heart” + सूत्र sūtra “discourse (literally: string, thread)”; Tibetan: ཤེས་རབ་ཀྱི་ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པའི་སྙིང་པོ་, shérap kyi paröltu chinpé nyingpo; Wylie: shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa’i snying po; Chinese: 般若心經, pinyin: Bōrě xīnjīng, also shortened to 心經, pinyin: Xīnjīng) = The Heart Sutra, said to be the most frequently used and recited text in the entire Mahayana tradition. It is a condensed exposé of the Mahayana teaching of the Two Truths doctrine, presented as a dialogue between Avalokiteshvara and Shariputra. It includes the famous statement “Form is emptiness, emptiness is form”.
• DJKR teaching on Heart Sutra (June 5, 2020)
• see also: Ashtasahasrika Prajñaparamita Sutra (Prajñaparamita Sutra in 8000 lines); denpa nyi (two truths); GATE GATE PARAGATE PARASAMGATE BODHI SVAHA (mantra from Heart Sutra); sutra (includes partial list of sutras on this website)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

 pramana (Sanskrit: प्रमाण, IAST: pramāṇa; Tibetan: ཚད་མ་, tsema; Wylie: tshad ma) = valid cognition (lit. proof, means of knowledge); it refers to epistemology in Indian philosophies including Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism.
• see also: prayogavakya (syllogism)
• external links: (pramana): wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki; (Buddhist logic): wikipedia / Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

≫ prana (Sanskrit: प्राण, IAST: prāṇa) = vital air, breath, life, breath of life; wind; vigour, energy, power. In Vajrayana, the subtle body is considered to be composed of various nadis (channels or veins), pranas (winds or energies), and bindus (essences or drops).
• see also: qi (energy)
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia

 prasanga (Sanskrit: प्रसङ्ग, IAST: prasaṅga) = consequence (in Buddhist syllogisms); all that is connected with or results from; union, connection.
• see also: Prasangika (school of Madhyamaka Buddhism); prayogavakya (syllogism) 

 Prasangika (Sanskrit: प्रासङ्गिक, IAST: Prāsaṅgika; Tibetan: ཐལ་འགྱུར་པ་, talgyur / telgyur; Wylie: thal ‘gyur) = the Consequentialist (or “Consequence”) tradition, a subdivision of the Madhyamaka school of Buddhism philosophy. A defining feature of this approach is its use of consequentialist arguments (Sanskrit: prasanga) to establish the view of shunyata (emptiness). This approach was first explicitly formulated by the Indian scholar Buddhapalita (5th-6th century CE), challenged by his contemporary Bhaviveka (5th-6th century CE), and then later elaborated upon and defended by Chandrakirti (7th century CE). Although these philosophical debates took place in India, the distinction between the two Madhyamaka schools of Prasangika and Svatantrika was only introduced later by Tibetan scholars.
• see also: prayogavakya (syllogism); Svatantrika (school of Madhyamaka Buddhism)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

 pratigha (Sanskrit: प्रतिघ, IAST: pratigha; Pāli: दोस, IAST: dosa; Tibetan: ཁོང་ཁྲོ་, khongtro; Wylie: khong khro) = anger, aggression, wrath, enmity, malice; second of the 6 destructive emotions (mulaklesha).
• see also: klesha (afflictive/destructive/disturbing/negative emotions); mulaklesha (6 destructive emotions): (1) raga (desire), (2) pratigha (anger), (3) avidya (ignorance), (4) mana (pride), (5) vichikitsa (doubt), (6) drishti (view); nyöndrip (emotional obscurations)
• external links: (dosa): wiktionary

 pratimoksha (Sanskrit: प्रतिमोक्ष; IAST: pratimokṣa; Pāli: पाटिमोक्ख; IAST: pāṭimokkha; Tibetan: སོ་སོར་ཐར་པ་, sosor tarpa; Wylie: so sor thar pa) = (individual) liberation, deliverance; a list of rules (contained within the Vinaya) governing the behavior of Buddhist monastics (monks/bhikshus and nuns/bhikshunis).
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki

 pratityasamutpada (Sanskrit: प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद, IAST: pratītyasamutpāda; Pāli: पटिच्चसमुप्पाद, IAST: paṭiccasamuppāda; Tibetan: རྟེན་ཅིང་འབྲེལ་བར་འབྱུང་བ་, ten ching drelwar jungwa, Wylie: rten cing ‘brel bar ‘byung ba; also shortened to: Tibetan: རྟེན་འབྲེལ་དུ་འབྱུང་བ་, tendrel du jungwa; Wylie: rten ‘brel du ‘byung ba) = dependent origination, dependent arising; chain of causation.
• see also: dvadasha pratityasamutpada (12 links of dependent origination); samudaya(origin)
• Buddhist terms: dependent originationorigin
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki

 pratyaksha (Sanskrit: प्रत्यक्ष, pratyaksha; IAST: pratyakṣa; Tibetan: མངོན་སུམ་, ngönsum; Wylie: mngon sum) = direct perception, direct cognition.
(other languages): ngönsum (Tibetan)
• see also (4 kinds of direct perception): (1) indriyapratyaksha (sense perception), (2) manasapratyaksha (mental perception), (3) svasamvedana (self-cognition), (4) yogipratyaksha (yogic direct perception)
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia

 pratyekabuddha (Sanskrit: प्रत्येकबुद्ध, IAST: pratyekabuddha; Pali: पच्चेकबुद्ध, IAST: paccekabuddha; Tibetan: རང་སངས་རྒྱས་, rang sangyé; Wylie: rang sangs rgyas; Chinese: 辟支佛 / 辟支佛, pinyin: bìzhī fó or Google has pìzhī fú; also: 緣覺 / 缘觉, Pinyin: yuánjué, literally “enlightened by contemplation on dependent arising”) = solitary buddha, “solitary realizer”, a buddha who lives in seclusion and attains enlightenment for himself/herself only (as opposed to those buddhas who liberate others also).
• see also: arhatbodhisattvabuddha
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

 Pratyekabuddhayana (Sanskrit: प्रत्येकबुद्धयान, IAST: pratyekabuddhayāna = प्रत्येकबुद्ध pratyekabuddha + यान yāna ; Pāli: पच्चेकबुद्धयान, IAST: paccekabuddhayāna; Chinese: 緣覺乘 / 缘觉乘; pinyin: Yuánjué Chéng) = the path or vehicle of the pratyekabuddhas or “solitary” realizers.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

 prayogavakya (Sanskrit: प्रयोगवाक्य, IAST: prayogavākya = प्रयोग, prayoga “joining together, connection, addition, representation” + वाक्य, vākya “statement, assertion”; Tibetan: སྦྱོར་བའི་ཚིག་, jorwé tsik; Wylie: sbyor ba’i tshig, from jorwa; Wylie: sbyor ba “connect, come into contact with; syllogism”; also Tibetan: སྦྱོར་ངག་, jor ngak; Wylie: sbyor ngag) = “formal syllogism” in Indian logic (a syllogism is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true. Syllogisms are foundational to the development of logical reasoning in both Eastern and Western philosophy). As rigpawiki explains, although the form of Indian and Tibetan syllogisms differs from the Aristotelian syllogisms of early Western philosophy, a correspondence may be made between their underlying logic. Writing in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Brendan Gillon offers an in-depth analysis of the use of syllogism in Indian logic, and the development of logic from early Buddhist writing to the classical period and the works of Dignāga (5th to 6th century CE) and Dharmakirti (6th or 7th century CE). Gillon notes that when compared to contemporary philosophy, one of the shortcomings of classical Indian philosophy is that “in spite of the metaphysical differences which distinguished the various schools of thought, both Buddhist and Brahmanical, all thinkers came to use a naive realist’s ontology to specify the states of affairs used to study the canonical argument”. Within Western philosophy, the syllogism was superseded by first-order predicate logic following the work of Gottlob Frege, in particular his Begriffsschrift (Concept Script; 1879). As wikipedia notes, “syllogisms remain useful in some circumstances, and for general-audience introductions to logic”, and as students of Madhyamaka philosophy, it would serve us well to be aware of the limitations of classical Indian logic in the light of subsequent developments that have led to contemporary logic and analytic philosophy.
• see also: pramana (valid cognition)
• external links: (syllogism): wiktionary / wikipedia; (syllogisms in Indian logic): wikipedia / rigpawiki / Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; (first order predicate logic): wikipedia / Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

 puja (Pāli & Sanskrit: पूजा, IAST: pūjā) = devotional practice; ritual prayer and practice; religious observance; worship, honour, respect, reverence, veneration, homage to the buddhas and bodhisattvas (in Buddhism) or adoration of the gods (in Hinduism).
• see also: pujari (priest who performs temple rituals and devotional practices such as puja)
• external links: (puja): wiktionary; (puja in Buddhism): wikipedia / (puja in Hinduism): wikipedia

 pujari (Sanskrit: पूजारी, IAST: pūjārī) = priest who performs temple rituals and devotional practices such as puja. (Although both Buddhism and Hinduism have puja, the word pujari is more strongly associated with Hindu temple priests).
• see also: puja (ritual prayer and practice)
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia

 Pundarika Sutra (Sanskrit: सद्धर्मपुण्डरीक सूत्र, IAST: Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra; Chinese: 妙法蓮華經, pinyin: Miàofǎ Liánhuá jīng, shortened to 法華經, Fǎhuá jīng; Japanese: 妙法蓮華経, Myōhō Renge Kyō; Korean: 법화경, Myobeomnyeonhwagyeong) = The Lotus Sutra, one of the most popular and influential Mahayana sutras, and the basis on which the Tiantai, Tendai, Cheontae, and Nichiren schools of Buddhism were established.
• DJKR teaching: Lotus Sutra, New Delhi (March 18, 2018)
• see also: Ekayana (single vehicle); Namu Myoho Renge Kyo (mantra chanted in Nichiren Buddhism); sutra (includes partial list of sutras on this website)
• external links: wikipedia / New World Encyclopedia

 punya (Sanskrit: पुण्य, punya, IAST: puṇya; Pāli: पुञ्ञ, IAST: puñña; Tibetan: བསོད་ནམས་, sönam; Wylie: bsod nams) = merit, virtue, meritorious, meritorious karma.
• other languages: sönam (Tibetan)
• external links: (punya): wiktionary; (merit in Buddhism): wikipedia; (punya in Hinduism): wikipedia; (merit): rigpawiki

 purushartha (Sanskrit: पुरुषार्थ, IAST: puruṣārtha) = (one of) the four objects or aims of existence according to Hindu philosophy, with four corresponding categories/domains of values: 
(1) kāma (काम, the gratification of desire, pleasure, love, psychological values); 
(2) artha (अर्थ, acquiring wealth, prosperity, material values); 
(3) dharma (धर्म, discharging one’s duty, righteousness, moral values); 
(4) moksha (मोक्ष, liberation, spiritual values).
• see also: ashrama (the 4 age-based life stages according to Hindu philosophy)
• external links: wikipedia

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