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jagpa (Tibetan: ཇག་པ, jag pa ; Wylie: jag pa) = robber, bandit, brigand. DJKR: “gangster”.

≫ Jambudvipa (Sanskrit: जम्बुद्वीप, IAST: jambudvīpa ; Tibetan: འཛམ་བུའི་གླིང་, Dzambuling, Wylie: ‘dzam bu gling ; Chinese: 閻浮提, pinyin: Yánfútí) = according to Buddhist cosmology, the region where the humans live and the only place where one may become enlightened if born as a human being. One of the four Mahādīpas, or four great island-continents, that surround Mount Meru (also known as Mount Sumeru, Sanskrit: सुमेरु, IAST: sumeru ; Tibetan: རི་རབ་, rirab ; Wylie: ri rab ; Chinese: 須彌山, pinyin: Xūmí shān). This continent derives its name from the Jambu-tree (also called Naga, Syzygium cumini, Malabar Plum) which grows there, its trunk fifteen yojanas in girth, its outspreading branches fifty yojanas in length, its shade one hundred yojanas in extent and its height one hundred yojanas.
• other languages: Dzambuling / Zambuling (Tibetan)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Digital Dictionary of Buddhism

≫ Jamgön Kongtrül Lodrö Thayé (Tibetan: འཇམ་མགོན་ཀོང་སྤྲུལ་བློ་གྲོས་མཐའ་ཡས།, jam gön kong trül lo drö ta yé ; Wylie: ‘jam mgon kong sprul blo gros mtha’ yas) (1813-1899) = also known as Jamgön Kongtrül the Great, he was one of the most prominent masters of the 19th century Tibet. He co-founded the Rimé (non-sectarian) movement with Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, compiled the “Five Great Treasuries (Tibetan: མཛོད་ཆེན་པོ་ལྔ་, dzö chenpo na; Wylie: mdzod chen po lnga), and was widely known a scholar, poet, artist, physician, tertön and polymath.
• see also: Rimé (the nonsectarian movement in Tibetan Buddhism), Yönten Gyatso (the monastic name of Jamgön Kongtrül Lodrö Thayé)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki / Treasury of Lives ; (Roger Jackson bio of Kongtrül Rinpoche): Lion’s Roar

≫ Jamyang Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö (Tibetan: འཇམ་དབྱངས་མཁྱེན་བརྩེ་ཆོས་ཀྱི་བློ་གྲོས ; Wylie: ‘jam dbyangs mkhyen brtse chos kyi blo gros) (1893-1959) = a 20th century Tibetan master, the second Dzongsar Khyentse Rinpoche and previous incarnation of the current Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche. Also known as Dzongsar Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö, he was an activity incarnation of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, and is considered by some as one of the most outstanding Tibetan masters of the 20th century. He was a master of many lineages, and a teacher of many of the major figures in 20th-century Tibetan Buddhism. He was a major proponent of the Rimé (non-sectarian) movement within Tibetan Buddhism, and had a profound influence on many of the Tibetan lamas teaching today. The current Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche was born in 1961 in Bhutan, and was immediately recognized as the incarnation of Dzongsar Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö.
• see also: Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse RinpocheJamyang Khyentse Wangpo
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Siddhartha’s Intent / Treasury of Lives ; (illustrated Khyentse lineage tree): Tricycle

≫ Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo (Tibetan: འཇམ་དབྱངས་མཁྱེན་བརྩེའི་དབང་པོ།, jam yang khyen tsé wang po ; Wylie: ‘jam dbyangs mkhyen brtse’i dbang po) (1820-1892) = one of the most eminent masters of 19th century Tibet, he co-founded the Rimé (non-sectarian) movement with Jamgön Kongtrül Lodrö Thayé, and was regarded as the combined reincarnation of Vimalamitra and King Trisong Deutsen. Also known by his tertön title, Pema Ösel Do-ngak Lingpa (Tibetan: པདྨ་འོད་གསལ་མདོ་སྔགས་གླིང་པ།, pema ö sel do ngak ling pa ; Wylie: pad+ma ‘od gsal mdo sngags gling pa), he was a major tertön (treasure revealer) – the last of the Five Sovereign Tertöns
• see also: Mañjughosha (a name of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo) ; Rimé (the nonsectarian movement in Tibetan Buddhism) ; tertön gyalpo nga (the Five Tertön Kings/Five Sovereign Tertöns)
• Practice: “Wisdom’s Bestowal: A Way to Accumulate the Recitation of the Tantra Chanting the Names of Mañjushri, Mañjushri-Nama-Samgiti” by Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki / Khyentse Vision ProjectSiddhartha’s Intent /  Treasury of Lives ; (illustrated Khyentse lineage tree): Tricycle

Jamyang Thubten Chökyi Gyamtso (Tibetan: འཇམ་དབྱངས་ཐུབ་བསྟན་ཆོས་ཀྱི་རྒྱ་མཚོ་, Wylie: ‘jam dbyangs thub bstan chos kyi rgya mtsho) = name given by H.H. Sakya Trizin to Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tibetan ≫ main entry) .
• appears in (DJKR teaching): DJKR tells the story of his names in Return to Normal, Day 1, Taipei (October 10, 2020) 

jangchub (Tibetan) – redirects to jangchup (Tibetan). 

jangchup (Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་, jangchup ; Wylie: byang chub) = awakening, enlightenment, ‘purified and perfected’ – see bodhi (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).
• easily confused: the English words “enlightenment/awakening” (Sanskrit: ≫ बोधि, bodhi ; Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་, jangchup ; Chinese: 佛位, fówèi), “buddha/buddhahood” (Sanskrit: ≫ बुद्ध, buddha ; Tibetan: སངས་རྒྱས་, sangyé ; Chinese: 佛, fó), “liberation” (Sanskrit: ≫ मोक्ष, moksha ; Tibetan: ཐར་པ་, tarpa ; Chinese: 解脫, jiětuō) and “nirvana” (Sanskrit: ≫ निर्वाण, nirvana ; Tibetan: མྱང་འདས་, nyandé ; Chinese: 涅槃, nièpán) are often used interchangeably, but they have different meanings in Sanskrit/Tibetan.
• external links: wiktionary

jangchup kyi sem (Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་, jangchup kyi sem ; Wylie: byang chub kyi sems) = bodhichitta (Sanskrit ≫ main entry). 

jangchup sempa (Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའ་, jangchup sempa ; Wylie: byang chub sems dpa’) = bodhisattva (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).
• external links: wiktionary

jangchup sempé tob (Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའི་སྟོབས་བཅུ། ; Wylie: byang chub sems dpa’i stobs ; Sanskrit: दशबोधिसत्त्वबल, dasha-bodhisattva-bala; IAST: daśa + bodhisattva + bala) = the 10 powers of a bodhisattva.
• see also: tob chu (10 powers of the Buddha) ; wang chu (10 strengths of the Buddha)
• external links: rigpawiki

≫ jangdom (Tibetan: བྱང་སྡོམ་, jang dom ; Wylie: byang sdom) = bodhisattva vow, bodhisattva precepts.
• external links: rigpawiki

jangsem (Tibetan: བྱང་སེམས་, jangsem ; Wylie: byang sems, short form of jangchup kyi sem (Tibetan) – see bodhichitta (Sanskrit ≫ main entry). 

≫ Jatakamala (Sanskrit: जातकमाला, IAST: Jātakamālā = जातक, jātaka “nativity; newborn child; story of a former birth of Gautama Buddha” + माला, mālā “string of beads; rosary; series” ; Tibetan: སྐྱེས་རབས།, kyérab ; Wylie: skyes rabs, “genealogy, series of births of an individual, history of previous lives, stories of a succession of lives”) = The Jataka tales (Jatakamala, also sometimes referred to as Jatakamala Sutra), a voluminous body of literature native to India concerning the previous births of Gautama Buddha in both human and animal form. The Theravāda Jātakas comprise 547 poems, arranged roughly by an increasing number of verses. In Theravada Buddhism, the Jatakas are a textual division of the Pāli Canon, included in the Khuddaka Nikaya of the Sutta Pitaka. The tales are dated between 300 BCE and 400 CE.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Himalayan Art

≫ jépak (Tibetan: རྗེས་དཔག་, jépak; Wylie: rjes dpag ; Sanskrit: अनुमान, IAST: anumāna; also: अनुमानम्, IAST: anumānam) = inference, inferential cognition.
• other languages: anumana (Sanskrit) 

 Jetavana (Sanskrit: जेतवन, IAST: jetavana; literally “Jeta’s wood”) = Jeta’s Grove, one of the most famous Buddhist viharas (monasteries) in India. It was the second vihara donated to Gautama Buddha after the Venuvana in Rajgir. The monastery was given to him by his chief male lay disciple, Anathapindika. Jetavana was the place where the Buddha gave the majority of his teachings and discourses, having stayed there for 19 out of 45 vassas (rainy season retreats), more than in any other monastery. Jetavana is located just outside the old city of Savatthi (Shravasti) (part of the present-day Shravasti district in Uttar Pradesh).
• see also: Mrigadava (Deer Park, a vihara) ; vihara (monastery)
• external links: (Jetavana): wikipedia  / wisdom library / 84000 glossary ; (Shravasti): wikipedia

jhana (Pāli: झान, IAST: jhāna) = meditative concentration – see dhyana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).
• easily confused (terms related to meditation): bhavana / gom (Tibetan: སྒོམ་, Wylie: sgom) (development, training, cultivation) is different from dhyana / samten / jhana / chan / zen (meditative concentration, mental focus, attention), which is different from abhyasa / gom (Tibetan: གོམས་, Wylie: goms) (familiarization, becoming accustomed to, conditioning)
• easily confused: jhana (Pāli: meditative concentration) is the same as dhyana (Sanskrit: meditative concentration) and different from jñana (Sanskrit: wisdom)
• external links: wiktionary

 Jigme Lingpa (Tibetan: འཇིགས་མེད་གླིང་པ།, Jigme Lingpa also Jikmé Lingpa ; Wylie: ‘jigs med gling pa) (1730-1798) = 18th century Dzogchen master, one of the most important figures in the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism, regarded as an incarnation of both King Trisong Deutsen and Vimalamitra. He revealed the Longchen Nyingtik, the Heart Essence teachings of the great master Longchenpa, which has become the most famous and widely practiced cycle of Dzogchen teachings. His lineage includes great masters such as Patrul Rinpoche, Do Khyentse Yeshe Dorje and Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo. He is also known as Khyentse Özer or Khyentse Öser (Tibetan: མཁྱེན་བརྩེ་འོད་ཟེར།; Wylie: mkhyen brtse’i ‘od zer, “Rays of Compassion and Wisdom”), and is regarded as the founder of the Khyentse lineage that includes Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche. Unlike many influential masters of the Tibetan tradition, Jigme Lingpa did not receive extensive educational training, nor was he a recognized reincarnation or tulku. Instead, his great realization came directly through practice. In particular, he had a series of three visions of Longchenpa while in retreat at Samye Chimpu, in which he received the entire transmission of Longchenpa’s works, and his mind eventually merged completely with that of Longchenpa’s.
• Practice: “Praise of the Twelve Acts of the Buddha” by Jigme Lingpa
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki / Treasury of Lives ; (illustrated Khyentse lineage tree): Tricycle

 jigten chögyé (Tibetan: འཇིག་རྟེན་ཆོས་བརྒྱད་, jigten chögyé, also jikten chögyé; Wylie: ‘jig rten chos brgyad) = the 8 worldly concerns (also 8 samsaric dharmas or 8 worldly dharmas), the 8 underlying motivations or attachments that drive ordinary worldly samsaric actions. They are listed in verse 29 of Nagarjuna’s “Letter to a Friend” in the following order9:
(1) nyépa (Tibetan: རྙེད་པ་, nyé pa; Wylie: rnyed pa) = gain.
(2) ma nyépa (Tibetan: མ་རྙེད་པ་, ma nyé pa; Wylie: ma rnyed pa) = loss.
(3) dewa (Tibetan: བདེ་བ་, de wa; Wylie: bde ba) = pleasure, bliss.
(4) mi dewa (Tibetan: མི་བདེ་བ་, mi de wa; Wylie: mi bde ba) = pain, unhappiness.
(5) nyenpa (Tibetan: སྙན་པ་, nyen pa; Wylie: snyan pa) = kind words, pleasant speech; renown, glory, fame; looking good.
(6) mi nyenpa (Tibetan: མི་སྙན་པ་, mi nyen pa; Wylie: mi snyan pa) = unkind words, unpleasant or discordant speech, abuse, insult, offense, disgrace; looking bad.
(7) töpa (Tibetan: བསྟོད་པ་, tö pa; Wylie: bstod pa) = praise, eulogy, exaltation.
(8) mépa (Tibetan: སྨད་པ་, mé pa; Wylie: smad pa) = blame, despise, slander, contempt, disrespect.
These should be read as four pairs (gain/loss, pleasure/pain, kind/unkind words, praise/blame) where for each pair, we are motivated by hope, desire for, or attachment to the first and fear or aversion to the second, e.g. hope for gain and fear of loss etc.
• external links: rigpawiki / rywiki

jigten drakdé chöpé umapa (Tibetan: འཇིག་རྟེན་གྲགས་སྡེ་སྤྱོད་པའི་དབུ་མ་པ, Wylie: ‘jig rten grags sde spyod pa’i dbu ma pa) – see jigten drakdé umapa (Tibetan ≫ main entry). 

≫ jigten drakdé umapa (Tibetan: འཇིག་རྟེན་གྲགས་སྡེ་དབུ་མ་པ, Wylie: ‘jig rten grags sde dbu ma pa, from Tibetan: འཇིག་རྟེན་གྲགས་སྡེ་, Wylie: ‘jig rten grags sde, “follower of mundane convention”) = a follower of Madhyamaka who accepts what is accepted by ordinary people, a follower of Madhyamaka who acts in accordance with the [ordinary] world. Chandrakirti is regarded as such.
• appears in (root text): Chandrakirti Madhyamakavatara 6:22 (the opponent’s objection that leads to the introduction of the two truths); 6:166 (“Vases, canvas, bucklers, armies, forests, garlands, trees, / Houses, chariots, hostelries, and all such things / That common people designate, dependent on their parts, / Accept as such. For Buddha did not quarrel with the world!”)
• appears in (DJKR): Madhyamaka teachings 1996-2000 transcript p.120 (on 6:22).

≫ jigten gyi kham (Tibetan: འཇིག་རྟེན་གྱི་ཁམས, Wylie: ‘jig rten gyi khams) = world system, a universe comprised of Mount Sumeru, four continents and eight sub-continents.
• see also: Sahaloka (Saha world, the name of our present world system)

≫ jigten khyenpa (Tibetan: འཇིག་རྟེན་མཁྱེན་པ ; Wylie: ‘jig rten mkhyen pa) = “One who knows the world”, syn. the Buddha; knower of the world (one of the ten names of the Buddha).

jinyepa (Tibetan. ཇི་སྙེད་པ་, jinyepa; Wylie: ji snyed pa; Sanskrit: यावत्, IAST: yāvat “as great, as large, as much, as many, as often, as far as”) = the omniscience which knows all things in their multiplicity, or the extent of all that exists.
• see also: jitawa (wisdom of knowing the nature as it is) ; khyenpa nyi (two-fold knowledge/omniscience)
• external links: wiktionary

jiriki (Japanese: 自力, jiriki) = one’s own strength, the Japanese Buddhist (Pure Land) term for self-power, the ability to achieve liberation or enlightenment through one’s own efforts. Contrasted with tariki or other-power.
• see also: tariki (other-power)
• external links: wikipedia

jitawa (Tibetan: ཇི་ལྟ་བ་, jitawa; Wylie: ji lta ba; Sanskrit: यथा, IAST: yathā “as it is, just as, properly, correctly”) = the omniscience which knows the nature of things, or the nature as it is.
• see also: jinyepa (wisdom of knowing all things in their multiplicity) ; khyenpa nyi (two-fold knowledge/omniscience)
• external links: wiktionary

≫ jiva (Sanskrit: जीव, IAST: jīva, “living, existing, alive”) = living being; a term originating in the Hindu scriptures such as the Bhagavad Gita and Upanishads to describe a living being or entity imbued with life force. The word originates from the Sanskrit verb-root jīv (जीव्) which means “to live, remain alive, vivify”. The jiva as a metaphysical entity has been described as unborn, eternal and indestructible (Bhagavad Gita) and one-hundredth of one-hundredth of the tip of a hair in dimension (the Upanishads).
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia

 jñana (Sanskrit: ज्ञान, IAST: jñāna ; Tibetan: ཡེ་ཤེས་, yéshé ; Wylie: ye shes) = wisdom, primordial wisdom, pristine cognition, knowing, becoming acquainted with, gnosis, wakefulness, basic cognisance independent of intellectual constructs. In Tibetan Buddhism, five aspects of jñana are identified as the five wisdoms, which correspond to the five dhyani-buddhas and the five buddha families.
(other languages): yeshe (Tibetan)
• note (multiple translations): prajña (precise discernment, transcendent knowledge) and jñana (primordial wisdom) are both translated into English as “wisdom”
• easily confused: jhana (Pāli: meditative concentration) is the same as dhyana (Sanskrit: meditative concentration) and different from jñana (Sanskrit: wisdom)
• see also: pañchabuddha (five dhyani-buddhas) ; pañchakula (five buddha families) ; yeshe nga (five wisdoms)
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki

jñeyavarana (Sanskrit: ज्ञेयावरण, IAST: jñeyāvaraṇa from ज्ञेय + आवरण, IAST: jñeya + āvaraṇa) = cognitive obscurations – see shédrip (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).
• see also: drib (obscuration) ; dribpa nyi (2 obscurations): (1) emotional obscurations: nyöndrip (Tibetan), kleshavarana (Sanskrit); (2) cognitive obscurations: shédrip (Tibetan), jñeyavarana (Sanskrit) ; nyönmong (negative emotion)

 Jodo Bukkyo (Japanese: 浄土仏教, Jōdo bukkyō, also 浄土教, Jōdo kyō ; Chinese: 淨土宗, pinyin: Jìngtǔ Zōng) = Pure Land Buddhism, a branch of Mahayana Buddhism that is one of the most widely practiced traditions of Buddhism in East Asia (e.g. Jodo Shinshu and Jodo Shu in Japan). Pure Land teachings are focused on the Buddha Amitabha, and hold that he is is teaching the Dharma in his buddha-field (Sanskrit: बुद्धक्षेत्र, IAST: buddhakṣetra) or “pure land”, a region offering respite from karmic transmigration. Amitabha’s pure land of Sukhavati is described in the Longer Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra as a land of beauty that surpasses all other realms. It is said to be inhabited by many gods, humans, flowers, fruits, and adorned with wish-granting trees where rare birds come to rest. In Pure Land traditions, entering the Pure Land is popularly perceived as equivalent to attaining enlightenment. Upon entry into the Pure Land, the practitioner is then instructed by Amitabha Buddha and numerous bodhisattvas until attaining complete enlightenment.
• see also: Amitabha (buddha) ; jiriki (self-power in Japanese Buddhism) ; Jodo Shinshu (Shin Buddhism) ; Jodo Shu (The Pure Land School) ; Sukhavati (Pure Land of Amitabha) ; tariki (other-power of relying on Amitabha in Japanese Pure Land Buddhism) ; zhing kham (buddhafield, pure land)
• external links: (Pure Land Buddhism): wikipedia / Digital Dictionary of Buddhism / Learn Religions / Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy ; (The Three Pure Land Sutras): Numata

 Jodo Shinshu (Japanese: 浄土真宗, Jōdo Shinshū, “The True Essence of the Pure Land Teaching”) = Shin Buddhism or True Pure Land Buddhism, a school of Pure Land Buddhism founded by the Japanese ex-Tendai monk Shinran (Japanese: 親鸞, Shinran, 1173-1262). Shin Buddhism is considered the most widely practiced branch of Buddhism in Japan.
• see also: Jodo Bukkyo (Pure Land Buddhism) ; Jodo Shu (The Pure Land School)
• external links: wikipedia / Learn Religions / Tricycle / Lion’s Roar

 Jodo Shu (Japanese: 浄土宗, Jōdo Shū) = “The Pure Land School”, also known as Jōdo Buddhism, a branch of Pure Land Buddhism derived from the teachings of the Japanese ex-Tendai monk Honen (Japanese: 法然, Hōnen, 1133-1212). It was established in 1175 and is one of the most widely practiced branches of Buddhism in Japan, along with Jōdo Shinshū.
• see also: Jodo Bukkyo (Pure Land Buddhism); Jodo Shinshu (Shin Buddhism)
• external links: wikipedia / Jodo Shu

 jokpa (Tibetan: འཇོག་པ་, jok pa ; Wylie: ‘jog pa) = rest, place, settle; classify, posit, set forth; DJKR: “leave it”, “let it be”.
• external links: wiktionary

 jorwa (Tibetan: སྦྱོར་བ་, jorwa ; Wylie: sbyor ba) = (a) to bring/come into contact with, engage actively, fasten together; (b) syllogism, formal argument; (c) yoga, union, sexual union.
• see also: jorwé tsik (syllogism) ; yoga (union) 

jorwé tsik (Tibetan: སྦྱོར་བའི་ཚིག་, jorwé tsik; Wylie: sbyor ba’i tshig) = syllogism – see prayogavakya (Sanskrit ≫ main entry). 

 jukpa semkyé (Tibetan: འཇུག་པའི་བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་, juk pé jang chup kyi sem ; Wylie: ‘jug pa’i byang chub kyi sems ; also shortened to Tibetan: འཇུག་པ་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་, juk pa sem kyé ; Wylie: ‘jug pa sems bskyed) = bodhichitta in action or bodhichitta of application (application bodhichitta); comprised chiefly of the practice of the 6 paramitas.
• see also: brahmavihara (sublime attitude) ; caturapramana (4 immeasurables): (1) metta (loving-kindness), (2) karuna (compassion), (3) mudita (sympathetic joy), (4) upekkha (equanimity) ; bodhichitta (the compassionate wish to attain enlightenment for the benefit of all beings and also to bring them to that state) ; jukpa semkyé (bodhichitta in action) ; mönpa semkyé (bodhichitta of aspiration) ; shatparamita (6 paramitas)
• external links: (bodhichitta): wikipedia ; (bodhichitta in action or bodhichitta of application): rigpawiki / rywiki

 junzi (Chinese: 君子, pinyin: jūnzí ; Sanskrit: अग्रिय, IAST: agriya “foremost, best”) = noble man, gentleman of the Confucian teachings, respectable person; in Confucianism, antithesis of the xiaoren (petty man). There is no gender implied in the characters and it can equally refer to men and women. In Confucianism, the ideal personality is the sheng (sage), however sagehood is hard to attain and so Confucius established the goal of junzi as something that more people could reasonably achieve. A junzi embodies moral excellence by acting according to proper conduct (禮 lǐ) to achieve harmony (和 hé), adhering to the ritual code of the tradition and displaying respect and dignity towards others. The junzi also embodies humanity (仁 rén), possessing a totality of the highest human qualities such as humility, sincerity, trustworthiness, righteousness, and compassion. Zhu Xi defined a junzi as second only to the sage: “Junzi has many characteristics. A junzi can live with poverty; a junzi does more and speaks less. A junzi is loyal, obedient and knowledgeable. A junzi disciplines himself. Among these, 仁 ren is at the core of a junzi.”
• see also: ren (humanity) ;  sheng (sage) ; xiaoren (petty man)
• external links: wiktionarywikipedia

 jutti (Punjabi: ਜੁੱਤੀ) = a type of footwear common in North India and neighboring regions, traditionally made of leather and with extensive embroidery in real gold and silver thread, as inspired by Indian royalty over 400 years ago.
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia

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