# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Ref

Link colours: external dictionaries in green, internal website links in light blue, external website links in dark blue


≫ bardo (Tibetan: བར་དོ་; Wylie: bar do ; Sanskrit: अन्तरभव; IAST: antarābhava = अन्तर, antara “interval, intermediate space or time” + भव, bhava “state of being, existence, life”; see also the Hindu Sanskrit term: अन्तराभवदेह, IAST: antarābhavadeha “the soul in its middle existence between death and regeneration”) = intermediate state, usually refers to the period between death and the next rebirth.
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki / Study Buddhism glossary

≫ barura (Tibetan: བ་རུ་ར ; Wylie: ba ru ra ; Sanskrit: बिभीतक, IAST: bibhītaka, also Sanskrit: विभीतक, IAST: vibhītaka ; Chinese: 仳仳得迦, pinyin: pǐpǐdéjiā) = Belleric Myrobalan (Terminalia bellirica), a large deciduous tree common on the plains and lower hills in South and Southeast Asia, where it is also grown as an avenue tree. One of the “three precious jewels of Tibetan medicine” or the three myrobalan fruits (drébu sum), also known as aru-baru-kyuru.
• see also: drébu sum (the three medicinal fruits): arura (Terminalia chebula) ; barura (Terminalia bellirica) ; kyurura (Phyllanthus emblica)
• external links: wikipedia

Berotsana (Tibetan: བཻ་རོ་ཙ་ན་, Wylie: bE ro tsa na) = see Vairotsana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry). 

≫ bhadracharya (Sanskrit: भद्रचर्या = भद्र, IAST: bhadra + “good, virtuous, blessed, auspicious” + चर्या, IAST: caryā “actions” ; Tibetan: བཟང་པོ་སྤྱོད་པ, zangpo chöpa = བཟང་པོ, zangpo; Wylie: bzang po “noble, good, auspicious” + སྤྱོད་པ, chöpa ; Wylie: spyod pa “to engage in, enjoy, behave; conduct, activity, behaviour; practice; lifestyle) = good/virtuous action. Samantabhadra’s King of Aspiration Prayers, the Arya-Bhadracharya-Pranidhana-Raja, is also known as the “Bhadracharya Prayer”.
• see also: Arya-Bhadracharya-Pranidhana-Raja (Samantabhadra’s King of Aspiration Prayers) ; bodhicharya (the actions/conduct of a bodhisattva) ; charya (action, routine, wandering)

≫ Bhadrakalpa (Sanskrit: भद्रकल्प; IAST: bhadra “good, virtuous, blessed, auspicious” + kalpa “aeon” ; Tibetan: བསྐལ་བཟང་; Wylie: bskal bzang) = the Fortunate Aeon, our current era according to Buddhist cosmogony.
• external links: (Bhadrakalpa): rigpawiki / rywiki ; (Bhadrakalpika Sutra, which includes the names of the 1002 Buddhas of this Fortunate Aeon): wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ bhadravargiya (Sanskrit: भद्रवर्गीय, IAST: bhadravargīya ; Tibetan: ཁོར་ལྔ་སྡེ་བཟང་པོ་, khor nga dé zangpo ; Wylie: ‘khor lnga sde bzang po) = the retinue of the first five excellent disciples (of Gautama Buddha), who received the first teaching of the Buddha after he reached enlightenment. They are Kaundinya, Bhadrika, Vashpa, Mahanaman, and Ashvajit.
• external links: rigpawiki

≫ bhajan (Sanskrit: भजन, IAST: bhajana) = worship, reverence, adoration; refers to devotional songs with religious or spiritual themes, in any of the languages of the Indian subcontinent. The term “bhajan” is also used to refer to a group event, with one or more lead singers, accompanied with music, and sometimes dancing.
• external links: wiktionary

≫ bhang (Hindi: भांग or भाँग) = an edible preparation of cannabis originating from the Indian subcontinent, which has been used in food and drink since 1000 BCE in ancient India. Bhang is traditionally distributed during the spring festival of Holi, and is mainly used in bhang shops, which sell the cannabis-infused Indian drinks bhang lassi and bhang thandai.
• see also: lassi (yoghurt-based drink)
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia

≫ bhavana (Pāli: भावना, IAST: bhāvanā ; Sanskrit: भावना, IAST: bhāvanā, also: भावन, IAST: bhāvana ; Tibetan: སྒོམ་, gom: Wylie: sgom) = developmenttrainingcultivationpractice; contemplation, meditation.
• easily confused (terms related to meditation): bhavana / gom (Tibetan: སྒོམ་, Wylie: sgom) (development, training, cultivation) is different from dhyana / samten / jhana / chan / zen (meditative concentration, mental focus, attention), which is different from abhyasa / gom (Tibetan: གོམས་, Wylie: goms) (familiarization, becoming accustomed to, conditioning)
• other languages: gom (Tibetan)
• see also: ta gom chöpa (view, meditation & action) [note: here “meditation” is bhavana] 
• external links: (bhavana): wiktionary / wikipedia ; (meditation): rigpawiki

≫ bhavanga (Pali: भवङ्ग, IAST: bhavaṅga, “ground of becoming, condition for existence”) = a passive mode of intentional consciousness (chitta) described in the Theravada Abhidhamma. The Theravada tradition identifies it with the phenomenon described as “luminous mind”, and asserts that it is what motivates one to seek nirvana.
• see also: selwa (clarity, luminosity)
• external links: wikipedia

Bhavaviveka (Sanskrit) – redirects to Bhaviveka

≫ Bhaviveka (Sanskrit: भाविवेक, IAST: Bhāviveka ; Tibetan: ལེགས་ལྡན་འབྱེད་, Lekden Jé; Wylie: legs ldan ‘byed ; Chinese: 淸辯, pinyin: Qīngbiàn; also known as Bhāvaviveka or Bhavya) (c. 500-578) = 6th century Indian Madhyamaka Buddhist master, regarded as the founder of the Svatantrika tradition within the Madhyamaka school of Buddhism (which is seen as opposed to the Prasangika tradition of Madhyamaka). Bhaviveka was one of the first Buddhist logicians to employ the prayogavakya (“formal syllogism”) of Indian logic in expounding the Madhyamaka. He was critical of Buddhapalita’s interpretation of Nagarjuna, because he believed that Buddhapalita’s approach was too difficult for many people to understand, and therefore less likely to lead people to understand and adopt the Madhyamaka view. Bhaviveka felt that a better way to lead people to the Madhyamaka view was through the skillful means of putting forward independent logical arguments, rather than simply pointing out the flaws in others’ positions. His works include the Prajñāpradīpa (“Wisdom Lamp”, Tibetan: ཤེས་རབ་སྒྲོན་མ་, Wylie: shes rab sgron ma; or shes rab sgron me), a commentary on Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika, which refutes Buddhapalita’s view and sets out his own approach, which grew into the Svatantrika tradition. The great master Chandrakirti later defended Buddhapalita’s approach and sought to refute Bhaviveka.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki / Stanford Encyclopedia of PhilosophyChinese Buddhist Encyclopedia / Himalayan Art

bhikkhu (Pāli: भिक्खु, IAST: bhikkhu) = monk, fully ordained male Buddhist monastic – see bhikshu (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).
• external links: wiktionary

bhikkhuni (Pāli: भिक्खुनी, IAST: bhikkhunī) = nun, fully ordained female Buddhist monastic – see bhikshuni (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).
• external links: wiktionary

≫ bhikshu (Sanskrit: भिक्षु, IAST: bhikṣu ; Pāli: भिक्खु, IAST: bhikkhu ; Tibetan: དགེ་སློང་, gelong; Wylie: dge slong ; Chinese: 比丘 / 比丘, pinyin: bǐqiū) = monk, fully ordained adult male Buddhist monastic, one who has renounced the secular world. Originally meant “one who begs for food”. Contrast with male novice monks who are not of age (shramanera) and male lay practitioners (upasaka)
• other languages: bhikkhu (Pāli)
• see also: bhikshuni (female monastic or nun) ; shramanera (male novice monk) ; shramanerika (female novice nun) ; upasaka (male lay practitioner) ; upasika (female lay practitioner)
• see also: Theravada (the school of the elders)
• external links: wiktionary

≫ bhikshuni (Sanskrit: भिक्षुणी, IAST: bhikṣuṇī ; Pāli: भिक्खुनी, IAST: bhikkhunī ; Tibetan: དགེ་སློང་མ་, gelongma; Wylie: dge slong ma ; Chinese: 比丘尼 / 比丘尼, pinyin: bǐqiūní) = nun, fully ordained adult female Buddhist monastic, one who has renounced the secular world. Contrast with female novice nuns who are not of age (shramanerika) and female lay practitioners (upasika).
• other languages: bhikkhuni (Pāli)
• see also: bhikshuni (female monastic or nun) ; shramanera (male novice monk) ; shramanerika (female novice nun) ; upasaka (male lay practitioner) ; upasika (female lay practitioner)
• see also: Theravada (the school of the elders)
• external links: wiktionary

≫ bhumi (Pāli: भूमि, IAST: bhūmi ; Sanskrit: भूमि, IAST: bhūmi ; Tibetan: ས་, sa; Wylie: sa) = earth, soil, ground, foundation; stage or level. The bhumis also refer to the stages a practitioner traverses on the path to enlightenment. There are eight bhumis in the Shravakayana, ten bhumis in the Mahayana, with the eleventh being buddhahood, and thirteen in the Vajrayana. DJKR: A bhumi “is a combination of wisdom and method … the ground or earth acts like a container for all things to function. For example, you can hoist this tent because of the ground. Likewise, all the enlightened qualities can grow on the base of the combination of wisdom and method.”
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki / Study Buddhism glossary

≫ bhumisparsha (Sanskrit: भूमिस्पृश्, IAST: bhūmispṛś) = touching the ground. The bhumisparsha mudra is one of the most common iconic images in Buddhism. It depicts the Buddha sitting in meditation with his left hand resting in his lap, and all five fingers of his right hand extending downward to touch the earth. According to the traditional story of the Buddha’s enlightenment according to the Lalitavistara Sutra, after Siddhartha had resisted every temptation Mara could devise, the demonic lord of desire had one final test. He demanded to know who would testify that Siddhartha was worthy of attaining enlightenment. And his demon army rose up to support him. Siddhartha said nothing. He reached down and touched the ground, asking Prthvi, the devi of the earth, to be his witness. The earth shuddered in response, and Mara’s demons fled. Then Siddhartha meditated throughout the night and all his former lives passed before him. As the morning star appeared, he roared like a lion. “My mind,” he said, “is at peace.” The heavens shook, and the Bodhi tree rained down flowers. He had become the “awakened one” – the Buddha.
• see also: bhumi (ground) ; Lalitavistara Sutra (life story of the Buddha)
• DJKR teaching: Touching Base (September 12, 2020)
• external links: (bhumisparsha mudra): wikipedia / Himalayan Art / Khan AcademyMetropolitan Museum of Art ; (bhumisparsha Shakyamuni mantra accumulation): Siddhartha’s Intent India ; (Prithvi): wikipedia ; (story of the Buddha’s enlightenment): PBS

 binglang (Chinese: 檳榔, pinyin: bīngláng, bīnláng; also transliterated “binlang”) = betel nut, betel palm, areca nut. The nut grows throughout the tropical Pacific, Southeast and South Asia, where people chew it medicinally and recreationally for its natural psychoactive ingredients, the most important being arecoline. Consuming the nut in any of its forms gives the user a warm, stimulating buzz, making it a product of choice for taxi drivers, long-haul truckers, and other workers who rely on the nut to get through long shifts. Taiwan has seen the emergence of “betel nut beauties” (Chinese: 檳榔西施; Pinyin: bīnláng xīshī), young women who sell betel nuts and cigarettes from brightly lit glass enclosures while wearing revealing clothing. As icons of Taiwanese culture, betel nut beauties appear frequently in art and film, notably the 2001 movie “Betelnut Beauty”.
• see also: paan (Indian equivalent of binglang)
• external links: (binglang, 檳榔) wiktionary / wikipedia / New York Times ; (betel nut beauty, 檳榔西施) wikipedia

 bodhi (Pāli: बोधि, IAST: bodhi ; Sanskrit: बोधि, IAST: bodhi ; Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་, jangchup; Wylie: byang chub ; Burmese: ေဗာဓိ ; Chinese: 佛位, pinyin: fówèi) = enlightenmentawakening; perfect knowledge or wisdom (by which one becomes a buddha).
• note (on meaning): DJKR emphasises that the semantic range of word “enlightenment” does not at all do justice to the meaning of buddha/sangyé or bodhi/jangchup – see note on meaning in entry for Buddha.
• easily confused: the English words “enlightenment/awakening” (Sanskrit: ≫ बोधि, bodhi ; Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་, jangchup ; Chinese: 佛位, fówèi), “buddha/buddhahood” (Sanskrit: ≫ बुद्ध, buddha ; Tibetan: སངས་རྒྱས་, sangyé ; Chinese: 佛, fó), “liberation” (Sanskrit: ≫ मोक्ष, moksha ; Tibetan: ཐར་པ་, tarpa ; Chinese: 解脫, jiětuō) and “nirvana” (Sanskrit: ≫ निर्वाण, nirvana ; Tibetan: མྱང་འདས་, nyandé ; Chinese: 涅槃, nièpán) are often used interchangeably, but they have different meanings in Sanskrit/Tibetan.
• other languages: jangchup (Tibetan)
• see also: buddha (fully enlightened person
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki / Study Buddhism glossary

≫ bodhicharya (Sanskrit: बोधिचर्या = बोधि, IAST: bodhi “enlightened” + चर्या, IAST: caryā “actions” ; short form of बोधिसत्त्वचर्या bodhisattvacaryā “the actions or condition of a bodhisattva” ; Tibetan: ང་ཆུབ་སྤྱོད་པ, jangchup chöpa = བྱང་ཆུབ་, jangchup; Wylie: byang chub + སྤྱོད་པ, chöpa ; Wylie: spyod pa “to engage in, enjoy, behave; conduct, activity, behaviour; practice; lifestyle) = the action/conduct of a bodhisattva.
• see also: bhadracharya (good/virtuous action) ; charya (actions, routine, wandering)

 Bodhicharyavatara (Sanskrit: बोधिचर्यावतार, Bodhicharyavatara; IAST: Bodhicaryāvatāra = bodhi + caryāvatāra ; short form of बोधिसत्त्वचर्यावतार, Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra, literally “introduction to / entering the bodhisattva’s way of life” = बोधिसत्त्वचर्या bodhisattvacaryā “the actions or condition of a bodhisattva” + अवतार, avatāra “entering”, literally “descent (especially of a deity from heaven), appearance of any deity upon earth” ; Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའི་སྤྱོད་པ་ལ་འཇུག་པ་, changchub sempé chöpa la jukpa; Wylie: byang chub sems dpa’i spyod pa la ‘jug pa, short form: སྤྱོད་འཇུག་, chönjuk ; Wylie: spyod ‘jug) = “The Way of the Bodhisattva” (alternative translations: “A Guide to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life”, “Engaging in Bodhisattva Conduct” or “Introduction to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life), a classic guide to the Mahayana path and the practice of the 6 paramitas written in Sanskrit verse in about 700 CE by the 8th Century Indian master Shantideva at Nalanda university. The Bodhicharyavatara is included among the so-called “Thirteen great texts” (Tibetan: གཞུང་ཆེན་བཅུ་གསུམ་, shyung chenpo chusum; Wylie: gzhung chen po bcu gsum), which form the core of the curriculum in most shedras (Tibetan monastic colleges).
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

 bodhichitta (Pāli & Sanskrit: बोधिचित्त, IAST: bodhicitta, from Pāli: बोधि + चित्त, IAST bodhicitta ; Sanskrit: बोधि + चित्त, IAST bodhi + citta ; Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་, jangchup kyi sem ; Wylie: byang chub kyi sems) = the mind of enlightenment, awakened state of mind, enlightened attitude, altruistic aspiration to enlightenment, the compassionate wish to attain enlightenment for the benefit of all beings and also to bring them to that state. [Note: “bodhicitta” (without a second “h”) has become the standard English transliteration of the Sanskrit, however here we include the second “h” to reflect how the word is actually pronounced.]
• note (on meaning): DJKR emphasises that the semantic range of the English word “compassion” does not at all do justice to the meaning of nyingjé/karuna/bodhichitta – see notes for nyingjé.
• note (on spelling): The spelling “bodhicitta” (without second “h”) is now widely used in English, e.g. in wikipedia. Here we choose to add the second “h” in order to better reflect the Sanskrit pronunciation.
• other languages: jangchup kyi sem (Tibetan)
• see also: brahmavihara (sublime attitude) ; caturapramana (4 immeasurables): (1) metta (loving-kindness), (2) karuna (compassion), (3) mudita (sympathetic joy), (4) upekkha (equanimity) ; bodhichitta (the compassionate wish to attain enlightenment for the benefit of all beings and also to bring them to that state) ; jukpa semkyé (bodhichitta in action) ; mönpa semkyé (bodhichitta of aspiration) ; ngowo rangzhin tukjé (essence, nature and capacity) ; shatparamita (6 paramitas) ; tukjé (compassion)
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki / Study Buddhism glossary

bodhicitta (Sanskrit) = redirects to bodhichitta (Sanskrit). [Note: “bodhicitta” (without a second “h”) has become the standard English transliteration of the Sanskrit, however here we include the second “h” to reflect how the word is actually pronounced.]

 bodhisattva (Sanskrit: बोधिसत्त्व, IAST: bodhisattva ; Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའ་, jangchup sempa; Wylie: byang chub sems dpa’ ; Chinese: 菩薩 / 菩萨, pinyin: púsà) = being on the path of enlightenment, “one whose essence is perfect knowledge”; someone who has developed/aroused bodhichitta; a practitioner of the Mahayana path, in particular the cultivation of the 6 paramitas (transcendent perfections).
• other languages: jangchup sempa (Tibetan)
• see also: arya (noble person) ; sheng (sage)
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki / Study Buddhism glossary / Himalayan Art

Bodhisattvacharyavatara (Sanskrit) = redirects to Bodhicharyavatara (Sanskrit) 

 Bon (Tibetan: བོན་, bon; Wylie: bon ; Lhasa dialect: [pʰø̃̀]; also transliterated into English as Bön or Pön) = a Tibetan religion that arose in the 11th century and established its scriptures mainly from termas and visions by tertöns such as Loden Nyingpo. Bon termas contain myths of Bon existing as a pre-Buddhist religion before the introduction of Buddhism in Tibet, but modern scholarship has demonstrated that this is unlikely, although there were pre-existing indigenous shamanistic practices. The early “black Bon” relied on magic and shamanistic rituals, and shared similarities with Chinese folk religions and Mongolian shamanism.
• see also: Dzogchen (Great Perfection) ; tertön (treasure-revealer)
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki / Study Buddhism glossary

Bön (Tibetan) = redirects to Bon (Tibetan). 

 brahmavihara (Pāli & Sanskrit: ब्रह्मविहार, IAST: brahmavihāra) = sublime attitude (lit. “abode of brahma”); also known as an immeasurable or boundless thought (Sanskrit: apramana). The set of 4 brahmaviharas or the “four immeasurables” (loving-kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy, and equanimity) is a series of four Buddhist virtues and the meditation practices to cultivate them, which comprise “aspiration bodhichitta” – see caturapramana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ Buddha (Pāli: बुद्ध, IAST; buddha ; Sanskrit: बुद्ध, IAST: buddha ; Tibetan: སངས་རྒྱས་, sangyé; Wylie: sangs rgyas ; Chinese: 佛, pinyin: ) = (1) Siddhartha Gautama, the historical Buddha who lived in ancient India in the 5th to 4th century BCE (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE); (2) a buddha, a fully enlightened person.
• note (on meaning): DJKR emphasizes that the semantic range of the English word “enlightenment” does not at all do justice to the meaning of buddha/sangyé or bodhi/jangchup. For example, in Return to Normal, Day 2, October 11, 2020 (Taiwan), he said: “Words like “enlightenment” are actually not so good. Not so good. I think it’s words like “enlightenment” that really made Buddhism look like a religion.” He suggests that the intended meaning is better expressed with words like denpa tong (“seeing the truth”) and chö namla mig dulmé (“there is no dust, veil or obstruction between you and phenomena”, i.e. “seeing the truth, basically”)
• dictionary definition of “enlightenment” = (1) the action of enlightening or the state of being enlightened; the action or state of attaining or having attained spiritual knowledge or insight, in particular (in Buddhism) that awareness which frees a person from the cycle of rebirth; (2) a European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition. It was heavily influenced by 17th-century philosophers such as Descartes, Locke, and Newton, and its prominent exponents include Kant, Goethe, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Adam Smith (Google Dictionary).
• other languages: sangyé (Tibetan)
• easily confused: the English words “enlightenment/awakening” (Sanskrit: ≫ बोधि, bodhi; Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་, jangchup; Chinese: 佛位, fówèi), “buddha/buddhahood” (Sanskrit: ≫ बुद्ध, buddha; Tibetan: སངས་རྒྱས་, sangyé; Chinese: 佛, fó), “liberation” (Sanskrit: ≫ मोक्ष, moksha; Tibetan: ཐར་པ་, tarpa; Chinese: 解脫, jiětuō) and “nirvana” (Sanskrit: ≫ निर्वाण, nirvana; Tibetan: མྱང་འདས་, nyandé; Chinese: 涅槃, nièpán) are often used interchangeably, but they have different meanings in Sanskrit/Tibetan.
• see also: bodhi (enlightenment) ; pañchakula (5 buddha families) ; Shakyamuni (the Buddha) ; Siddhartha (the Buddha) ; sugata (“gone blissfully”, syn. the Buddha) ; tathagata (“thus come / thus gone”, syn. the Buddha) ; zhing kham (buddhafield)
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki / Digital Dictionary of Buddhism / Study Buddhism glossary / Himalayan Art

buddhakshetra (Sanskrit: बुद्धक्षेत्र; buddhakshetra ; IAST: buddhakṣetra) = buddhafield, pure land – see zhing kham (Tibetan ≫ main entry).

≫ Buddhapalita (Sanskrit: बुद्धपालित, IAST: Buddhapālita ; Chinese: 佛護, pinyin: Fóhù) (470-550 CE) = 5th/6th century Indian Madhyamaka Buddhist master, regarded as the founder of the Prasangika tradition, a commentator on the works of Nagarjuna and Aryadeva, he is regarded as the founder of the Prasangika tradition within the Madhyamaka school of Buddhism, mainly distinguished by its method of argumentation in establishing shunyata (emptiness), a negative dialectic similar to the Socratic dialogue. He composed a commentary on Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika, known simply as the Mūlamadhyamakavṛtti, or the “Buddhapalita” commentary. His approach was criticised by his contemporary Bhaviveka, (the founder of the Svatantrika-Madhyamaka tradition) and then defended by the later Chandrakirti.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Britannica / Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy / Digital Dictionary of Buddhism / Himalayan Art

≫ buddhi (Sanskrit: बुद्धि, IAST: buddhi ; Tibetan: བློ་, lo; Wylie: blo) = reason, intellect, intelligence, mind, discernment, judgement, the power of forming and retaining conceptions and general notions.
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia

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