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dag (Tibetan: བདག ; Wylie: bdag ; Sanskrit: आत्मन् ; IAST: ātman, “soul, self, abstract individual”) = self, ego, “I”, essence, identity, nature, belong to. Jeffrey Hopkins: “Comment: it is said that in general “self,” (bdag, ātman), “person,” (gang zag, pudgala) and “I” (nga, ahaṃ) are equivalent, [but] in the particular context of the selflessness of persons “self” and “person” are not at all equivalent and do not at all have the same meaning. In the term “selflessness of persons,” “self” refers to a falsely imagined status that needs to be refuted, whereas “persons” refers to existent beings who are the bases with respect to which that refutation is made. All four Buddhist schools, therefore, hold that persons exist; they do not claim that persons are mere fictions of ignorance”.
• see also: dagdzin (self-clinging) ; nga (I, me) ; pudgala (person)
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ dagdzin (Tibetan: བདག་འཛིན ; Wylie: bdag ‘dzin, shortened form of: Tibetan: བདག་ཏུ་འཛིན་པ ; Wylie; bdag tu ‘dzin pa ; Sanskrit: आत्मग्राह; IAST: ātmagrāha = आत्म ātma “self” + ग्राह grāha “seizing, holding”; Chinese: 執我, pinyin: zhíwǒ) = self-clinging, ego-clinging, clinging to a self, belief in self, misconstruing as having identity.
•see also: dag (self) ; dendzin (clinging to phenomena as truly existent) ; nyinang (mere apprehension) ; tsendzin (fixation on characteristics)

≫ dak (Tibetan: དག ; Wylie: dag) = pure, clean, cleansed, purified, free from dirt, corrected.
• see also: dak nang (pure perception)

≫ daka (Sanskrit: डाक, IAST: ḍāka; Tibetan: དཔའ་བོ, pawo; Wylie: dpa’ bo) = hero, in the sense of a courageous and altruistic person; valiant one ; virile one ; epithet for a buddha; the tantric equivalent of a bodhisattva and the male equivalent of a dakini.
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki / Himalayan Art / 84000 glossary

≫ dakini (Sanskrit: डाकिनी, IAST: ḍākinī; Tibetan: མཁའ་འགྲོ་མ་, khandroma; Wylie: mkha’ ‘gro ma, literally “sky-goer”; Chinese: 空行母; pinyin: kōngxíng mǔ; also: 荼枳尼; pinyin: túzhǐní) = a type of sacred female spiritual being in Hinduism and Vajrayana Buddhism; a female embodiment of enlightened energy. In the Vajrayana, dakinis are said to fulfil enlightened activities and protect and serve the Buddhist teachings and practitioners. They are one of the Three Roots (which are guru/deva/dakini in Sanskrit or lama/yidam/khandro in Tibetan). The term is sometimes also used to refer to human women with a certain level of spiritual development. The masculine form of the word is daka. In medieval legends in India, dakinis (and dakas) are demon attendants of Kali who feed on human flesh; likewise, they are typically represented as wrathful beings in the Vajrayana. In addition, dakinis are often represented as consorts in yab-yum representations.
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki / Himalayan Art / 84000 glossary

dakmé (Tibetan: བདག་མེད་, dakmé; Wylie: bdag med) = no-selfnon-self, without self – see anatta (Pāli ≫ main entry). 

≫ dak nang (Tibetan: དག་སྣང ; Wylie: dag snang) = pure perception, pure vision, sacred outlook. The Vajrayana principle and practice of regarding the environment as a buddhafield, self and others as deities, sounds as mantras, and thoughts as the display of wisdom.
• see also: dak (pure)
• external links: rigpawiki

≫ Dalai Lama (Tibetan: ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་, Tā la’i bla ma) = a title given by the Tibetan people to the foremost spiritual leader of the Gelug school of Tibetan BuddhismThe 14th and current Dalai Lama is Tenzin Gyatso, who lives as a refugee in India. The Dalai Lama is considered to be the successor in a line of tulkus who are believed to be incarnations of Avalokiteshvara, the bodhisattva of compassion.
• see also: Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) / Tsangyang Gyatso (6th Dalai Lama)
• external links (the fourteen Dalai Lamas): wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki

≫ dampa sum (Tibetan: དམ་པ་གསུམ་, dampa sum; Wylie: dam pa gsum) = the three supreme methods (also known as “the three noble principles“, “the three vital supports”, or “the three excellencies”) that make the difference between practice being merely a way of bringing temporary relaxation, peace, and bliss and practice becoming a powerful cause for the enlightenment of oneself and others. They are:
(1) “Good in the beginning” (i.e. starting one’s practice by arousing bodhichitta = སྦྱོར་བ་སེམས་བསྐྱེད་, jorwa semkyé; Wylie: sbyor ba sems bskyed)
(2) “Good in the middle” (i.e. avoiding getting caught in conceptualisation and maintaining the view of emptiness during practice = དངོས་གཞི་དམིགས་མེད་, ngözhi mikmé; Wylie: dngos gzhi dmigs med)
(3) “Good in the end” (i.e. dedicating the merit at the end of practice = རྗེས་བསྔོ་བ་, jé ngowa; Wylie: rjes bsngo ba).
These three principles are mentioned in a popular quote by Longchenpa: “Begin with bodhichitta, do the main practice without concepts, / Conclude by dedicating the merit. These, together and complete, / Are the three vital supports for progressing on the path to liberation.”4
• Practice: Applying the three supreme methods (work as practice)
• external links: rigpawiki

≫ dana (Pāli: दान, IAST: dāna ; Sanskrit: दान, IAST: dāna ; Tibetan: སྦྱིན་པ་, jinpa; Wylie: sbyin pa ; Chinese: 布施 / 布施, pinyin: bùshī) = generosity, the first of the 6 paramitas; defined as an attitude of giving.
• see also: paramita (transcendent perfection); shatparamita (6 paramitas): (1) dana (generosity), (2) shila (discipline), (3) kshanti (patience), (4) virya (diligence), (5) dhyana (meditative concentration), (6) prajña (wisdom).
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ dang (Tibetan: གདངས་, dang ; Wylie: gdangs) = radiance, lustre, self-radiance, light, clarity; tone, tune, melody. 
• external links: rigpawiki

≫ Dashabhumika Sutra (Sanskrit: दशभूमिकसूत्र, IAST: Daśabhūmika + Sūtra ; Chinese: 十地經 / 十地经; Pinyin: shí dì jīng ; Tibetan: ས་བཅུ་པའི་མདོ ; Wylie: sa bcu pa’i mdo) = The Ten Stages Sutra, an early, influential Mahayana sutra which also appears as the 26th chapter of the Avatamsaka Sutra. Chandrakirti’s Madhyamakavatara is a commentary on the meaning of Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika and the Dashabhumika Sutra.
• see also: Avatamsaka Sutra (Flower Ornament Sutra)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ dathün (Tibetan: ཟླ་ཐུན་, datün, Wylie: zla + thun) = month-long meditation retreat, popularised by Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche for the Shambhala sangha.
• see also: thün (session) 

dendzin (Tibetan: བདེན་འཛིན ; Wylie: bden ‘dzin, shortened form of Tibetan: བདེན་པར་འཛིན་པ ; Wylie: bden par ‘dzin pa ; Sanskrit: सत्यग्राह, IAST: satyagrāha = satya “true” + grāha “seizing, holding”) = clinging to phenomena as truly existent, perceiving phenomena as (being) truly existent, mistaking things as having true existence. According to the Madhyamaka, this is the primary defilement that keeps sentient beings bound to samsara.
• see also: dagdzin (self-clinging) ; nyinang (mere apprehension) ; tsendzin (fixation on characteristics)
• external links: rywiki

≫ denpa (Tibetan: བདེན་པ་, denpa ; Wylie: bden pa ; Sanskrit: सत्य, satya) = true, truth, authentic, valid, genuine. 

≫ denpa nyi (Tibetan: བདེན་པ་གཉིས་, den pa nyi; Wylie: bden pa gnyis ; Sanskrit: द्वसत्य, dvasatya; IAST: dva + satya ; also satyadvaya) = the two truths, the two aspects of all phenomena: the way things exist inherently (ultimate truth or absolute truth) and the way they appear (relative truth).
• see also: denpa nyi (2 truths) = (1) döndam denpa (absolute or ultimate truth), (2) kündzop denpa (relative truth).
• Glossary: 2 truths
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ denpa tong (Tibetan: བདེན་པ་མཐོང་བ་, denpa tongwa; Wylie: bden pa mthong ba) = realising the truth, seeing the truth, direct perception of the truth.
• note (on meaning): DJKR suggests that “denpa tong” (“seeing the truth”) captures an important part of the intended meaning that may not be indicated by the English word “enlightenment”. See discussion on meaning in the entry on Buddha.
• see also: chö namla mig dulmé (“there is no dust, veil or obstruction between you and phenomena” = “seeing the truth”) 

≫ dépa (Tibetan: དད་པ་, dé pa; Wylie: dad pa; Sanskrit: भक्ति, IAST: bhakti “devotion, fondness; trust, faith; homage, worship” also श्रद्ध, shradda, IAST: śraddha “having faith, belief, trust, confidence”; Chinese: 信奉, pinyin: xìnfèng, “belief, faith, conviction”) = faithdevotionconfidence, trust, belief, conviction; willingness to participate, believe in.
• see also: mögü (devotion), möpa (dedicated interest)
• external links: wiktionary; (3 types of faith): rigpawiki

dewa (Tibetan: བདེ་བ་, dewa; Wylie: bde ba) = bliss, pleasure, happiness – see sukha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).
• see also: dewé nyam (experience of bliss)
• external links: wiktionary

 dewé nyam (Tibetan: བདེ་བའི་ཉམས་, dewé nyam; Wylie: bde ba’i nyams) = experience of bliss (e.g. as a meditation experience), experience of pleasurable sensation.
• see also: nyamsum (three experiences): dewé nyam (bliss), selwé nyam (clarity), mi tokpé nyam (nonconceptuality)
• external links: (three experiences of bliss, clarity and nonconceptuality): rigpawiki

dézhin (Tibetan: དེ་བཞིན་, dézhin; Wylie: de bzhin; Sanskrit: तथा, IAST: tathā) = thus, that itself, like that; DJKR: “whatever it is”, “as it is”, “what is” – see tatha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).
• see also: dézhin shekpa (tathagata) 

dézhin shekpa (Tibetan: དེ་བཞིན་གཤེགས་པ་, dézhin shekpa; Wylie: de bzhin gshegs pa) = tathagata (Sanskrit ≫ main entry). 

 Dhammapada (Pāli: धम्मपद, IAST: dhammapada ; “words of doctrine” or “way of truth”; Sanskrit: धर्मपद, IAST: dharmapada ; Tibetan: ཆོས་ཀྱི་ཚིགས་སུ་བཅད་པ་, chö kyi tsik su chepa; Wylie: chos kyi tshigs su bcad pa) = a collection of sayings of the Buddha, probably the best-known book in the Pali Buddhist canon. It contains 423 short verses arranged in 26 chapters, compiled in Sri Lanka in the 1st century BCE. The original version of the Dhammapada is the second book of the Khuddaka Nikaya, the “Collection of little texts”, the fifth section in the Sutta Pitaka division of the Pali Canon. It was only translated into Tibetan in the 20th century, by the great Tibetan polymath Gendün Chöpel.
• see also: Gendün Chöpel (20th century Tibetan polymath)
• quotes: “You are your own refuge” (Dhp. XII:160)
• external links: (Dhammapada): wikipedia / rigpawiki / Britannica ; (translations): Buddharakkhita (1996) Access to Insight / Max Müller (1881) wikisource / Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1997) Access to Insight

 dhara (Sanskrit: धर, IAST: dhara) = holding, bearing, supporting. 

 dharani (Sanskrit: धारणी, IAST: dhāraṇī; Tibetan: གཟུངས་, zung; Wylie: gzungs; Chinese: 真言, pinyin: zhēnyán) = a Buddhist chant, incantation, or recitation believed to be protective and with powers to generate merit, usually a Sanskrit or Pali mantra; a particular type of mantra, usually quite long; a mystical verse or charm. These chants have roots in Vedic Sanskrit literature and constitute a major part of historic Buddhist literature.
• see also: mantra
• DJKR teaching: “Dharani“, November 19, 2020, Taipei, Taiwan
• Practice: “Ushnishavijaya Dharani” / “White Umbrella Dharani” 
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki / Lotsawa House

 dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म, IAST: dharma; Pāli: धम्म, IAST: dhamma; Tibetan: ཆོས་, chö; Wylie: chos) = (a) Dharma, the Buddhist path, the spiritual path, spirituality; (b) reality, true nature, character; (c) phenomenon, property, mark, peculiar condition or essential quality, peculiarity; (d) practice, way, usage, customary observance, prescribed conduct, duty, law, doctrine.
• other languages: chö (Tibetan)
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki

 Dharmachakrapravartana Sutra (Sanskrit: धर्मचक्रप्रवर्तनसूत्र, IAST: dharmacakrapravartanasūtra; Pali: धम्मचक्कप्पवत्तनसुत्त, IAST: dhammacakkappavattana-sutta = dhammacakkapavattanasutta; Burmese: ဓမ္မစက္ကပဝတ္တနသုတ်) = “The Setting in Motion the Wheel of the Dharma Sutra”, the first teaching given by Shakyamuni Buddha at Deer Park in Sarnath. The main topic of the sutra is the 4 Noble Truths, and the sutra also refers to the middle way, impermanence, and dependent origination.
• see also: cattari ariyasaccani (4 noble truths); Mrigadava (Deer Park); sutra (includes partial list of sutras on this website)
• external links: wikipedia  

 dharmakaya (Pāli: धम्मकय, IAST: dhammakaya = dhamma + kāya; Sanskrit: धर्मकाय, IAST: dharmakāya; Tibetan: ཆོས་སྐུ་, chö ku; Wylie: chos sku; Chinese: 法身 / 法身, pinyin: fǎshēn) = the “truth body”, “reality body” or absolute body: one of the three bodies (trikaya) of a buddha in Mahayana Buddhism. The dharmakaya constitutes the unmanifested, “inconceivable” (acintya) aspect of a buddha out of which buddhas arise and to which they return after their dissolution.
• see also: kaya (body, dimension), trikaya (three bodies of a buddha), nirmanakaya (“body of manifestations”), rupakaya (“form body”), sambhogakaya (“body of enjoyment”)
• external links: (dharmakaya): wiktionary / wikipedia  / rigpawiki / rywiki; (trikaya): wikipedia

 Dharmakirti (Sanskrit: धर्मकीर्ति, IAST: Dharmakīrti, literally “glory of the Dharma”; Tibetan: ཆོས་ཀྱི་གྲགས་པ་, chö kyi drak pa; Wylie: chos kyi grags pa) (6th or 7th century CE) = an influential 6th/7th Indian Mahayana Buddhist philosopher who taught at Nalanda Mahavihara. He was one of the key scholars of epistemology (pramana) in Buddhist philosophy, and is associated with the Yogachara and Sautrantika schools. Dharmakirti’s Pramāṇavārttika (“Commentary on Valid Cognition”), his largest and most important work, was very influential in India and Tibet as a central text on pramana and was widely commented on by various Indian and Tibetan scholars. His texts remain part of the curriculum in Tibetan Buddhist monasteries.
• see also: prayogavakya (syllogism in Indian logic)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

 Dharmapala (emperor) (Sanskrit: धर्म्मपाल, IAST: dha-rmma-pā-la) = the second ruler of the Pala Empire in the Indian Subcontinent and a great patron of Buddhism (ruled 8th century, c.783-820 CE), which corresponds to the present-day regions of Bengal and Bihar. He was the son and successor of Gopala, the founder of the Pala Dynasty, and he greatly expanded the boundaries and influence of the Pala empire. He revived Nalanda university and founded Vikramashila university.
• see also: Nalanda (Buddhist university); Vikramashila (Buddhist university)
• external links: wikipedia

 dharmata (Sanskrit: धर्मत, IAST: dharmata; Tibetan: ཆོས་ཉིད་, chö nyi; Wylie: chos nyid) = the nature of phenomena and mind, real condition of existence, very nature of things, intrinsic nature of phenomena, ultimate nature of phenomena, suchness, reality itself. 
• external links: wiktionary

 dhatu (Pāli: धातु, IAST: dhātu; Sanskrit: धातु, IAST: dhātu; Tibetan: ཁམས་, kham; Wylie: khams) = (a) element, factor, primitive matter, constituent element; (b) realm.
• other languages: kham (Tibetan)
• external links: wiktionary

 dhyana (Sanskrit: ध्यान, IAST: dhyāna; Pāli: झान, IAST: jhāna; Japanese: 禅, zen; Tibetan: བསམ་གཏན་, samten; Wylie: bsam gtan; Burmese: ဈာန; Chinese: 禪, chán, abbreviation of 禪那, pinyin: chánnà, a transliteration of the Sanskrit; also 禪定 / 禅定, pinyin: chándìng) = meditative concentrationmeditation, concentration, mental focus, attention, reflection, non-distraction, mind-training (according to early Buddhist texts such as the Suttapitaka and the Agamas of the Pali Canon, the aim of dhyana is to withdraw the mind from automatic responses to sense-impressions, thus leading to upekkha-sati-parishuddhi, a meditative “state of perfect equanimity and awareness”, the 4th and final rūpa or “form” jhana); the fifth of the 6 paramitas.
• easily confused (terms related to meditation): bhavana / gom (Tibetan: སྒོམ་, Wylie: sgom) (development, training, cultivation) is different from dhyana / samten / jhana / chan / zen (meditative concentration, mental focus, attention), which is different from abhyasa / gom (Tibetan: གོམས་, Wylie: goms) (familiarisation, becoming accustomed to, conditioning)
• other languages: chan (Chinese), jhana (Pāli), samten (Tibetan), zen (Japanese)
• see also: paramita (transcendent perfection); shatparamita (6 paramitas): (1) dana (generosity), (2) shila (discipline), (3) kshanti (patience), (4) virya (diligence), (5) dhyana (meditative concentration), (6) prajña (wisdom).
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ Dignaga (Sanskrit: दिग्नाग, IAST: Dignāga, a.k.a. दिङ्नाग, Diṅnāga ; Tibetan: ཕྱོགས་ཀྱི་གླང་པོ་, chok kyi langpo, Wylie: phyogs kyi glang po) (c. 480 – c. 540 CE) = a 5th/6th century Indian Buddhist scholar who laid the foundations of Buddhist logic and created the first system of Buddhist logic and epistemology (Pramana) by writing the Pramāṇasamuccaya (“Compendium of the Means of True Knowledge”), which was further developed by the great Buddhist philosopher and logician Dharmakirti (6th or 7th century CE).
• see also: Pramana (Buddhist logic and epistemology)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Britannica / Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

≫ dikpa (Tibetan: སྡིག་པ ; Wylie: sdig pa ; Sanskrit: अकुशल, akushala, IAST: akuśala) = evil deeds, harmful actions
• external links: wiktionary / rigpawiki

≫ dikpa ratsa (Tibetan: སྡིག་པ་ར་ཙ་, dikpa ratsa ; Wylie: sdig pa ra tsa) = scorpion

≫ di la (Tibetan: འདི་ལ; Wylie: ‘di la) = this.
• appears in: DJKR commentary on Uttaratantra verse 154, where the text has “this Buddhanature”, indicating there is some object, even though Buddhanature is beyond subject and object.

≫ Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche (Tibetan: དིལ་མགོ་མཁྱེན་བརྩེ་, Wylie: dil mgo mkhyen brtse; often known by longer name Dilgo Khyentse Tashi Peljor, Tibetan: དིལ་མགོ་མཁྱེན་བརྩེ་བཀྲ་ཤིས་དཔལ་འབྱོར།; Wylie: dil mgo mkhyen brtse bkra shis dpal ‘byor) (1910-1991) = H.H. Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche, one of the foremost 20th century masters of Tibetan Buddhism and root guru of Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche. He was a Vajrayana master, scholar, poet, teacher, and head of the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism from 1987 to 1991. Among his other names are Rabsel Dawa (Tibetan: རབ་གསལ་ཟླ་བ ; Wylie: rab gsal zla ba) and Tashi Paljor (Tibetan: བཀྲ་ཤིས་དཔལ་འབྱོར ; Wylie: bkra shis dpal ‘byor), and his tertön names Ösel Trulpey Dorje and Pema Do-ngak Lingpa. His two root gurus were Shechen Gyaltsab Pema Namgyal and Jamyang Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö. His collected works fill numerous volumes. As the primary holder of the teachings of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche was the de facto custodian of many important lineages of Tibetan Buddhist teachings. Regarded by many as one of the greatest Dzogchen masters of the 20th century, he taught many eminent teachers, including the 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso. In particular, he was the root guru of Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche, who he started training from the age of 7.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki / Siddhartha’s Intent / Treasury of LivesShechen ; (illustrated Khyentse lineage tree): Tricycle

Dipamkara (Pāli & Sanskrit: दीपंकर) = redirects to Dipankara (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ Dipankara (Pāli & Sanskrit: दीपंकर, Dipankara, also transliterated as Dipamkara ; IAST: Dīpaṃkara, “lamp bearer” ; Tibetan: མར་མེ་མཛད་, Marmedzé ; Wylie: mar me mdzad ; Chinese: 燃燈佛, pinyin: Rándēng Fó) = Dipankara Buddha, one of the buddhas of the past, the 25th predecessor of Shakyamuni, who was born on an island with a light show and is considered protector of mariners. He is said to have lived on Earth one hundred thousand aeons ago.
• external links: wikipedia / Himalayan Art

DJKR (acronym) = redirects to Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tibetan ≫ main entry).

döchak (Tibetan: འདོད་ཆགས་, döchak ; Wylie: ‘dod chags) = desire, attachment, passion, lust – see also: raga (Sanskrit ≫ main entry). 

 döndam denpa (Tibetan: དོན་དམ་བདེན་པ་; Wylie: don dam bden pa; Sanskrit: परमार्थसत्य, IAST: paramārtha + satya; also shortened to Sanskrit: परमार्थ, IAST: paramārtha; literally “highest or whole truth”) = absolute truthultimate truth.
• see also: denpa nyi (2 truths) = (1) döndam denpa (absolute or ultimate truth), (2) kündzop denpa (relative truth)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki

dorje ( Tibetan: རྡོ་རྗེ, dorje; Wylie: rdo rje) = see vajra (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ Dorje Chang Thungma (Tibetan: རྡོ་རྗེ་འཆང་ཐུང་མ་, dor jé chang tung ma; Wylie: rdo rje ‘chang thung ma = rdo rje ‘chang “Vajradhara” + thung “short, brief” + ma “not”) = The Mahamudra Lineage Supplication (also “Invoking the Blessings of the Kagyü Lineage”) by the 15th century master Bengar Jampal Zangpo, often recited in Karma Kagyu centres at the start of a practice session.
• external links: (English translation): Lotsawa House / Nalanda Translation Committee

≫ dorje tabü tingedzin (Tibetan: རྡོ་རྗེ་ལྟ་བུའི་ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན ; Wylie: rdo rje lta bu’i ting nge ‘dzin) = vajra-like samadhi, adamantine concentration. Complete enlightenment is reached when the most subtle cognitive obscurations remaining in the final stages of the tenth bhumi are overcome by the vajra-like samadhi.
• external links: rywiki

dosa (Pāli: दोस, IAST, dosa) = aversion, anger, ill-will, hatred – see dvesha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).
• external links: wiktionary

draldré (Tibetan: བྲལ་འབྲས ; Wylie: bral ‘bras) = see dreldré (Tibetan ≫ main entry).

drangdön (Tibetan: དྲང་དོན, drang dön ; Wylie: drang don) = (teachings of) provisional or expedient meaning – see neyartha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ drébu (Tibetan: འབྲས་བུ་, dré bu; Wylie: ‘bras bu) = result, effect, fruit, fruition, accomplishment ; also literally fruit as in the three medicinal fruits (drébu sum)
• see also: drébu sum (the three medicinal fruits) ; dreldré (result of separation/elimination) ; tawa gompa chöpa drébu (view, meditation, action & result) 

≫ drébu mönpa mépa (Tibetan: འབྲས་བུ་སྨོན་པ་མེད་པ་, Wylie: ‘bras bu smon pa med pa ; Sanskrit अप्रणिहित, IAST: apraṇihita) = “the result is beyond aspiration” (also translated as aimlessness, wishlessness, absence of expectancy ; DJKR “un-longable”), one of the three doors of liberation.
• see also: nam tar go sum (three doors of liberation)
• external links: rigpawiki / Lion’s Roar

≫ drébu sum (Tibetan: འབྲས་བུ་གསུམ, Wylie: ‘bras bu gsum ; Sanskrit: त्रिफल, IAST: triphala, “having three fruits”) = the three fruits, the “three precious jewels of Tibetan medicine”, also known as aru-baru-kyuru, referring to the three medicinal fruits or three myrobalan fruits: arura (Sanskrit: हरीतकी, IAST: harītakī ; Terminalia chebula, Chebulic Myrobalan), barura (Sanskrit: बिभीतक, IAST: bibhītaka ; Terminalia bellirica, Belleric Myrobalan) and kyurura (Sanskrit: अमला, IAST: amalā ; Phyllanthus emblica syn. Emblica officinalis, Emblic Myrobalan)
• see also: drébu sum gyi chülen (extracting the essence of the three myrobalan fruits)

drébu sum gyi chülen (Tibetan: འབྲས་བུ་གསུམ་གྱི་བཅུད་ལེན ; Wylie: ‘bras bu gsum gyi bcud len) = extracting the essence of the three myrobalan fruits (the three medicinal fruits), a medicinal butter in Tibetan medicine used to prolong health and longevity and clarify sense organs. Also well known in Ayurvedic medicine as Triphala.
• see also: chülen (extracting the essence) ; drébu sum (the three medicinal fruits or three myrobalan fruits)
• external links: NIH National Library of Medicine

≫ dreldré (Tibetan: བྲལ་འབྲས ; Wylie: bral ‘bras, shortened form of བྲལ་བའི་འབྲས་བུ, bral ba’i ‘bras bu ; Sanskrit: विसंयोगफल, IAST: visaṃyoga-phala = विसंयोग visaṃyoga “disjunction, separation” + फल phala “result; end of an action; benefit, enjoyment” ; Chinese = 離繫果, pinyin: líxì guǒ, “effect of having escaped from bondage; the effect which arises due to the non-interference of various existing dharmas (the third of the five effects 五果, wǔguǒ), visaṃyoga-phala is also translated as 解脫果, jiětuō guǒ “fruit of liberation”) = result of separation (from obscurations), i.e. the result that is accomplished once obscurations/defilements have been removed ; fruition of separation ; effect of absence ; separative effect; effect which is a state of separation; effects of separation ; during DJKR teachings on Uttaratantra in Dordogne, this was translated as “result of elimination“.
• see also: drébu (result)

drenpa (Tibetan: དྲན་པ་, drenpa; Wylie: dran pa) = mindfulness, memory, recollection, presence of mind, remembrance, calling to mind – see sati (Pāli ≫ main entry). 

≫ drib (Tibetan: གྲིབ་, drib; Wylie: grib ; Sanskrit: आवरण, IAST: āvaraṇa) = defilementobscuration, stain, contamination.
• other languages: avarana (Sanskrit)
• see also: dribpa nyi (2 obscurations): (1) emotional obscurations: nyöndrip (Tibetan), kleshavarana (Sanskrit); (2) cognitive obscurations: shédrip (Tibetan), jñeyavarana (Sanskrit); nyönmong (negative emotion)

≫ dribpa nyi (Tibetan: སྒྲིབ་པ་གཉིས་, dribpa nyi; Wylie: sgrib pa gnyis; also: སྒྲིབ་གཉིས་, dribnyi; Wylie: sgrib gnyis; Sanskrit: आवरणद्वय, IAST: āvaraṇa + dvaya; Chinese: 二障 / 二障, pinyin: èrzhàng) = the two obscurations: emotional obscurations and cognitive obscurations.
• see also: drib (obscuration); dribpa nyi (2 obscurations): (1) emotional obscurations: nyöndrip (Tibetan), kleshavarana (Sanskrit); (2) cognitive obscurations: shédrip (Tibetan), jñeyavarana (Sanskrit); nyönmong (negative emotion)
• Glossary: 2 obscurations = (1) emotional obscurations & (2) cognitive obscurations
• external links: rigpawiki / Digital Dictionary of Buddhism

drip (Tibetan) – redirects to drib (Tibetan ≫ main entry). 

≫ drishti (Sanskrit: दृष्टि, IAST: dṛṣṭi; Pāli: दिट्ठि, IAST: diṭṭhi; Tibetan: ལྟ་བ་, tawa; Wylie: lta ba) = view, orientation, perspective, belief (the Sanskrit and Tibetan words both mean to look or see as well as to hold a particular belief, much like the English word “view”); sixth of the 6 destructive emotions (mulaklesha); unless qualified as “samyak drishti” (i.e. “right view”), the Sanskrit “drishti” mostly refers to wrong views and only in a few instances to right view. The Tibetan word “tawa” has a more neutral valence; (wikipedia: “In Buddhist thought, a view is not a simple, abstract collection of propositions, but a charged interpretation of experience which intensely shapes and affects thought, sensation, and action. Having the proper mental attitude toward views is therefore considered an integral part of the Buddhist path, as sometimes correct views need to be put into practice and incorrect views abandoned, and sometimes all views are seen as obstacles to enlightenment”).
• other languages: tawa (Tibetan)
• see also (view): chéta (nihilism), takta (eternalism)
• see also: klesha (afflictive/destructive/disturbing/negative emotions); mulaklesha (6 destructive emotions): (1) raga (desire), (2) pratigha (anger), (3) avidya (ignorance), (4) mana (pride), (5) vichikitsa (doubt), (6) drishti (view); nyöndrip (emotional obscurations)
• external links: wiktionary

 drön khang (Tibetan: མགྲོན་ཁང་, drön khang; Wylie: mgron khang; Chinese: 賓館, pinyin: bīnguǎn) = guest house, wayfarer’s inn, hotel.
• external links: wiktionary

drubchö (Tibetan) – redirects to drupchö (Tibetan ≫ main entry). 

 drupchö (Tibetan: སྒྲུབ་མཆོད་, Wylie: sgrub mchod) = an elaborate and intensive form of sadhana practice held over several days (usually three to eight days). Unlike a drupchen, which is also practised over several days, this is not a continuous practice over a 24-hour period; it is only done during the day.
• external links: rigpawiki

druptap (Tibetan: སྒྲུབ་ཐབས་, druptap, Wylie: sgrub thabs) = see sadhana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry). 

 Dudjom Jigdral Yeshe Dorje (Tibetan: བདུད་འཇོམས་འཇིགས་བྲལ་ཡེ་ཤེས་རྡོ་རྗེ།, Wylie: bdud ‘joms ‘jigs bral ye shes rdo rje, also transliterated Dudjom Jikdral Yeshe Dorje or Dudjom Jikdrel Yeshe Dorje) (1904-1987) = H.H. Dudjom Rinpoche, one of the foremost yogins, scholars, and meditation masters of 20th century Tibetan Buddhism. He was recognized as the incarnation of Dudjom Lingpa (1835-1904), whose previous incarnations include great masters such as Shariputra, Saraha and Khye’u Chung Lotsawa. Considered to be the living representative of Padmasambhava, he was a great revealer of terma (hidden treasures). He was a prolific author and meticulous scholar, and wrote more than forty volumes including the definitive history, “The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism: Its Fundamentals and History”. In the last decade of his life he taught extensively and helped establish the Nyingma tradition in the West, founding centers in France and the United States. He was father of Thinley Norbu Rinpoche and grandfather of Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche.
• Practice: “Calling The Lama From Afar” by H.H. Dudjom Rinpoche
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki / Treasury of Lives / TBRC

 Dudjom Lingpa (Tibetan: བདུད་འཇོམས་གླིང་པ་, Wylie: bdud ‘joms gling pa) (1835-1904) = a renowned 19th century Tibetan meditation master, teacher and tertön. He had no formal education, nor did he take ordination as a monk or belong to any established Buddhist school or tradition of his time. Despite not studying under any established Buddhist teachers of his time, Dudjom Lingpa reported having direct visionary encounters throughout his life with numerous deities such as Vajravarahi, Avalokiteshvara, Vajrapani, and Mañjushri, Saraha and Longchenpa, through which he received teachings and empowerments. This was met with great skepticism by many of his contemporaries, and it wasn’t until his disciples started showing clear signs of spiritual maturity that he was accepted as an authentic teacher and tertön. Today his teachings and literary works, especially those on Dzogchen, are highly regarded within the Nyingma tradition of Tibetan Buddhism. Dudjom Lingpa had eight sons, all of whom were recognized as incarnations and became teachers. Among them were the Third Dodrubchen, Jigme Tenpai Nyima (mdo grub chen 03 ‘jigs med bstan pa’i nyi ma, 1865-1926), Tulku Drime Özer (sprul sku dri med ‘od zer, 1881-1924), and Dorje Dradül (rdo rje dgra ‘dul, 1891-1959). His incarnation was Dudjom Jigdral Yeshe Dorje, one of the most important Nyingma lamas of the twentieth century.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Treasury of Lives

Dudjom Rinpoche (Tibetan) = redirects to Dudjom Jigdral Yeshe Dorje (Tibetan ≫ main entry). 

duk ngel (Tibetan: སྡུག་བསྔལ་, duk ngel; Wylie: sdug bsngal) = suffering, pain, unsatisfactoriness – see dukkha (Pāli ≫ main entry). 

 dukkha (Pāli: दुक्ख, IAST: dukkha; from दु-, du- “bad, perverse, difficult” + ख, kha “void, space”; Sanskrit: दुःख, IAST: duḥkha, from दुस्-, dus- “bad, difficult, hard, evil” + ख, kha “cavity, hollow, aperture; empty space; the hole in the nave of a wheel through which the axis runs”; Tibetan: སྡུག་བསྔལ་, duk ngel; Wylie: sdug bsngal; Chinese: 苦, pinyin: ku; Japanese: 苦, ku) =  unsatisfactorinesssufferingunease, dissatisfaction, pain, frustration. DJKR: “nothing is one hundred percent satisfying”. First of the 4 Noble Truths, and second of the 3 marks of existence.
• note (on meaning): DJKR emphasizes that the English word “suffering” (which means “the state of undergoing pain, distress, or hardship” – Google Dictionary) “does not at all do justice” to the meaning of dukkha. Buddhist scholars note that “dukkha” is among the most misunderstood terms in Buddhism, and there is no single English word that properly conveys the meaning of dukkha5.
The etymology of dukkha is of a wheel with a bad (दु, du-) axle-hole (ख, kha), such that the wheel does not turn easily, and the ride is bumpy and uneven rather than smooth. (Note also the connotation of rotation in samsara as cyclic existence, especially in the Tibetan འཁོར་བ་, khorwa). Of course, if one is hoping for a smooth ride, the unevenness will result in disappointment and suffering. But in other contexts, for example in a fairground ride, we might seek out a bumpy ride as a source of excitement and enjoyment. In Buddhism, life is understood to be “bumpy” rather than “smooth”, but this results in suffering only when there is attachment to smoothness and aversion to bumpiness.
• note (on etymology): An alternative etymology is given by Sanskrit scholar Monier-Williams, who finds the roots of the word dukkha in the Sanskrit दुस्-, dus-, “bad” + स्था, stha, “standing; staying, abiding; being situated in, existing or being in or on or among”, hence दुस्स्था, duhstha as “standing badly, unsteady, disquieted (lit. and fig.)”. In his 2015 book “Greek Buddha”, Christopher Beckwith compares the Buddhist three marks to the three characteristics of pragmata (“matters, questions, topics”) attributed to Pyrrho in the famous “Aristocles Passage”6. He suggests that duhstha is “virtually identical to the literal meaning of Greek”7 astathmēta (“unstable, unbalanced, not measurable”), with “both evidently meaning ‘unstable’. This strongly suggests that Pyrrho’s middle term is in origin a simple calque”. Nevertheless, despite Beckwith’s focus on the meanings of dukkha/duhstha that are not focused on suffering, the word duhstha also means “uneasy, unhappy, poor, miserable; faring ill, badly off, wretched, sad”8. Whether we follow the etymology of दुक्ख, duhkha “bad axle-hole, space” or दुस्स्था, duhstha “badly standing, abiding, situated in”, we find that existence is uneven or bumpy by virtue of being “badly positioned” or “badly situated” (note that these terms are both relational in nature, referring to the way that a thing or person fits, stands, abides, or is situated in its environment). And if we cannot accept this truth, we will experience unease, unsatisfactoriness and suffering.
• other languages: duk ngel (Tibetan)
• see also: cattari ariyasaccani (4 noble truths): (1) dukkha (suffering), (2) samudaya (origin of suffering), (3) nirodha (cessation of suffering), (4) magga (path); mi tsimpa (not satisfied, not contented); trilakshana (3 marks of existence): (1) anicca (impermanence), (2) dukkha (unsatisfactoriness) (3) anatta (nonself).
• glossary: 3 marks of existence
• external links: (dukkha): wiktionary / wikipedia / extensive discussion in Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary; (duhstha): wiktionary; (3 types of suffering): rigpawiki

duktang (Tibetan: འདུག་སྟངས་, duk tang, Wylie: ‘dug stangs) = posture, way of sitting; way of doing something; DJKR: “way of being” – see asana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry). 

 dül (Tibetan: རྡུལ་, dül; Wylie: rdul) = dust motes (as particles floating in the air).
• external links: wiktionary

 dumajé (Tibetan: འདུས་མ་བྱས, du ma jé ; Wylie: ‘dus ma byas ; Sanskrit: असंस्कृत, asamskirta ; IAST: asaṃskṛta, “unadorned, not prepared”) = uncompounded, noncomposite; unconditioned (i.e. not created through causes and conditions); beyond arising, dwelling and ceasing. The result of the path is taught as unconditioned/uncompounded in each of the various yanas (i.e. nirvana in the Shravakayanatathagatagarbha or Buddhanature in the Mahayana, and rigpa in the Vajrayana). 
• external links: rigpawiki

Dunhuang (Chinese: 敦煌, pinyin: Dūnhuáng) = a county-level city in northwestern Gansu Province, Western China. It was a major stop on the ancient Silk Road and is best known for the nearby Mogao Caves (Chinese: 莫高窟; pinyin: Mògāo kū), a series of 735 caves noted for their Buddhist art, as well as the hoard of manuscripts, the Dunhuang manuscripts, found hidden in a sealed-up cave.
• external links: (Dunhuang): wikipedia / wiktionary ; (Mogao Caves): wikipedia / wiktionary / Issuu / Buddhist Door

≫ düsum (Tibetan: དུས་གསུམ ; Wylie: dus gsum ; Sanskrit: त्रैकालिक, IAST: traikālika, “the three times: past, present and future; also morning, noon, evening”) = the three times: past (འདས་པ, ‘das pa), present (ལྟ་ད་པ, lta da pa) and future (མ་འོངས་པ, ma ‘ongs pa); also the three tenses, and the three moments (eating, sitting, walking). Also the first words of “dus gsum sangs rgyas…”, the Düsum Sangye prayer by Chokgyur Lingpa starting with “Buddha of the three times…”. The Mahamudra and Dzogchen traditions speak of four times (düzhi), where the fourth time is indefinite or unfixed time (düzhi nyampa chenpo).
• see also: düzhi (the four times) ; düzhi nyampa chenpo (the fourth time)
• external links: rigpawiki / rywiki

 duwé ngöpo zhi (Tibetan: བསྡུ་བའི་དངོས་པོ་བཞི ; Wylie: bsdu ba’i dngos po bzhi, from བསྡུ་བ་, duwa, Wylie: bsdu ba, “gather, magnetize, collect, amass” ; Sanskrit: चतुर्संग्रहवस्तु, IAST: catursaṃgrahavastu, also saṃgrahavastu “element of popularity”, from Sanskrit: संग्रह, IAST: saṃgraha “bringing together, assembling people”) = 4 means of attraction (also: 4 ways of gathering beings, 4 means of attracting/gathering disciples, 4 means of magnetizing, 4 bases of sympathy), derived from an older list of 7 elements of popularity; as defined in section 19 of Nagaruna’s Dharma-saṃgraha, an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit; also cited by Patrul Rinpoche in The Words of My Perfect Teacher. They are:
(1) dana (Sanskrit: दान, IAST: dāna ; Tibetan: བདོག་པ་སྦྱིན་པ, dokpa jinpa ; Wylie: bdog pa sbyin pa) = generosity, giving; DJKR: “generosity”.
(2) priyavacana (Sanskrit: प्रियवचन, IAST: priyavacana ; Tibetan: སྙན་པར་སྨྲ་བ, nyenpar mawa ; Wylie: snyan par smra ba) = kind words, pleasant speech, affectionate speech ; DJKR: “pleasant speech”.
(3) arthacharya (Sanskrit: अर्थचर्या, IAST: arthacaryā “promoting another’s affairs”, from artha “affairs, work, business” + caryā “way, practice, going about, wandering” ; Tibetan: དོན་མཐུན་པ་, dön tünpa ; Wylie: don mthun pa = don “work, action, benefit, purpose” + mthun pa “to be in agreement, appropriate, suitable”) = accomplishing benefit, helpfulness, usefulness ; meaningful conduct ; giving appropriate teachings; teaching each individual according to their needs; DJKR: “leading others according to the law, the way, the path”.
(4) samanarthata (Sanskrit: समानार्थता, IAST: samānārthatā, “equivalence” ; Tibetan: དོན་སྤྱོད་པ, dön chöpa ; Wylie: don spyod pa = don “work, action, benefit, purpose” + spyod pa “action, conduct, way of living”) = maintaining consistency between words and deeds, consistency in behaviour ; agreement in purpose ; accordant meaning ; DJKR: “leading oneself according to the law, the way, the path”.
• external links: rigpawiki / wisdom library

 düzhi: [homophone of two different Tibetan words]:
(1) the four times (Tibetan: དུས་བཞི, düzhi; Wylie: dus bzhi) = the four times: past, present, future, and indefinite time. Also: four moments (eating, sitting, walking, sleeping); four seasons (dbyar, dgun, ston, dpyid); four times (nang, nub, nyin, mtshan); four universal eons/ages: the perfect age (kṛtayuga, rdzogs-ldan), the threefold age (tretayuga, gsum-ldan), the two-fold age (dvāparayuga, gnyis-ldan) and the age of degeneration (kaliyuga, rtsod-ldan); four periods (noon, midnight, evening, early morning).
• see also: düsum (the three times: past, present, future) ; düzhi nyampa chenpo (the fourth time)
• external links: Yao (2007): Four dimensional time in Dzogchen and Heidegger
(2) the four maras (Tibetan: བདུད་བཞི་, düzhi or dü shyi; Wylie: bdud bzhi; Sanskrit: चत्वारि मार, IAST: catvāri + māra) = the four maras, the four types of obstructive, ‘demonic’ forces (sometimes also translated as ‘demons’) which create obstacles to practitioners on the spiritual path. The four maras are:
• (a) Klesha-mara (Sanskrit: क्लेशमार, IAST: Kleśa + māra; Tibetan: ཉོན་མོངས་ཀྱི་བདུད་; Wylie: nyon mongs kyi bdud) = Mara of emotions; Mara as the embodiment of all unskillful emotions, such as greed, hate and delusion; symbolises our addiction to habitual patterns of negative emotion.
• (b) Mrityu-mara (Sanskrit: मृत्युमार, IAST: Mṛtyu + māra; Tibetan: འཆི་བདག་གི་བདུད་; Wylie: ‘chi bdag gi bdud) = Mara of the Lord of Death; symbolizes both death itself, and also our fear of change, impermanence, and death.
• (c) Skandha-mara (Sanskrit: स्कन्धमार, IAST: Skandha + māra; Tibetan: ཕུང་པོའི་བདུད་; Wylie: phung po’i bdud) = Mara of the aggregates; Mara as metaphor for the entirety of conditioned existence; symbolizes our clinging to forms, perceptions, and mental states as ‘real’.
• (d) Devaputra-mara (Sanskrit: देवपुत्रमार, IAST: Devaputra + māra; Tibetan: ལྷའི་བུའི་བདུད་; Wylie: lha’i bu’i bdud) = Mara of the Son of God; the deva of the sensuous realm, who tried to prevent Gautama Buddha from attaining liberation from the cycle of rebirth on the night of the Buddha’s enlightenment; symbolises our craving for pleasure, convenience, and ‘peace’.
• see also: mara
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki / Awakening to Reality

≫ düzhi nyampa chenpo (Tibetan: དུས་བཞི་མཉམ་པ་ཆེན་པོ ; Wylie: dus bzhi mnyam pa chen po) = the fourth time (of great equality), the fourth time in Mahamudra. Also known as the indefinite or unfixed time (Tibetan: མ་ངེས་པའི་དུས, ma ngépé dü ; Wylie: ma nges pa’i dus), also “timeless time”. In Dzogchen, the “fourth time” refers to rigpa. In Longchenpa’s commentary on the Guhyagarbha Tantra, he says “In this, our (rNying-ma) tradition however, the three divisions of past, future and present are compounded time or relative appearances, whereas the unchanging reality is indefinite or the time of inconceivable ultimate reality.”
• see also: düsum (the three times) ; düzhi (the four times) ; ma ngépé dü (indefinite/unfixed time) ; rigpa
• external links: Chögyam Trungpa (July 1974); “Beyond Present, Past, and Future Is The Fourth Moment” / Longchenpa Commentary on the Guhyagarbha Tantra

dvadasha nidanani (Sanskrit: द्वादशनिदानानि, IAST: dvādaśanidānāni = dvādaśa + nidānāni “cause of existence; band, rope, halter”, also dvādaśāṅga-pratītyasamutpāda ; Tibetan: རྟེན་འབྲེལ་ཡན་ལག་བཅུ་གཉིས་, tendrel yenlak chunyi; Wylie: rten ‘brel yan lag bcu gnyis) = the 12 links of dependent origination (the 12 nidanas) – see dvadasha pratityasamutpada (Sanskrit ≫ main entry). 

 dvadasha pratityasamutpada (Sanskrit: द्वादशप्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद, IAST: dvādaśa + pratītyasamutpāda; Pāli: द्वादसपटिच्चसमुप्पाद, IAST: dvādasa + paṭiccasamuppāda; also Sanskrit: द्वादशनिदानानि, IAST: dvādaśanidānāni = द्वादश, dvādaśa “twelve” + निदान, nidāna, “cause”; Pali: dvādasanidānāni = द्वादस, dvādasa + निदान, nidāna; other Sanskrit forms include: dvādaśa-astanga pratītyasamutpāda and dvādaśāṅga-pratītyasamutpāda; Tibetan: རྟེན་འབྲེལ་ཡན་ལག་བཅུ་གཉིས་, tendrel yenlak chunyi, Wylie: rten ‘brel yan lag bcu gnyis; Chinese: 十二因緣 / 十二因缘, pinyin: shíèr yīnyuán) = the 12 links of dependent origination or dependent arising (the 12 nidanas). The 12 links are:
(1) avidya (Sanskrit: अविद्या, IAST: avidyā; Tibetan: མ་རིག་པ་, ma rigpa; Wylie: ma rig pa; Chinese: 無明) = ignorance, nescience, unenlightenment).
(2) samskara (Sanskrit: संस्कार, IAST: saṃskāra; Tibetan: འདུ་བྱེད་, dujé; Wylie: ‘du byed; Chinese: 行) = formation, action-intentions; action, activity, conception, karmic predispositions.
(3) vijñana (Sanskrit: विज्ञान, IAST: vijñāna; Tibetan: རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པ་, nampar shépa; Wylie: rnam par shes pa; Chinese: 識) = consciousness.
(4) namarupa (Sanskrit: नामरूप, IAST: nāmarūpa; Tibetan: མིང་དང་གཟུགས་, ming dang zuk; Wylie: ming dang gzugs; Chinese: 名色) = name and form; the five skandhas.
(5) shadayatana (Sanskrit: षडायतन, IAST: ṣaḍāyatana; Tibetan: སྐྱེ་མཆེད་དྲུག་, kyéché druk; Wylie: skye mched drug; Chinese: 六處) = the six sense-fields; the six ayatanas of the sense-faculties; the six-fold sphere of sense contact.
(6) sparsha (Sanskrit: स्पर्श, IAST: sparśa; Tibetan: རེག་པ་, rekpa; Wylie: reg pa; Chinese: 觸) = contact; the coming together of objects, sense faculty and consciousness.
(7) vedana (Sanskrit: वेदना, IAST: vedanā; Tibetan: ཚོར་བ་, tsorwa; Wylie: tshor ba; Chinese: 受) = sensation, feeling: pleasurable, painful and neutral.
(8) trishna (Sanskrit: तृष्णा, IAST: tṛṣṇā; Tibetan: སྲེད་པ་, sépa; Wylie: sred pa; Chinese: 愛) = craving, thirst, desire.
(9) upadana (Sanskrit: उपादान, IAST: upādāna; Tibetan: ལེན་པ་, lenpa; Wylie: len pa; Chinese: 取) = grasping, appropriation.
(10) bhava (Sanskrit: भव, IAST: bhava; Tibetan: སྲིད་པ་, sipa; Wylie: srid pa; Chinese: 有) = becoming, being, existing.
(11) jati (Sanskrit: जाति, IAST: jāti; Tibetan: སྐྱེ་བ་, kyewa; Wylie: skye ba; Chinese: 生) = birth; rebirth.
(12) jaramarana (Sanskrit: जरामरण, IAST: jarāmaraṇa = जरा jarā + मरण maraṇa; Tibetan: རྒ་ཤི་, ga shi; Wylie: rga shi; Chinese: 老死) = old age and death (impermanence).
• see also: pratityasamutpada (dependent origination)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Himalayan Art

dvasatya (Sanskrit) = the two truths – see denpa nyi (Tibetan ≫ main entry). 

≫ dvesha (Sanskrit: द्वेष, IAST: dveṣa ; Pāli: दोस, IAST, dosa ; Tibetan: ཞེ་སྡང་, zhédang ; Wylie: zhe sdang) = aversion, dislike, enmity, hatred, hostility, ill-will; one of the 3 poisons (in the Theravada teachings).
• other languages: dosa (Pāli)
• see also: trivisha (3 poisons): (1) delusion, confusion, bewilderment, ignorance (Pāli/Sanskrit: moha), (2) attachment, greed, avarice, desire, sensuality, passion (Pāli: lobha, Sanskrit: raga), (3) aversion, dislike, enmity, anger, hostility, aggression (Pāli: dosa, Sanskrit: dvesha)
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki / 84000 glossary

Dzambuling (Tibetan: འཛམ་བུའི་གླིང་, Dzambuling, Wylie: ‘dzam bu gling) = see Jambudvipa (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

≫ Dzö Dün (Tibetan: མཛོད་བདུན་, Wylie: mdzod bdun) = The Seven Treasuries by the 14th century Tibetan master Longchenpa. They constitute his most influential scholarly output and together provide a systematic overview of exoteric and esoteric topics from the point of view of the Nyingma school’s Dzogchen tradition.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki

≫ Dzogchen (Tibetan: རྫོགས་ཆེན, dzog chen; Wylie: rdzogs chen, literally “great perfection” or “great completeness” ; also longer form: Tibetan: རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་, dzogpa chenpo ; Wylie: rdzogs pa chen po ; Sanskrit: अतियोग , IAST: atiyoga) = the Great Perfection teachings, the highest path in the Nyingma tradition of Tibetan Buddhism. A tradition of teachings aimed at discovering and continuing in the natural primordial state of being (the nature of mind). It is a central teaching of the Yundrung Bon tradition and the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism. In these traditions, Dzogchen is the highest and most definitive path of the nine vehicles to liberation. The path of Dzogchen or Mahasandhi is closely related to the path of Mahamudra, the highest teachings in the Kagyu tradition of Tibetan Buddhism.
• other names: AtiyogaMahasandhi
• see also: Bon ; dzogrim (completion stage) ; King Trisong Deutsen ; Longchenpa ; Mahamudra ; mahasiddha (great accomplished one) ;  ngowo rangzhin tukjé (essence, nature and capacity) ; Nyingma ; Padmasambhava ; semnyi (nature of mind) ; tekpa gu (nine yanas) ; Vimalamitra
• external links: (Dzogchen): wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki / Himalayan Art / 84000 glossary ; (Dzogchen terminology): rigpawiki / Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia

≫ dzogrim (Tibetan: རྫོགས་རིམ་, dzog rim; Wylie: rdzogs rim ; Sanskrit: संपन्नक्रम, IAST: saṃpannakrama = संपन्न, saṃpanna “accomplished, finished, completed” + क्रम, krama “step, stage” ; rywiki notes that the Sanskrit terms utpannakrama and niṣpannakrama are also translated as dzogrim, where उत्पन्न, utpanna = “arisen, born, produced” and निष्पन्न, niṣpanna “brought about, effected, succeeded, completed, finished, ready”) = the completion stage in Vajrayana Buddhism (also “perfection” or “fulfillment” stage), which is the second stage of Highest Yoga Tantra (Anuttara Yoga Tantra) in Vajrayana Buddhism. According to Sarah Harding, the completion stage can refer to either path of method (Tibetan: ཐབས་ལམ ; Wylie: thabs lam ; Sanskrit: उपयमर्ग, IAST: upayamarga) or the path of liberation (Tibetan: འགྲོལ་ལམ ; Wylie: ‘grol lam). The path of method includes various yogas associated with the subtle body of energy channels (Tibetan: རྩ་, tsa ; Wylie: rtsa), winds or currents (Tibetan: རླུང, lung ; Wylie: rlung), and drops or charged particles (Tibetan: ཐིག་ལེ, tiklé ; Wylie: thig le) which are said to converge at certain points along the spinal column called chakras. The goal of these yogas, which include the Six Yogas of Naropa, is to manifest the pristine awareness that is the union of bliss and emptiness. The path of liberation refers to Mahamudra or Dzogchen, which are methods of directly realizing and sustaining the natural state of mind, without the use of physical or energetic yogas.
• other languages: sampannakrama (Sanskrit), utpannakrama (Sanskrit)
• see also: kyerim (development stage or generation stage, the first stage of Highest Yoga Tantra)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki / 84000 glossary

 Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche (Tibetan: རྫོང་གསར་འཇམ་དབྱངས་མཁྱེན་བརྩེ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ།, Wylie: rdzong gsar ‘jam dbyangs mkhyen brtse rin po che) (Born June 18, 1961) = a Tibetan/Bhutanese Buddhist master, filmmaker, and writer. Also known as Jamyang Thubten Chökyi Gyamtso or Jamyang Thubten Chökyi Gyatso (Tibetan: འཇམ་དབྱངས་ཐུབ་བསྟན་ཆོས་ཀྱི་རྒྱ་མཚོ་, Wylie: ‘jam dbyangs thub bstan chos kyi rgya mtsho) and Khyentse Norbu (Tibetan: མཁྱེན་བརྩེ་ནོར་བུ་, Wylie: mkhyen brtse nor bu). He is considered to be the current incarnation of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo (the first Dzongsar Khyentse, 1820-1892) and Jamyang Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö (the second Dzongsar Khyentse, 1893-1959), and is the primary custodian of the Khyentse lineage and teachings. The present Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche was born in 1961 in eastern Bhutan, and is the eldest son of Thinley Norbu Rinpoche. He was recognized as a tulku by H.H. Sakya Trizin, and received empowerments and teachings from many of the greatest masters of Tibetan Buddhism, including H.H. the 16th Karmapa; H.H. Dudjom Rinpoche (Dudjom Jigdral Yeshe Dorje) and Lama Sonam Zangpo (his paternal and maternal grandfathers); Chatral Rinpoche; Nyoshul Khen Rinpoche, Khenpo Appey, and many others. His root guru was H.H. Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche, who began training Rinpoche from the age of 7. Rinpoche has teachers from all four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism and is a follower and champion of the Rimé (non-sectarian) movement. 
• other names: Jamyang Thubten Chökyi GyamtsoKhyentse NorbuTsangpa Lhayi Metok
• Practice: “Work As Practice: Applying The Three Supreme Methods” by Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / Treasury of Lives / Siddhartha’s Intent / Khyentse Foundation / Facebook; (memoir-in-progress) Mugwort-Born

≫ dzutrül [Tibetan: རྫུ་འཕྲུལ, dzutrül or dzüntrul ; Wylie: rdzu ‘phrul ; Sanskri: ऋद्धि, IAST: ṛddhi) = miraculous power, magical power, magical display.
• external links: 84000 glossary

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