# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Link colours: external dictionaries in green, internal website links in light blue, external website links in dark blue

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≫ naga (Sanskrit: नाग, IAST: nāga; Tibetan: ཀླུ་, lu; Wylie: klu; Chinese: 龍, pinyin: lóng, literally “dragon”) = a race of long-lived supernatural serpent beings who guard great treasure and protect the Dharma. In Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism, the nagas are a semi-divine race of half-human half-serpent beings that reside in the netherworld (Patala) and can occasionally take human form. They live beneath the surface of the earth or in the water, and in trees or rocks, and are believed to be endowed with magical powers and wealth, as well as being responsible for certain types of illnesses (Tibetan: ཀླུ་ནད་, Wylie: klu nad, literally “leprosy, boils, sores”). In Indian mythology they are preyed on by the garudas. The naga tradition comes from the ancient snake cults of India, which probably date back to the Indus valley civilisation and were assimilated into Buddhism at an early date. In the Chinese tradition, naga is translated as “dragon” and nagas are represented using traditional Chinese dragon imagery. The two chief disciples of the Buddha, Shariputra and Maudgalyayana are both referred to as Mahānāga or “Great naga”. Some of the most important Buddhist masters symbolize nagas in their names, such as Dignaga (5th century CE, one of the founders of Buddhist logic), Nagasena (2nd century BCE, a Sarvastivadan Buddhist sage), and Nagarjuna (2nd-3rd century CE, the founder of the Madhyamaka). Muchalinda is a naga king who protected Gautama Buddha from a huge rainstorm after his enlightenment, as depicted in images of the Buddha seated in meditation under a seven-headed snake.10.
• see also: Sagaranagarajaparipraccha (“The Questions of the Naga King Sagara”, a Mahayana sutra)
• external links: (naga): wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki / Himalayan Art ; (Muchalinda): wikipedia / Metropolitan Museum of Art

≫ Nagananda (Sanskrit: नागानन्द; IAST: nāgānanda; Tibetan: ཀླུ་ཀུན་ཏུ་དགའ་བའི་ཟློས་གར་, lu kün tu gawé dö gar; Wylie: klu kun tu dga’ ba’i zlos gar) = the Sanskrit play “Joy of the serpents” (DJKR: “The play that makes the nagas happy”), attributed to King Harshavardhana (c. 590-647 CE), translated into Tibetan by Shongton Dorje Gyaltsen, available online as TBRC work W21861.
• see also: naga (supernatural serpent beings)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ Nagarjuna (Sanskrit: नागार्जुन, IAST: nāgārjuna; Tibetan: ཀླུ་གྲུབ་, ludrup; Wylie: klu grub ; Chinese: 龍樹, pinyin: Lóngshù) (c. 150-250 CE), 2nd/3rd century Indian Buddhist philosopher, founder of the Madhyamaka school of Mahayana Buddhism. His text “Root Verses on the Middle Way” (Mulamadhyamakakarika) is considered the most influential Madhyamaka text. Commentaries on the Mulamadhyamakakarika by his student Aryadeva and the later Indian masters BuddhapalitaBhaviveka and Chandrakirti led to the establishment of the two traditions of Prasangika and Svatantrika within the Madhyamaka.
• see also: madhyamaka (middle way); Mulamadhyamakakarika (The Root Verses on the Middle Way by Nagarjuna); naga (supernatural serpent beings)
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki / Digital Dictionary of Buddhism / Himalayan Art

Nairañjana (Sanskrit: नैरञ्जना, IAST: Nairañjanā ; Pāli: Neranjara ; Chinese: 尼連禪, pinyin: Níliánchán) = The river beside which prince Siddhartha Gautama practiced asceticism for six years (ten or twelve years according to some accounts) on the banks of the river, residing in a forest near the village of Urubilva (Sanskrit: उरुबिल्वा, IAST: Urubilvā, also known as Uruvilvāgrāma ; Chinese: 優樓頻螺聚落, pinyin: Yōulóupínluó jùluò). After realizing that strict asceticism would not lead to Enlightenment, he recuperated after bathing in the river and receiving a bowl of milk-rice from the milkmaid Sujata. He then went to sit under the nearby Bodhi Tree until attaining enlightenment. The river flows through the Indian states of Jharkhand and Bihar, and is known today as the Lilājan River (also known as Nīlājan).
• external links: wikipedia / Tibetan Buddhist Encyclopedia / Wisdom Library

 nakdzi (Tibetan: གནག་རྫི་, nakdzi; Wylie: gnag rdzi; Dzongkha: ཝ་དི་པ་, wadipa) = cowherd

≫ Nalanda (Sanskrit: नालन्दा, IAST: Nālandā; Tibetan: ནཱ་ལེནྡྲ་; Wylie: nA len+dra) = The university of Nalanda was the largest and most famous of the ancient Indian monastic universities, and was one of the greatest centres of learning in the world from the 5th to the 12th centuries CE. It was an ancient Mahavihara (great vihara), a revered Buddhist monastery and renowned centre of learning in the ancient kingdom of Magadha (modern-day Bihar) in India. It gained its legendary status due to its contribution to the emergence of India as a great power around the 4th century. Much of our knowledge of Nalanda comes from the writings of pilgrim monks from Asia, such as Xuanzang and Yijing, who travelled to the Mahavihara in the 7th century. Many of the great scholars and masters who developed the Mahayana and Madhyamaka are listed by Xuanzang as alumni of Nalanda, including NagarjunaChandrakirti and Shantideva. Nalanda continued to flourish under the support of the Pala Empire (8th to 12th centuries CE), but it was burned by Turkic Islamic raiders under Muhammad Khilji in 1193, which marked a milestone in the decline of Indian Buddhism.
• external links: (Nalanda): wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki / Treasury of Lives ; (17 Nalanda masters): rigpawiki

naljor (Tibetan: རྣལ་འབྱོར་, naljor / nenjor; Wylie: rnal ‘byor) = yoga (Sanskrit ≫ main entry); DJKR: “the wealth of being natural”.
• external links: wiktionary

naljor ngönsum (Tibetan: རྣལ་འབྱོར་མངོན་སུམ་, naljor ngönsum / nenjor ngönsum; Wylie: rnal ‘byor mngon sum ; Sanskrit: योगिप्रत्यक्ष, yogipratyaksha; IAST: yogi + pratyakṣa) = yogic direct perception – see yogipratyaksha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).
• see also: ngönsum zhi (4 kinds of direct perception) 

≫ namshé (Tibetan: རྣམ་ཤེས་, Wylie: rnam shes ; Sanskrit: विज्ञान, IAST: vijñāna “discernment, understanding, comprehension”) = consciousness (one of the 12 links of dependent origination). Namshé (vijñana) is traditionally depicted as a monkey swinging from a tree, representing the way we tend to leap from one thought to another in an uncontrolled manner.
• see also: dvadasha pratityasamutpada (12 links of dependent origination).
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki

≫ nam tar go sum (Tibetan: རྣམ་ཐར་སྒོ་གསུམ་, nam tar go sum ; Wylie: rnam thar sgo gsum, also Tibetan: རྣམ་པར་ཐར་པའི་སྒོ་གསུམ་, nampar tarpé go sum ; Wylie: rnam par thar pa’i sgo gsum) = the 3 doors of liberation
• [the ground is] emptiness (Sanskrit: शून्यता, shunyata; IAST: śūnyatā ; Tibetan: སྟོང་པ་ཉིད་, tongpa nyi, Wylie: stong pa nyid)
• [the path is] without characteristics (signlessness) (Sanskrit: अनिमित्त, IAST: animitta ; Tibetan: མཚན་ཉིད་མེད་པ་, tsen nyi mépa, Wylie: mtshan nyid med pa)
• [the result is] beyond aspiration (wishlessness, aimlessness ; DJKR “un-longable”) (Sanskrit: अप्रणिहित, IAST: apraṇihita ; Tibetan: སྨོན་པ་མེད་པ་, mönpa mépa, Wylie: smon pa med pa)
• see also: drébu mönpa mépa (the result is beyond aspiration) ; shunyata (emptiness)
• external links: rigpawiki / Lion’s Roar

≫ Namu Myoho Renge Kyo (Japanese: 南無妙法蓮華經 alternate spelling 南無妙法蓮華経, Namu Myōhō Renge Kyō) = “Glory to the Dharma of the Lotus Sutra”, a mantra chanted within Nichiren Buddhism. (Myōhō Renge Kyō is the Japanese name of the Lotus Sutra).
• see also: kushiki (the nine consciousnesses in Nichiren Buddhism); Pundarika Sutra (The Lotus Sutra)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ nangtsam (Tibetan: སྣང་ཙམ་, nang tsam; Wylie: snang tsam) = mere appearance, mere impression, mere presence.

≫ nangtsül (Tibetan: སྣང་ཚུལ ་; Wylie: snang tshul) = how things appear; the way it seems; mode of appearing; apparent condition.
• see also: (contrasted with): nétsül (how things are in reality) 

≫ nangwa (Tibetan: སྣང་བ ; Wylie: snang ba) = appearance, phenomenon
• external links: (phenomenon): wiktionary ; (phenomenology): Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

≫ Narak Kong Shak (Tibetan: ན་རཀ་སྐོང་བཤགས ; Wylie: na rak skong bshags) = a practice of confession and fulfillment, “Stirring the Depths of Hell: The King of Confessions for All Violations, Negative Actions, and Obscurations”, treasured within the Nyingma tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, compiled from the termas of Guru Chökyi Wangchuk and Rigdzin Gödem. 
• external links: rigpawiki / Lotsawa House

≫ Naro Chödruk (Tibetan: ན་རོའི་ཆོས་དྲུག་, na rö chö druk ; Wylie: nA ro’i chos drug, “Naro’s Six Doctrines”; also referred to the Six Yogas, Tibetan: ཆོས་དྲུག་, chö druk ; Wylie: chos drug, “six teachings” ; Sanskrit: षड्धर्म, IAST: ṣaḍdharma = षड् ṣaḍ– “six” + धर्म dharma “practice, discipline, teaching”) = the Six Yogas of Naropa, a set of advanced Tibetan Buddhist tantric practices compiled by the Indian mahasiddhas Tilopa and Naropa and passed on to the Tibetan translator-yogi Marpa Lotsawa. They form the basis of the inner yoga practices of Mahamudra, as practised in the Kagyu and Gelug schools. They are: tummo, illusory body, dream, luminosity, bardo, and phowa.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ Naropa (Sanskrit: नारोप, IAST: Nāropa (wikipedia has Nāropā); Sanskrit: नारोपदा, IAST: Nāropadā or Sanskrit: अभयकिर्ति, IAST: Abhayakirti; Tibetan: ནཱ་རོ་པ་, Wylie: nA ro pa) (956-1040), an important 10th/11th century Indian Buddhist master in the Kagyu tradition. Naropa was born to a Brahmin family in Bengal, and from an early age he wanted to follow a path of study and meditation. Following his parents’ wishes, he agreed to an arranged marriage with a young Brahmin girl, but after eight years they agreed to dissolve their marriage and both became ordained. At the age of 28, Naropa entered the famous Buddhist University at Nalanda where he studied both Sutra and Tantra, and he became a great scholar and debater. But one day a dakini appeared to him and he realized that he need to leave to monastery to find his teacher to attain full realization. He became a student of the mahasiddha Tilopa and subsequently a teacher of Marpa the translator, who became one of his lineage-holders and brought his teachings to Tibet, thus becoming the founder of the Kagyu lineages in Tibet. Naropa is author of the famous Six Yogas of Naropa, and is counted as one of the 84 mahasiddhas.
• see also: mahasiddhaNaro Chödruk (Six Yogas of Naropa); Tilopa (one of the 84 mahasiddhas)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki / Himalayan Art / Treasury of Lives

≫ Nataraja (Sanskrit: नटराज, IAST: Naṭarāja = naṭa + rāja; Tamil: நடராஜர்; literally “Lord of the Dance”) = Lord of the Dance, the Hindu god Shiva as the divine dancer. Every Shiva temple has a shrine dedicated to Shiva in the form of Naṭarāja performing the Ānanda Tāṇḍava, the “Dance of Bliss”, a vigorous dance that is the source of the cycle of creation, preservation and dissolution.
• external links: (Nataraja): wiktionary / wikipedia / wisdom library; (Tandava): wikipedia

≫ natho (Pāli: नाथो, IAST: nātho) = protector, refuge, savior, lord, master, chief. Appears in the famous quotation from the Dhammapada, Dhp. XII:160: “You are your own refuge; who else could be your refuge?” (Pāli: अत्ता हि अत्तनो नाथो, को हि नाथो परो सिया, Attā hi attano nātho, ko hi nātho paro siyā).
• quotes: “You are your own refuge”

nenjor ngönsum (Tibetan) = redirects to naljor ngönsum

≫ nétsül (Tibetan: གནས་ཚུལ་; Wylie: gnas tshul) = how things are (in reality); the way it is; abiding mode (of reality).
• see also: (contrasted with): nangtsül (how things appear) 

≫ ngadra (Tibetan: རྔ་སྒྲ ; Wylie: rnga sgra) = sound of drum.

ngédön (Tibetan: ངེས་དོན, ngé dön; Wylie: nges don) = (teachings of) definitive meaning – see nitartha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry)

≫ ngéjung (Tibetan: ངེས་འབྱུང་, ngéjung; Wylie: nges ‘byung) = renunciation, renunciation mind. 

≫ ngöndro (Tibetan: སྔོན་འགྲོ་, ngön dro; Wylie: sngon ‘gro; Sanskrit: पूर्वक, IAST: pūrvaka) = preliminary practices; the preliminary, preparatory or foundational practices or disciplines (sadhana) common to all four schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki

ngönsum (Tibetan: མངོན་སུམ་, ngön sum; Wylie: mngon sum) = direct perception, direct cognition – see pratyaksha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).
• see also: ngönsum zhi (4 kinds of direct perception) 

≫ ngönsum zhi (Tibetan: མངོན་སུམ་བཞི་, ngön sum zhi; Wylie: mngon sum bzhi) = the 4 kinds of direct perception or direct cognition (this four-fold classification is shared by other schools of Indian and Hindu philosophy, see: wikipedia):
(1) indriyapratyaksha (sense perception);
(2) manasapratyaksha (mental perception);
(3) svasamvedana (self-cognition);
(4) yogipratyaksha (yogic direct perception) (which is gained after dualistic defilements have been removed).
• see also: pratyaksha (perception, cognition) 
• external links: wikipedia

≫ ngotrö (Tibetan: ངོ་སྤྲོད་, ngo trö; Wylie: ngo sprod) = pointing-out instruction, the direct introduction to the nature of mind in the Tibetan Buddhist lineages of Mahamudra and Dzogchen. In these traditions, a “root guru” gives the pointing-out instruction in such a way that the disciple successfully recognizes the nature of mind. One of the most famous and most beautiful quotes from the Dzogchen tradition captures the essence of the moment when Patrul Rinpoche gave a pointing-out instruction and introduced the nature of mind to his student Nyoshul Lungtok.
• quotes: “Do you see the stars up there in the sky?” (when Patrul Rinpoche introduced the nature of mind to Nyoshul Lungtok)
• external links: wikipedia

≫ ngowo rangzhin tukjé (Tibetan: ངོ་བོ་རང་བཞིན་ཐུགས་རྗེ་, Wylie: ngo bo rang bzhin thugs rje) = essence, nature and capacity – the three aspects of the ground (zhi), the primordial state that is also Buddhanature (Sugatagarbha) and the nature of mind (cittata or semnyi), according to the Dzogchen system. These 3 aspects are:
• (dharmakaya): The essence (ngowo) is the primordially pure (kadak) wisdom of emptiness (tongpa nyi).
• (sambhogakaya): The nature (rangzhin) is the spontaneously present (lhündrup) wisdom of cognizance (or clarity) (sel).
• (nirmanakaya): The capacity (or compassionate energy/manifestation/display) (tukjé) is the all-pervasive wisdom of indivisibility (yermé).
These three aspects are considered to be the ultimate identity of the Three Roots (GuruYidamDakini), the Three Jewels (Buddha, Dharma, Sangha) and the three kayas (as ground: dharmakayasambhogakayanirmanakaya; as path: blissclarity and nonconceptuality). Knowledge/realization of this ground is called rigpa.
• see also: ösel (clarity, luminosity) ; semnyi (nature of mind) ; sugatagarbha (buddhanature)
• external links: wikipedia / rigpawiki / rywiki ; (Mipham Rinpoche on The Nature of Mind): Lotsawa House

≫ nirmana (Sanskrit: निर्माण, IAST: nirmāṇa) = forming, making, creating, creation, created thing or form, transformation.
• external links: wiktionary

≫ nirmanakaya (Sanskrit: निर्माणकाय, IAST: nirmāṇakāya; Tibetan: སྤྲུལ་སྐུ་, trülku; Wylie: sprul sku; Chinese: 化身 / 化身, pinyin: huàshēn, literally “transformation body”) = the body of transformations; the physical manifestation of a buddha in time and space; one of the three bodies (trikaya) of a buddha in Mahayana Buddhism; the nirmanakaya is one of the two aspects of the form body (rupakaya) along with the sambhogakaya.
• see also: dharmakaya (“truth body”); kaya (body, dimension); nirmana (creation, created thing or form, transformation); rupakaya (“form body”); sambhogakaya (“body of enjoyment”); trikaya (three bodies of a buddha); tulku (emanation body)
• external links: (nirmanakaya): wiktionary / wikipedia  / rigpawiki / rywiki; (trikaya): wikipedia

≫ nirodha (Pāli & Sanskrit: निरोध, IAST Sanskrit: nirodha, IAST Pāli: nirodha; Tibetan: འགོག་པ་, gokpa; Wylie: ‘gog pa; Burmese: နိေရာဓ) = cessation, suppression, annihilation, extinction; the third of the 4 Noble Truths.
• see also: cattari ariyasaccani (4 Noble Truths)
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ nirvana (Sanskrit: निर्वाण, IAST: nirvāṇa; Tibetan: མྱང་འདས་, nyandé; Wylie: myang ‘das; Chinese: 涅槃, pinyin: nièpán) = extinction (as a verb, “to enter extinction”), extinguished (as a lamp or fire); blown or put out; the condition where the flames of delusion have been blown out, the final goal and attainment in Indian religions. In Hinduism, nirvana is the extinction of worldly desires and attachments, so that the union with God or the absolute is possible; absolute extinction or annihilation, complete extinction of individual existence. In Buddhism, nirvana was originally equivalent to the state of enlightenment attained by the Buddha, meaning the state that can be reached by extinguishing all illusions and destroying all karma (which is the cause of rebirth), and thus resulting in the cessation of suffering. In MahayanaBuddhism, nirvana becomes distinguished from enlightenment, becoming a secondary level attainment of those who follow the Shravakayana path.
• other languages: nyandé (Tibetan)
• easily confused: the English words “enlightenment/awakening” (Sanskrit: ≫ बोधि, bodhi; Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་, jangchup; Chinese: 佛位, fówèi), “buddha/buddhahood” (Sanskrit: ≫ बुद्ध, buddha; Tibetan: སངས་རྒྱས་, sangyé; Chinese: 佛, fó), “liberation” (Sanskrit: ≫ मोक्ष, moksha; Tibetan: ཐར་པ་, tarpa; Chinese: 解脫, jiětuō) and “nirvana” (Sanskrit: ≫ निर्वाण, nirvana; Tibetan: མྱང་འདས་, nyandé; Chinese: 涅槃, nièpán) are often used interchangeably, but they have different meanings in Sanskrit/Tibetan.
• see also: moksha (liberation, release), samsara (cyclic existence)
• external links: wiktionary

 nitartha (Sanskrit: नीतार्थ, IAST: nītārtha “of plain or clear meaning”; Tibetan: ངེས་དོན, ngé dön; Wylie: nges don) = (teachings of) definitive meaning, as contrasted with teachings that require interpretation (neyartha)
• other languages: ngédön (Tibetan)
• external links: (two truths doctrine): wikipedia

≫ nyam [homophone of two different Tibetan words]:
(1) (Tibetan: མཉམ་, Wylie: mnyam) = even, equal, alike, level.
(2) (Tibetan: ཉམས་, Wylie: nyams) = experience, temporary experience, meditative experience. 
• see also (for Tibetan: མཉམ་, Wylie: mnyam): nyamzhak (meditative equipoise)
• see also (for Tibetan: ཉམས་, Wylie: nyams): nyamlen (Dharma practice); nyamsum (the three meditation experiences)

≫ nyamlen (Tibetan: ཉམས་ལེན་, nyamlen; Wylie: nyams len) = Dharma practice, spiritual practice, to put into practice (as opposed to theory), application. 

nyampar zhakpa (Tibetan: མཉམ་པར་བཞག་པ་, Wylie: mnyam par bzhag pa) = redirects to nyamzhak.

≫ nyamsum (Tibetan: ཉམས་གསུམ་, nyam sum; Wylie: nyams gsum) = the three meditation experiences (or “moods”) of bliss, clarity and nonthought (or nonconceptuality).
• see also: dewé nyam (bliss), selwé nyam (clarity), mi tokpé nyam (nonconceptuality)
• external links: rigpawiki / rywiki

≫ nyamzhak (Tibetan: མཉམ་བཞག་, nyam zhak; Wylie: mnyam bzhag; Sanskrit: समाहित, IAST: samāhita) = meditative equipoise; evenly resting; the state of even contemplation.
• see also: zhak (put, place, “leave it alone”) 

nyandé (Tibetan: མྱང་འདས་, nyandé; Wylie: myang ‘das) = nirvana (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).

nyéjung (Tibetan) = redirects to ngéjung

≫ nyéring chakdang (Tibetan: ཉེ་རིང་ཆགས་སྡང་; Wylie: nye ring chags sdang) = with partiality and prejudice to those close and distantDJKR: “not yet free from distinctions and references, such as closeness or distance”. 

≫ nyi (Tibetan: ཉིད་; Wylie: nyid) = (1) -ness, [used to form abstract nouns ; (2) it, itself, the very, the same, namely, just, only, exactly ; (3) self, itself, oneself ; (4) nature.
• see also: tongpa nyi (emptiness)

≫ nyidzin (Tibetan: གཉིས་འཛིན་, nyidzin; Wylie: gnyis ‘dzin) = dualism, dualistic perception; dualistic grasping, dualistic fixation; subject-object dualism; the ordinary perception of unenlightened beings; the apprehension of phenomena in terms of subject (consciousness) and object (mental images and the outer world), and the belief in their true existence.
• see also: yin-yang (dualism in Taoism)
• external links: (dualism in Indian philosophy): wikipedia

nyingjé (Tibetan: སྙིང་རྗེ་, nyingjé; Wylie: snying rje) = compassion, the wish to free all beings from suffering and the causes of suffering – see karuna (Sanskrit ≫ main entry).
• see also: tukjé (compassion)
• external links: wiktionary

≫ Nyingma (Tibetan: རྙིང་མ་, Wylie: rnying ma; literally “ancient”) = the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism (the other three are the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug). Also often referred to as Ngangyur (Tibetan: སྔ་འགྱུར་རྙིང་མ་, ngagyur nyingma; Wylie: snga ‘gyur rnying ma, literally “school of the ancient translations” or “old school”) because it is founded on the first translations of Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit into Old Tibetan in the 8th century, for which the Tibetan alphabet and grammar were created. The Nyingma particularly believes in terma (hidden treasure teachings) and places an emphasis on Dzogchen as the highest of the nine vehicles.
• see also: DzogchenJigme LingpaPadmasambhava
• external links: wiktionary / wikipedia / rigpawiki

≫ nyöndrip (Tibetan: ཉོན་སྒྲིབ་, nyöndrip; Wylie: nyon sgrib ; Sanskrit: क्लेशावरण, IAST: kleśāvaraṇa from क्लेश + आवरण, IAST: kleśa + āvaraṇa ; Chinese: 煩惱障 / 烦恼障, pinyin: fánnǎo zhàng) = emotional obscurations, afflictive obstructions, obstructions to liberation.
• see also: drib (obscuration) ; dribpa nyi (2 obscurations): (1) emotional obscurations: nyöndrip (Tibetan), kleshavarana (Sanskrit); (2) cognitive obscurations: shédrip (Tibetan), jñeyavarana (Sanskrit) ; nyönmong (negative emotion)
• glossary: 2 obscurations = emotional obscurations (nyöndrip) & cognitive obscurations (shédrip) 

nyönmong (Tibetan (1): ཉོན་མོང་, nyönmong ; Wylie: nyon mong ; Tibetan (2): ཉོན་མོངས་, Wylie: nyon mongs) = afflictive emotions – see klesha (Sanskrit ≫ main entry). 

≫ nyönpa (Tibetan: སྨྱོན་པ་; Wylie: smyon pa “insane” ; Sanskrit: अवधूत, IAST: avadhūta, “one who has shaken off (worldly obligations and concerns)”) = madman, crazy yogi. A nyönpa is a free spirit who follows the rule of spontaneity and intuition, without following conventional societal rules for outward behavior. Instead, they are known for behaviors such as wandering homeless, consuming substances considered impure, drinking alcohol and eating meat, singing and dancing, and engaging in sexual relations. However, they dedicate their lives to renunciation and the path of enlightenment, and they inwardly follow traditional formal disciplines and practices of the spiritual path.
• see also: Thangtong Gyalpo
• external links: (nyönpa): wiktionary / wikipedia ; (Crazy Yogins During the Early Renaissance Period): THLIB

≫ Nyoshul Lungtok (Tibetan: སྨྱོ་ཤུལ་ལུང་རྟོགས་བསྟན་པའི་ཉི་མ་, Nyoshul Lungtok Tenpé Nyima ; Wylie: smyo shul lung rtogs bstan pa’i nyi ma) (1829-1901) = a 19th century Tibetan master who received the Dzogchen teachings from Patrul Rinpoche and is regarded as his greatest disciple. He is also regarded as an emanation of Shantarakshita. One of the most famous and most beautiful quotes from the Dzogchen tradition captures the essence of the moment when Nyoshul Lungtok received the pointing-out instruction from Patrul Rinpoche.
• quotes: “Do you see the stars up there in the sky?” (when Patrul Rinpoche introduced the nature of mind to Nyoshul Lungtok)
• external links: rigpawiki / rywiki / TBRC

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